Salsoloideae

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Salsoloideae
Salsola oppositifolia.JPG
Salsola oppositifolia, in fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Salsoloideae
Genera

about 35 genera, see text

The Salsoloideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.

Description[edit]

These are herbs, subshrubs, shrubs and some trees. Stems and leaves are often succulent. The ovary contains a spiral embryo. In most genera, scarious wings develop at the outside of the fruiting perianth, allowing for dispersal by the wind (anemochory).
In Tribus Caroxyloneae, the stamens have vesiculose anther appendages, discolor with anthers, that probably play a role for insect pollination. In Tribus Salsoleae the anther appendages are absent or small and unconspicuous.

Distribution[edit]

The area with most species (center of diversity) are the deserts and semideserts of Central-Asia and the Middle East. Distribution of the subfamily extends to the Mediterranean, to Middle-Europe, north and south Africa, and Australia, some species have also been introduced to America. Many species grow in dry habitats (xerophytes) or tolerate salty soils (halophytes), some are ruderals.

Photosynthesis pathway[edit]

Salsoloideae are C4-plants (with a few exceptions in Salsoleae). Caroxyloneae is exclusively C4 of the NAD-malic enzyme subtype. Most Salsoleae also use NADP-malic enzyme.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

The type genus of subfamily Salsoloideae is Salsola L. According to recent research, the former classification did not reflect the phylogenetic relationship, so that the subfamily had to be reclassified.[2] The tribe Camphorosmeae is now treated as own subfamily Camphorosmoideae.[3]

  • Tribus Caroxyloneae Akhani & E. H. Roalson[2]
    • Caroxylon Thunb., with 43 species
    • Climacoptera Botsch., with 41 species
    • Halarchon Bunge, with one species
      • Halarchon vesiculosum (Moq.) Bunge
    • Halimocnemis C. A. Mey., with 27 species (Syn. Gamanthus Bunge, Halanthium C. Koch, Halotis Bunge)
    • Halocharis Moq., with 7 species
    • Kaviria Akhani & E. H. Roalson, with 10 species
    • Nanophyton Less., with ca. 10 species
    • Ofaiston Raf., with one species
      • Ofaiston monandrum (Pall.) Moq.
    • Petrosimonia Bunge, with 12 species
    • Piptoptera Bunge, with one species
      • Piptoptera turkestana Bunge
    • Physandra Botsch., with one species
      • Physandra halimocnemis (Botsch.) Botsch,
    • Pyankovia Akhani & E. H. Roalson, with one species
      • Pyankovia brachiata (Pall.) Akhani & E. H. Roalson
  • Tribus Salsoleae s.s.[2]
    • Anabasis L. ( incl. Fredolia (Coss. & Durieu ex Bunge) Ulbr.), with 29 species
    • Arthrophytum Schrenk, with 9 species
    • Cornulaca Delile, with 5 species
    • Cyathobasis Aellen, with one species:
      • Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen
    • Girgensohnia Bunge ex Fenzl, with 4 species
    • Halogeton C. A. Mey, with 5 species. (Syn. Agathophora (Fenzl) Bunge, Micropeplis Bunge)
    • Halothamnus Jaub. & Spach, with 21 species
    • Haloxylon Bunge, with 2 species
    • Hammada Iljin, with 12 species
    • Horaninowia Fisch. & C. A. Mey, with 6 species
    • Kali Mill., with 13 species:
    • Lagenantha Chiov. (Syn.: Gyroptera Botsch.) Classification not sure. With 1-3 species.
    • Noaea Moq., with 3 species
    • Nucularia Batt., Classification not sure. With one species:
      • Nucularia perrini Batt.
    • Rhaphidophyton Iljin, with one species
      • Rhaphidophyton regelii (Bunge) Iljin
    • Salsola L., with 25 species. (Syn. Darneilla Maire & Weiller, Fadenia Aellen & Townsend, Neocaspia Tzvelev, Hypocylix Wol., Seidlitzia Bunge ex Boiss.)
    • Sympegma Bunge, with one species
      • Sympegma regelii Bunge
    • Traganum Del., with 2 species
    • Traganopsis Maire et Wilczek, with one species
      • Traganopsis glomerata Maire & Wilczek
    • Turania Akhani & E. H. Roalson, with 4 species
    • Xylosalsola Tzvelev, with 4 species

References[edit]

  • Hossein Akhani, Gerald Edwards, Eric H. Roalson:Diversification Of The Old World Salsoleae S.L. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Of Nuclear And Chloroplast Data Sets And A Revised Classification In: International Journal of Plant Sciences, 168(6):931–956, 2007.
  1. ^ V.I.Pyankov, H.Ziegler, A.Kuz’min, G.E.Edwards. - Origin and evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) based on anatomical and biochemical types in leaves and cotyledons. Plant Syst Evol 230: S.43–74, 2001.
  2. ^ a b c Hossein Akhani, Gerald Edwards, Eric H. Roalson:Diversification Of The Old World Salsoleae S.L. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Of Nuclear And Chloroplast Data Sets And A Revised Classification In: International Journal of Plant Sciences, 168(6):S. 931–956, 2007.
  3. ^ Gudrun Kadereit & Helmut Freitag: Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): Implications for biogeography, evolution of C4-photosynthesis and taxonomy. Taxon 60(1), S. 51-78, 2011.

External links[edit]