Salt River (Arizona)

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Coordinates: 33°22′52″N 112°18′47″W / 33.38111°N 112.31306°W / 33.38111; -112.31306
Salt River
SaltRiverLower01.jpg
Lower Salt River, near Metro Phoenix area
Country United States
State Arizona
Source confluence of White and Black Rivers
 - location White Mountains, Arizona
 - elevation 11,400 ft (3,475 m) [1]
 - coordinates 33°44′20″N 112°18′47″W / 33.73889°N 112.31306°W / 33.73889; -112.31306 [2]
Mouth Gila River
 - location Phoenix
 - elevation 928 ft (283 m) [2]
 - coordinates 33°22′52″N 112°18′47″W / 33.38111°N 112.31306°W / 33.38111; -112.31306 [2]
Length 200 mi (322 km) [1]
Basin 13,700 sq mi (35,483 km2) [3]
Discharge for USGS gage 09498500, Salt River near Roosevelt, AZ
 - average 879 cu ft/s (25 m3/s) [4]
 - max 143,000 cu ft/s (4,049 m3/s)
 - min 59 cu ft/s (2 m3/s)
Map of the Salt River watershed

The Salt River (O'odham [Pima]: Onk Akimel, Yavapai: ʼHakanyacha or Hakathi:) is a stream in the U.S. state of Arizona. It is the largest tributary of the Gila River.[1] The river is about 200 miles (320 km) long.[5] Its drainage basin is about 13,700 square miles (35,000 km2) large.[3] The longest of the Salt River's many tributaries is the 195-mile (314 km) Verde River. The Salt's headwaters tributaries, the Black River and East Fork, increase the river's total length to about 300 miles (480 km).

Course[edit]

The Salt River is formed by the confluence of the White River and Black River in the White Mountains of eastern Gila County. The White and Black rivers, and other tributaries of the upper Salt River, drain the region between the Mogollon Rim in the north and the Natanes Mountains and Natanes Plateau to the east and south. Tributaries of the Salt River also drain the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountains. The White and Black rivers drain the White Mountains in the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Together the two rivers drain an area of about 1,900 square miles (4,900 km2).[1] The Salt River, along with the Black River, forms the boundary between the Fort Apache Indian Reservation to the north and the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation to the south.

The Salt River is fed by numerous perennial streams that start as springs and seeps along the Mongollon Rim and in the White Mountains. The Salt River is perennial from its tributary headwaters to Granite Reef Diversion Dam near Mesa.[1]

From the Black and White confluence the Salt River flows generally west and southwest. It is joined by Carrizo Creek, a 25-mile (40 km) long perennial stream, then flows through the Salt River Canyon. Cibecue Creek, a 36-mile (58 km) long perennial stream, joins the river in the canyon, flowing from the north through the Fort Apache Reservation. Between Carrizo and Cibecue Creeks the Salt River becomes the boundary between Tonto National Forest on the south and the Fort Apache Reservation on the north. Another perennial stream joins from the north, the 46-mile (74 km) long Canyon Creek. Just downstream from the Salt's confluence with Medicine Creek a portion of the Tonto National Forest is designated the Salt River Canyon Wilderness. The Salt River forms the northern and western boundary of the wilderness for several miles, after which the national forest and wilderness occupy both sides of the river. Tubing down the Salt River is fun, but sometimes risky.

The Salt River alongside State Route 77

Continuing its westward course the Salt River is joined by Pinal Creek from the south, just before leaving the Salt River Canyon Wilderness. The river continues to flow through Tonto National Forest until leaving the mountains near Mesa. Below the Pinal Creek confluence the Salt River enters Theodore Roosevelt Lake, the first of four reservoir impoundments on Salt. Tonto Creek joins the Salt River in Theodore Roosevelt Lake. Below Theodore Roosevelt Dam the Salt River passes through the canyon between the Mazatzal Mountains and Superstition Mountains and is impounded by Horse Mesa Dam, forming Apache Lake, then Mormon Flat Dam, forming Canyon Lake, then Stewart Mountain Dam, forming Saguaro Lake. These four reservoirs are part of the Salt River Project. The water is used by the Phoenix metropolitan area for municipal, industrial, and agricultural purposes. The storage capacity of the reservoirs is 2,910,200 acre feet (3.5897×109 m3) for Roosevelt, 245,100 acre feet (302,300,000 m3) for Apache, 57,900 acre feet (71,400,000 m3) for Canyon, and 69,800 acre feet (86,100,000 m3) for Saguaro.[1]

As the Salt River passes through its reservoirs it flows by the Four Peaks Wilderness, near Four Peaks. A few miles downstream of Stewart Mountain Dam, the last of the four Salt River Project dams, the Verde River joins the Salt from the north. Fountain Hills is located a few miles to the northwest. The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community is located near the Verde-Salt confluence. The Tonto National Forest ends a couple miles below the Verde River confluence and the Salt River enters the eastern edge of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Less than 0.5 miles (0.80 km) from the national forest boundary the Granite Reef Diversion Dam diverts all remaining water in the Salt River into the Arizona Canal and Southern Canal, which deliver drinking and irrigation water to much of the Phoenix metropolitan area. The dam and canals are part of the Salt River Project.

