Salvadori's teal

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Salvadori's teal
Salvadorina waigiuensis 1895.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Subfamily: Tadorninae
Genus: Salvadorina
Rothschild & Hartert, 1894
Species: S. waigiuensis
Binomial name
Salvadorina waigiuensis
Rothschild & Hartert, 1894

The Salvadori's teal or Salvadori's duck (Salvadorina waigiuensis) is a species of bird endemic to New Guinea. It is placed in the monotypic genus Salvadorina.[2]

It has a dark brown head and neck, and its body is barred and spotted dark brown and off white, with orange legs and a yellow bill.

It is a secretive inhabitant of fast-flowing highland streams and lakes. It is an omnivore. It locates its nest near water, and lays 2 to 4 eggs in the dry season. The IUCN has listed the bird as vulnerable, and the total population may be slowly declining.

Taxonomy[edit]

When Walter Rothschild and Ernst Hartert first described Salvadori's teal in 1894, they placed it in the concurrently created monotypic genus Salvadorina.[2] It has no subspecies.[3] Initially, it was generally placed with South America's torrent duck and New Zealand's blue duck — two species of similar ecological niches — in a tribe called Merganettini.[4] In the 1940s, Ernst Mayr moved the species to the dabbling duck genus Anas, based on several anatomical features.[5] It was then reinstated in its own genus and moved to the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae[citation needed], which also contains the torrent duck and blue duck which convergently have evolved adaptations to mountain stream habitat. All or some of these species may actually be surviving lineages of an ancient Gondwanan radiation of waterfowl (Sraml et al. 1996).

The duck's common and genus names both commemorate 18th-century Italian ornithologist Tommaso Salvadori.[6] The species name waigiuensis refers to Waigeo (also known as Waigiu), an island near New Guinea.[7]

Description[edit]

Measuring 38–43 cm (15–17 in) in length, with a wingspan of 56–71 cm (22–28 in),[3] and a mass of 342 g (12 oz),[8] Salvadori's teal is a small duck.[3] The sexes are similar in plumage, with males averaging slightly larger than females.[4]

Range and habitat[edit]

Salvadori's teal is endemic to New Guinea; although the type specimen was reportedly collected on the Indonesian island of Waigeo, there is some doubt over the veracity of that claim, as the species is not now found there.[4] Resident at elevations ranging from 500 to 4,000 m (1,600 to 13,100 ft), Salvadori's teal prefers swiftly flowing rivers and streams,[3] though it is also occasionally found in stagnant lakes.[9]

Behavior[edit]

Food and feeding[edit]

Salvadori's teal is an omnivore, and feeds by both dabbling and diving.[10] It eats plants and insects,[11] and possibly small fish.[9]

Breeding[edit]

It locates its nest near water, and lays 2 to 4 eggs in the dry season.

Conservation and threats[edit]

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed Salvadori's teal as vulnerable. The total world population, currently estimated to be between 2,500 and 9,999 mature individuals, is thought to be declining at a moderate rate. Hunting, habitat degradation and predation by dogs are among the threats this species faces,[10] and competition with introduced sport fish may also cause problems.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Salvadorina waigiuensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "ITIS Report: Salvadorina". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d Ogilvie, Malcolm; Young, Steve (2002). Wildfowl of the World. London, UK: New Holland Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 1-84330-328-0. 
  4. ^ a b c Kear, J. (1975). "Salvadori's Duck of New Guinea". Wildfowl 26: 104–111. 
  5. ^ Delacour, Jean; Mayr, Ernst. "The Family Anatidae". The Wilson Bulletin 57 (1): 3–55. 
  6. ^ Jobling (2010), p. 346.
  7. ^ Jobling (2010), p. 406.
  8. ^ Dunning, Jr., John B., ed. (2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2 ed.). Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5. 
  9. ^ a b Strange, Morten (2013). A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Indonesia. North Clarendon, VT, USA: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 1462910327. 
  10. ^ a b "Salvadori's Teal Salvadorina waigiuensi". BirdLife International. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  11. ^ Chambers, M. R. (1987). "The Freshwater Lakes of Papua New Guinea: An Inventory and Limnological Review". Journal of Tropical Ecology 3 (1): 1–23 – via JSTOR. (registration required (help)). 
  12. ^ Kear, Janet (2010). Man and Wildfowl. London, UK: A&C Black. p. 188. ISBN 1408137615. 
  • Beehler, Bruce M., Pratt, Thane K. & Zimmerman, Dale A. (1986): Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-02394-8
  • Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Names. London, UK: Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. 
  • Sraml, M.; Christidis, L.; Easteal, S.; Horn, P. & Collet, C. (1996): Molecular Relationships Within Australasian Waterfowl (Anseriformes). Australian Journal of Zoology 44(1): 47-58. doi:10.1071/ZO9960047 (HTML abstract)