|County (Principality) of Salm-Salm
Grafschaft (Fürstentum) Salm-Salm
|State of the Holy Roman Empire|
|Historical era||Middle Ages, Modern Age|
|-||Partitioned to create
|-||Raised to principality||1739|
|-||Annexed by France|
|-||Granted territories from
Münster, with S-Kyrburg,
to create unified Salm
|-||Joined the Confederation
of the Rhine
|-||Annexed by France||1811 1811|
|-||Mediatised to Prussia|
Salm-Salm was created as a partition of Salm-Dhaun in 1574, and was raised from a County to a Principality in 1739 after being inherited and renamed by Count Nicholas Leopold of Salm-Hoogstraten. Salm-Salm was partitioned between itself and Salm-Neuweiler in 1608.
The last territorial partition occurred in 1751, when Salm-Salm reorganized its borders with the Duchy of Lorraine.
In 1790, after the French Revolution, the princes of Salm fled the territory and moved to their castle in Anholt, Westphalia. Salm-Salm then was besieged by the revolutionary army, which blocked food supplies from reaching the state. As a consequence, the population was forced to surrender to France. On March 2, 1793, the French National Convention declared Salm-Salm to be a part of the French Republic and attached it to the Départment of the Vosges. This was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Lunéville of 1801.
Some years later, in 1802/1803, together with Salm-Kyrburg, the prince of Salm-Salm was granted new territories formerly belonging to the Bishops of Münster (Westphalia). The new territory was governed in union with Salm-Kyrburg and was known as the Principality of Salm.
In 1165, the original County of Salm was divided into the counties of Lower Salm, in the Ardennes, and the county of Upper Salm, situated in the Vosges mountains. In 1738, the County of Upper Salm was elevated to Principality of Salm-Salm.
At the end of its existence, Salm-Salm had an area of about 200 km² and 10,000 inhabitants. It was separated from the main part of the Holy Roman Empire when most of Alsace was ceded to France in the 17th century. Until 1735, it was bordered by the Duchy of Lorraine to the west and by France to the east. After Lorraine became a part of France in 1735, Salm-Salm formed an exclave of the Holy Roman Empire surrounded by French territory.
Counts of Salm-Salm (1574–1738)
- Frederick I (Count of Salm-Dhaun) (1574–1608)
- Philip Otto (1608–1634)
- Leopold Philipp Karl (1634–1663)
- Charles Theodore Otto (1663–1710)
- Louis Otto (1710–1738)
Sovereign princes of Salm-Salm (1739–1813)
- Nicholas Leopold (Count of Salm-Hoogstraten) (1739–1770)
- Louis Otto Charles (1770–1771)
- Maximilian (1771–1773)
- Louis Otto Charles (1773–1778)
- Constantine Alexander (1778–1813)
Mediatised princes of Salm-Salm (1813–present)
- Constantine Alexander (1813–1828)
- Florentin (1828–1846)
- Alfred (1846–1886)
- Nikolaus (1886–1908)
- Alfred (1908–1923)
- Nikolaus Leopold (1923–1988)
- Carl-Philipp (1988–present)
- Heir: Hereditary Prince Emanuel (born 1961)
- House of Salm, at europeanheraldry.org
- (French) History of the Principality of Salm, at the Office de Tourisme Pays des Abbayes
- Map of Salm-Salm as of 1751
- (French) Salm Castle