The Salt River passing below the Central Avenue Bridge in South Phoenix after winter rains in early 2010

Below the diversion dam the bed of the Salt River is dry, except following rain or upstream runoff. The USGS stream gage at 51st Avenue, Phoenix, records no flow at all on many days—in 2009 for example, there was no flow for most of the year, except during parts of February and March when the river's discharge reached an average of 87 cubic feet per second (2.5 m3/s).[6] The diversion capacity at Granite Reef Diversion Dam is 3,600 cubic feet per second (100 m3/s), with 2,000 cubic feet per second (57 m3/s) for the Arizona Canal, and 1,600 cubic feet per second (45 m3/s) for the Southern Canal.[7]

Below Granite Reef Dam the Salt River leaves the mountains and flows past the cities of Mesa, Tempe, and Scottsdale, then south of downtown Phoenix, where it passes north of South Mountain Park. With the exception of Tempe Town Lake, the riverbed winding through the cities is usually dry, except when heavy rains upstream force Stewart Mountain Dam to release more water than can be diverted at Granite Reef Dam. The Salt River joins the Gila on the southwestern edge of Phoenix approximately 15 miles (24 km) from the center of the city. Monument Hill overlooks the confluence of rivers and is the site of the Initial Survey point for Arizona, the Gila and Salt River Meridian.

River modifications[edit]

Despite the dry river bed, or arroyo, dangerous flash floods occasionally occur, especially during monsoon storms in late July and early August. Flood waters can wash out roads. Bridges have been damaged, notably in 1980, 1993, and 2005. The natural flow of the Salt is 2,570 cubic feet per second (73 m3/s) at its mouth.[citation needed] However, except after rainfall, the Salt is dry or a small stream below Granite Reef Dam. The river was formerly navigable throughout its course by small craft. The river is still navigable in the majority of the area where it still carries water.[citation needed]

The river was used for irrigation by the pre-Columbian Hohokam culture and later Native Americans, and by early Euro-American settlers in the 19th century. It currently provides a major source of irrigation and drinking water for Phoenix and surrounding communities through the Salt River Project. The river's water is distributed over more than 1,000 mi (1,609 km) of irrigation canals, used primarily for the growing of cotton, alfalfa, fruit, and vegetables.

Ecology[edit]

North American beaver (Castor canadensis) historically flourished on the river. In an historical account George C. Yount, a fur trapper with the Pattie expedition wrote on February 1, 1863, "...we began to ascend the Black River [Salt River]... We found it to abound with beavers... We followed up this stream to where it forks in the mountains; that is to say, about 80 miles from its mouth." [8]

Water quality[edit]

There are turbidity problems along many stream reaches in Salt River's watershed, related to rangeland management, recreation, mining, sand & gravels operations, other sources.[1] High levels of fecal coliform bacteria and ammonia have been reported for Carrizo Creek and the White River.[1]

Recreation[edit]

Salt River through Salt River Canyon

Boating facilities[edit]

Cherry Creek to Roosevelt Lake: Paved, Gravel and Trail Access, Live Bait Fish (Restrictions in Effect), No Motors Allowed, Primitive Parking Area, Camping Allowed, Area Mostly Inaccessible

Below Saguaro Lake: Paved and Dirt Access, Live Bait Fish, Swimming, No Motors Allowed, Parking Area, Tables, Restrooms, Camping Allowed - Several camp and picnic areas, Drained in winter

The above facilities are maintained by the Tonto National Forest.

Tempe Boat Rentals at Tempe Town Lake: Small passenger boats including kayaks, pedal boats, electric powered pontoons and fishing boats. This is an independent contractor and not managed by the City of Tempe.

Fish species[edit]

Cherry Creek to Roosevelt Lake (15 fishable miles)
Largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, sunfish, channel catfish, flathead catfish, carp
Below Saguaro Lake (11 fishable miles)
Rainbow trout, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, yellow bass, crappie, sunfish, channel catfish, flathead catfish, blue catfish, yellow perch, walleye, tilapia, black crappie, carp, bullfrogs, desert sucker

Variant names[edit]

The Salt River as seen in Salt River Canyon

According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Salt River has also been known as:[9]

  • Assumption
  • Assuption
  • Black River
  • Blau Fluss
  • Blue River
  • Rio Asuncion
  • Rio Azulrio de Lasrio
  • Rio de la Asuncion
  • Rio de las Balsas
  • River of the Rafts
  • Salada
  • Salinas
  • Rio Salado

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]