Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica

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Salmonella enterica
Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium 01.jpg
Salmonella Typhimurium colonies on a Hektoen enteric agar plate
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Eubacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Salmonella
Species: S. enterica
Subspecies: enterica
Serovar
  • Salmonella choleraesuis
  • Salmonella Dublin
  • Salmonella Enteritidis
  • Salmonella Heidelberg
  • Salmonella Paratyphi
  • Salmonella Typhi
  • Salmonella Typhimurium

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica, the rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. It is a member of the genus Salmonella.[1] Many of the pathogenic serovars of the S. enterica species are in this subspecies.[2]

Serovars[edit]

Since there are more than 2500 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, this list is incomplete.

  • Salmonella Choleraesuis
  • Salmonella Dublin
  • Salmonella Enteritidis
  • Salmonella Gallinarum
  • Salmonella Hadar
  • Salmonella Heidelberg
  • Salmonella Infantis
  • Salmonella Paratyphi
  • Salmonella Typhi
  • Salmonella Typhimurium
  • Salmonella Genrus

Nomenclature[edit]

The serovars can be designated fully or in a shortened form.[3] The short form lists the genus, Salmonella, which is followed by the capitalized and non-italicized serovar. The full designation for Salmonella Typhi is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serovar Typhi. Each serovar can have many strains, as well, which allows for a rapid increase in the total number of antigenically variable bacteria.[4]

Treatment[edit]

Electrolytes may be replenished with oral rehydration supplements (typically containing salts sodium chloride and potassium chloride). Appropriate antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone, are given to kill the bacteria. Azithromycin has been suggested to be better at treating typhoid in resistant populations than both fluoroquinolone drugs and ceftriaxone. Antibiotic resistance rates are increasing throughout the world, so health care providers should check current recommendations before choosing an antibiotic.

Epidemiology[edit]

Main article: Salmonellosis

References[edit]

  1. ^ Giannella RA (1996). Salmonella. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  2. ^ Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA (2009). Medical Microbiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier. p. 307. 
  3. ^ http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/salmonellanom.html
  4. ^ http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/Salmonella/