|Town of Saltville, Virginia|
|• Mayor||Neil Johnson|
|• Total||8.1 sq mi (21.0 km2)|
|• Land||8.1 sq mi (20.9 km2)|
|• Water||.04 sq mi (0.1 km2) .49%|
|Elevation||1,726 ft (526 m)|
|• Density||274/sq mi (105.7/km2)|
|U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Population Estimates|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1486913|
Saltville is a town in Smyth and Washington counties in the U.S. state of Virginia. The population was 2,077 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Kingsport–Bristol (TN)–Bristol (VA) Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – commonly known as the "Tri-Cities" region.
Saltville was named for the salt marshes in the area. Prior to European settlement, these marshes attracted local wildlife. Excavations at the SV-2 archaeological site in the area have recovered several well preserved skeletons of now extinct species dating back to the last ice age. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures hunted at the marshes. The historic Native American people in the area were the Chisca.
Archaeologists in 1992 proposed the existence of a prehistoric "Saltville Complex Petty Chiefdom", with a paramount village located at the Northwood High School site, 44SM8. They reported "Saltville style gorgets" as well as iron and copper materials, scattered across the region.
During the spring of 1567, Spanish conquistador Hernando Moyano led a force of 15-20 soldiers northward from Joara, a city in what is now western North Carolina. The force attacked and burned the Chisca village of Maniatique, which may have been located at or near the site of Saltville.
During the American Civil War, Saltville was one of the Confederacy's main saltworks. The saltworks were considered vital to the Confederate war effort because the salt was used in preserving meat for Confederate soldiers and civilians. Because of its importance, the town was attacked by Northern forces intent on capturing the saltworks and removing it from Confederate control. On October 2, 1864 the Battle of Saltville was fought here. In the battle Union forces attacked Saltville but were defeated by Confederate troops. Two months later General George Stoneman, a Union cavalry commander, led a second attack on the saltworks (known as Battle of Saltville II). This time the Confederates were defeated and the saltworks were destroyed by Union troops. The loss of the Saltville works was considered a major blow to the Confederacy's dwindling resources.
Saltville is located at .(36.873480, -81.760833)
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.1 square miles (21.0 km²), of which, 8.1 square miles (20.8 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (0.49%) is water.
The salt caverns in Saltville, Virginia are used for gas storage, the only one to serve the Mid-Alantic states. The cavern type in Saltville, is considered the best for this purpose because the gas can be injected and removed quickly to meet immediate demand. The structure is very safe and has the structural strength of steel.
Muck Dam Collapse
Saltville was the location of the infamous "Muck Dam" break on December 24, 1926 which allowed the release of a huge volume of liquid chemical waste (stored there by the Mathieson Alkali Company) into the North Holston River taking the lives of nineteen people who lived along the river. The river remained polluted and virtually dead for several decades afterward. 
Museum of the Middle Appalachians
Saltville is also home of the Museum of the Middle Appalachians. The museum is centrally located in the town and offers an excellent view into the past of the town and the region. The museum displays numerous exhibits on topics such as the geologic past, Civil War, the company town, and the Woodland Indians. 
Saltville's current mayor is Neil Johnson. Mayor Johnson won the election by having only six votes over his competitor, Joel L. “Joe” Frye. The town is also regulated by a town council consisting of six other members.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,204 people, 909 households, and 660 families residing in the town. The population density was 273.7 people per square mile (105.7/km²). There were 1,003 housing units at an average density of 124.5 per square mile (48.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.96% White, 0.41% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.05% from other races, and 0.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.45% of the population.
There were 909 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.2% were married couples living together, 35.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.3% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the town the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, and 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 89.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $24,917, and the median income for a family was $32,394. Males had a median income of $25,379 versus $12,717 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,908. About 22.7% of families and 37.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over.
- Clay Davidson - Country musician
- Hobart Smith - Old time music legend
- Texas Gladden- Sister of Smith, also a successful musician
- Robert Porterfield - founder of the Barter Theater
- Tom Buchanan - contestant on Survivor, Africa
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Virginia Museum Natural History". Vmnh.net. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
- Barber and Barfield, "The Late Woodland in the Environs of Saltville, Virginia: A Case for Petty Chiefdom Development," 5th Upland Archaeology in the East Symposium, Boone, N.C., cited in Beck 1997 "From Joara to Chiaha"
- JSTOR: Southeastern Archaeology, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Winter 1997), pp. 162-169
- Berrier Jr., Ralph (September 20, 2009). "The slaughter at Saltville". The Roanoke Times. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Selden, Ina Lee (March 13, 1980). "The town that would not die". The Christian Science Monitor (Boston, Mass).
- "The Atlanta Journal - Constitution Article on Dam". Mywebpages.comcast.net. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
- "Roanoke Times Article on Dam". Roanoke.com. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
- "US EPA Superfund Site". Epa.gov. 2006-06-28. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
- "VA Department Environmental Quality" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-07.
- "Museum of the Middle Appalachians". Museum-mid-app.org. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
- Saltville Town Council[dead link]
- "Population Finder: Saltville CDP, Virginia". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- Climate Summary for Saltville, Virginia