Saltburn-by-the-Sea shown within North Yorkshire
|Population||5,912 (2001 Census)|
|OS grid reference|
|- London||263.1 miles (423.4 km)|
|Civil parish||Saltburn, Marske and New Marske|
|Unitary authority||Redcar and Cleveland|
|Ceremonial county||North Yorkshire|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||North East England|
|UK Parliament||Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland|
Saltburn-by-the-Sea is a seaside resort in Redcar and Cleveland, a unitary authority in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, the town is around 12 miles (19 km) east of Middlesbrough, and had a population of 5,912 at the 2001 Census.
The development of Middlesbrough and Saltburn was driven by the discovery of iron stone in the Cleveland Hills, the monies of the Pease family of Darlington, and the development of two railways to transport the minerals.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Tourism and landmarks
- 4 Education
- 5 Transport
- 6 Sport
- 7 Notable locals
- 8 Further reading
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Old Saltburn is the original settlement, located in the Saltburn Gill. Records are scarce on its origins, but it was a centre for smugglers, and publican John Andrew is referred to as 'king of smugglers'.
In 1856, the hamlet consisted of the Ship Inn and a row of houses, occupied by farmers and fishermen. In the mid-18th century, authors Laurence Sterne and John Hall-Stevenson enjoyed racing chariots on the sands at Saltburn.
The Pease family developed Middlesbrough as an industrial centre and, after discovery of iron stone, the Stockton & Darlington Railway and the West Hartlepool Harbour and Railway Company developed routes into East Cleveland. By 1861, the S&DR reached Saltburn with the intention of continuing to Brotton, Skinningrove and Loftus but the WHH&RCo had already developed tracks in the area, leaving little point in the extending the S&DR tracks further.
In 1858, while walking along the coast path towards Old Saltburn to visit his brother Joseph in Marske, Henry Pease saw a prophetic vision of a town arising on the cliff and the quiet, unfrequented and sheltered glen turned into a lovely garden. The Pease family owned Middlesbrough Estate and had control of the S&DR, and agreed to develop Henry's vision by forming the Saltburn Improvement Company (SIC).
Land was purchased from the Earl of Zetland, and the company commissioned surveyor George Dickinson to lay out what became an interpretation of a gridiron street layout, detracted from by the railway which ran through the site. With as many houses as possible having sea views, the layout was added to by the so-called Jewel streets along the seafront—Coral, Garnet, Ruby, Emerald, Pearl, Diamond and Amber Streets, said to be a legacy of Henry's vision.
After securing the best positions for development by the SIC, money was raised for construction by selling plots to private developers and investors. Most buildings are constructed using 'Pease' brick, transported from Darlington by the S&DR, with the name Pease set into the brick. The jewel in Henry Pease's crown is said to have been The Zetland Hotel with a private platform, one of the world's earliest railway hotels.
The parcel of land known as Clifton Villas was sold by the Saltburn Improvement Company (SIC) in 1865 to William Morley from London who built the property, but a stipulation on the land in the deed of covenant, was that any trees planted along Britannia Terrace (now Marine Parade) were not to exceed 1' 6" above the footpath to preserve the view of Henry Pease's vision to form Saltburn. However Pease owned a property on Britannia Terrace.
The Redcar to Saltburn Railway opened in 1861 as an extension of the Middlesbrough to Redcar Railway of 1846. The line was extended to Whitby as part of the Whitby Redcar and Middlesbrough Union Railway.
The coastline at Saltburn lies practically east-west, and along much of it runs Marine Parade. To the east of the town is the imposing Hunt Cliff, topped by Warsett Hill at 166 metres (545 ft). Skelton Beck runs through the wooded Valley Gardens in Saltburn, then alongside Saltburn Miniature Railway before being joined by Saltburn Gill going under the A174 road bridge and entering the North Sea across the sandy beach.
Tourism and landmarks
A forest walk in the Valley Gardens gives access to the Italian Gardens and leads on to the railway viaduct. On the shore in Old Saltburn is a smugglers' museum and the Cleveland Way. In the town there are plenty of Victorian buildings. There is also a thriving local theatre, The 53 Society, and a public library.
The coastline is popular with surfers and national surfing events are held during the autumn and winter months, attracting competitors from all corners of England, Scotland and Wales.
Annual events include:
- Saltburn Victorian Celebrations—once known as Victorian Week
- The Saltburn Swashbuckle—a beach event for children based on a piratical theme
- The Saltburn Custom Classic Car Show—a lower prom display of mostly American cars
- The annual Folk festival.
Saltburn has been host to a number of beach parties organised by local dance music lovers.
Saltburn Cliff Lift
The Saltburn Cliff Lift is one of the world's oldest water-powered funiculars—the oldest being the Bom Jesus funicular in Braga, Portugal. After the opening of Saltburn Pier in 1869, it was concluded that the steep cliff walk was deterring people from walking from the town to the pier. After the company was taken over by Middlesbrough Estates in 1883, they discovered that the wooden Cliff Hoist had a number of rotten supports. The Saltburn tramway, as it is also known, was developed by Sir Richard Tangye's company, whose chief engineer was George Croydon Marks. The cliff tramway opened a year later and provided transport between the pier and the town. The railway is water-balanced and since 1924 the water pump has been electrically operated. The first major maintenance was carried out in 1998, when the main winding wheel was replaced and a new braking system installed.
