Salsola

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Salsola
Salsola oppositifolia.JPG
Salsola oppositifolia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Salsoloideae
Genus: Salsola
L.
Species

24-25 species; see text.

Salsola is a genus of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae. The genus sensu stricto is distributed in central and southwestern Asia, North Africa, and the Mediterranean.[1] A common name of various members of this genus and related genera is saltwort, for their salt tolerance. The genus name Salsola is from the Latin salsus, meaning "salty".[2]

Description[edit]

The species of Salsola are mostly subshrubs, shrubs, small trees, and rarely annuals. The leaves are mostly alternate, rarely opposite, simple and entire. The bisexual flowers have 5 tepals and 5 stamens. The pistil ends in two stigmas. The fruit is spherical with a spiral embryo and no perisperm.[2][3][4]

Systematics[edit]

The genus name Salsola was first published in 1753 by Linnaeus in Species Plantarum.[5] Type species is Salsola soda L.

The genus Salsola belongs to the tribe Salsoleae s.s. of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae. The genus was re-circumscribed in 2007 based on molecular phylogenetic research, greatly reducing the number of species.[1] Synonyms of Salsola sensu stricto are: Darniella Maire & Weiller, Fadenia Aellen & Townsend, Neocaspia Tzvelev, Hypocylix Wol., and Seidlitzia Bunge ex Boiss..

Harvested Salsola soda

The genus Salsola s.s. comprises 24-25 species since Akhani et al., 2007:[1]

Excluded species: Many species formerly grouped in Salsola were excluded by Akhani et al. (2007). They are now classified in separate genera:[1]

  • Kali (for Salsola sect. Kali)
  • Turania (for Salsola sect. Sogdiana)
  • Xylosalsola (for Salsola sect. Coccosalsola subsect. Arbuscula)
  • Caroxylon (for Salsola sect. Caroxylon)
  • Kaviria (for Salsola sect. Belanthera)

Uses[edit]

The leaves and shoots of Salsola soda, known in Italy as barba di frate or agretti, are cooked and used as vegetables. The species is also used for the production of potash.[6] In Namibia, where the plant is called Gannabos, it is a valuable fodder plant.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Akhani, H., et al. (2007). Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast data sets and a revised classification.] International Journal of Plant Sciences, 168(6), 931–56. Online.
  2. ^ a b Mosyakin, S. L. Salsola. In: Flora of North America, Volume 4, 2004. (concerning the genus sensu lato)
  3. ^ Gelin Zhu, Sergei L. Mosyakin & Steven E. Clemants: Chenopodiaceae in Flora of China, Volume 5, S. 402: Salsola s. l. - Online. (concerning the genus sensu lato)
  4. ^ H. Freitag, I. C. Hedge, S. M. H. Jafri, G. Kothe-Heinrich, S. Omer & P. Uotila: Chenopodiaceae in Flora of Pakistan: Salsola s. l. - Online. (concerning the genus sensu lato)
  5. ^ Carl von Linné: Species Plantarum, 1, 1753 , S. 222 (First publication of genus)
  6. ^ Salsola soda. Plants for a Future.
  7. ^ Rothauge, Axel (25 February 2014). "Staying afloat during a drought". The Namibian.