Saltburn Miniature Railway
The Saltburn Miniature Railway is a 15 in (381 mm) gauge railway that runs south from Cat Nab Station close to the beach, for about ½ mile inland to Forest Halt, where there is a woodland walk and the Italian Gardens.
As a town founded and dominated by Quakers, Saltburn originally had no public houses. Alcohol was served in the local hotels and the bars attached to them. The public houses on the lower promenade were part of Old Saltburn. In addition to The Ship Inn there was The Pelican and others. Vista Mar was first opened as tea rooms and later a fish and chip cafe.
Today the following public houses exist in Saltburn: Alexandra Vaults (known as Back Alex), The Victoria, Marine, Ship Inn, The Spa, Vista Mar (formerly Bankside, previously Rosie O'Grady's) and Windsors (formerly Queens). There are also several members' clubs: Conservative Club, Saltburn Social Club (Lune Street), Masonic Lodge, Saltburn Golf Club, Saltburn Cricket Tennis and Bowls Club, and Queens (known as Swingdoors).
Teddy's Nook (The Cottage)
Teddy's Nook is a house built in 1862 by Henry Pease, a director of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, for his own occupation. Pease was responsible for the foundation of the seaside resort and the sturdy sandstone house was first named The Cottage.
Lillie Langtry—The Jersey Lily, stayed at the house at sometime between 1877 and 1880. She was often visited by Edward Prince of Wales (later Edward VII of the United Kingdom) who had a suite of rooms at the Zetland Hotel. The cottage, consequently, became known as Teddy's Nook.
The Cottage was only one of four similar houses to be called Clifton Villas. The cottage was the family home of Audrey Collins, MBE, who served as Mayor of Saltburn and chair of the South Tees Health Authority. Middlesbrough's James Cook University Hospital has named a teaching unit in her name.
Saltburn's only secondary school is Huntcliff School which was rebuilt during 2007–8, re-opening on 8 September 2008. The redundant 50-year-old school buildings were then demolished to allow the town's Junior and Infant schools to relocate to the same site in 2009.
The railway station is at the end of the line from Middlesbrough and Darlington. Beyond Saltburn a mineral freight line continues across Saltburn Viaduct and the edge of Hunt Cliff to the potash mine at nearby Boulby.
Sports played in Saltburn include cricket, bowls and tennis played at the Club in Marske Mill Lane. The Club has been in existence for over 100 years and is nearly as old as the town itself. New facilities were provided in 2002 with financial help from the Lottery.
The North Riding Duck Race is held each year on 1 August to celebrate Yorkshire Day. The winner receives the Colin Holt Cup, named in honour of the late Colin Holt, for many years the Chairman of the Yorkshire Ridings Society. A prize is given also for the duck with the most original name.
- Malcolm Campbell set his first speed record (138.08 mph-unofficial) while driving Blue Bird on Saltburn Sands on 17 June 1922.
- David Coverdale, lead vocalist for Deep Purple and Whitesnake, grew up in the Red Lodge on Marine Parade, now known as Red Gables; a citizen and resident of the United States in recent years.
- George Hardwick, footballer and football manager (Oldham Athletic, PSV Eindhoven, Sunderland and Gateshead)
- Tony Mowbray, footballer and football manager (Middlesbrough, Celtic, Ipswich, West Bromwich Albion and Hibernian)
- Nicholas Patrick, British astronaut.
- For a full list, see People from Saltburn-by-the-Sea
- Tony Lynn – 'Saltburn-by-the-Sea Revisited' (2006) ISBN 0-7524-3773-9
- Alan Whitworth – 'Saltburn-by-the-Sea: A Brief History from Its Earliest Times to 1900' (2006) ISBN 1-871150-47-7.
- "Saltburn draft conservation area appraisal" (PDF). Redcar & Cleveland. Retrieved 14 September 2009.[dead link]
- Sidney Lee, Stevenson, John Hall- in Dictionary of National Biography (1885–1900), vol. 54
- Wilson, Chris Scott. The History of Saltburn.
- Ellison, M.H. "North Eastern Railway Association". Newcastle University.[dead link]
- "Saltburn Festival of Folk Music, Dance and Song". Saltburn Folk Festival. Retrieved 26 September 2012.[dead link]
- Paul Delplanque (4 January 2010). "Saltburn Cliff Lift...Then and Now". Evening Gazette. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "Saltburn Cliff Lift". BBC Tees. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- Green, Hayley. "Miniature steam railway, Saltburn-by-the-Sea". Geograph Project. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "Robinson's Railway Directory" (PDF). 1841.
- Dent, Karen. "Businessman with a talent for giving something back". nebusiness.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- "Shopping". francisfrith.com. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- "Zebrahosts News". zebrahosts.net. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
- "Celebrating Yorkshire Day". Redcar and Cleveland Council. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Profile at Bluebird Supporters Club". bluebirdteamracing.net. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "The yo-yo years of Middlesbrough FC: Time Trail". Evening Gazette, Millennium Memories: 16–17. 16 November 1999.
- Glasper, Harry. The 'Boro Bible. ISBN 0-9527932-5-3.
- "Biographical Data – Nicholas J. M. Patrick". NASA. January 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Saltburn by the Sea.|