Salvia hispanica

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For the related plant also known as "chia", see Salvia columbariae.
Chia
Salvia hispanica (10461546364).jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. hispanica
Binomial name
Salvia hispanica
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Kiosmina hispanica (L.) Raf.
  • Salvia chia Colla
  • Salvia chia Sessé & Moc. nom. illeg.
  • Salvia neohispanica Briq. nom. illeg.
  • Salvia prysmatica Cav.
  • Salvia schiedeana Stapf
  • Salvia tetragona Moench
Chia seeds

Salvia hispanica, commonly known as chia, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native to central and southern Mexico and Guatemala.[2] The 16th-century Codex Mendoza provides evidence that it was cultivated by the Aztec in pre-Columbian times; economic historians have suggested it was as important as maize as a food crop.[3] Ground or whole chia seeds are still used in Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina, Mexico and Guatemala for nutritious drinks and as a food source.[4][5]

Etymology[edit]

The word "chia" is derived from the Nahuatl word chian, meaning oily.[1] The present Mexican state of Chiapas received its name from the Nahuatl "chia water" or "chia river".

It is one of two plants known as chia, the other being Salvia columbariae commonly known as golden chia.

Description[edit]

Chia is an annual herb growing up to 1.75 m (5.7 ft) tall, with opposite leaves that are 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) long and 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) wide. Its flowers are purple or white and are produced in numerous clusters in a spike at the end of each stem.[6] Chia is hardy from USDA Zones 9–12. Many plants cultivated as S. hispanica are actually S. lavandulifolia.[7]

Seeds[edit]

Chia is grown commercially for its seed, a food that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, since the seeds yield 25–30% extractable oil, including α-linolenic acid (ALA). Of total fat, the composition of the oil can be 55% ω-3, 18% ω-6, 6% ω-9, and 10% saturated fat.[8]

Chia seeds are typically small ovals with a diameter of about 1 mm (0.039 in). They are mottle-colored with brown, gray, black and white. The seeds are hydrophilic, absorbing up to 12 times their weight in liquid when soaked. While soaking, the seeds develop a mucilaginous gel-like coating that gives chia-based beverages a distinctive texture.

Chia seed is traditionally consumed in Mexico, and the southwestern United States, but is not widely known in Europe. Chia (or chian or chien) has mostly been identified as Salvia hispanica L. Today, chia is grown commercially in its native Mexico, and in Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, and Australia. In 2008, Australia was the world's largest producer of chia.[9] A similar species, Salvia columbariae or golden chia, is used in the same way but is not grown commercially for food. Salvia hispanica seed is marketed most often under its common name "chia", but also under several trademarks.

Nutrient content and food uses[edit]

Seeds, chia seeds, dried
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,034 kJ (486 kcal)
42.12 g
Dietary fiber 34.4 g
30.74 g
Saturated 3.330
Monounsaturated 2.309
Polyunsaturated 23.665
16.54 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(7%)
54 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(54%)
0.62 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(14%)
0.17 mg
Niacin (B3)
(59%)
8.83 mg
Folate (B9)
(12%)
49 μg
Vitamin C
(2%)
1.6 mg
Vitamin E
(3%)
0.5 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(63%)
631 mg
Iron
(59%)
7.72 mg
Magnesium
(94%)
335 mg
Manganese
(130%)
2.723 mg
Phosphorus
(123%)
860 mg
Potassium
(9%)
407 mg
Sodium
(1%)
16 mg
Zinc
(48%)
4.58 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

According to the USDA, a one ounce (28 gram) serving of chia seeds contains 9 grams of fat, 5 milligrams of sodium, 11 grams of dietary fiber, 4 grams of protein, 18% of the recommended daily intake of calcium, 27% phosphorus and 30% manganese.[8] These nutrient values are similar to other edible seeds, such as flax or sesame.[10][11]

In 2009, the European Union approved chia seeds as a novel food, allowing up to 5% of a bread product's total matter.[12]

Chia seeds may be added to other foods as a topping or put into smoothies, breakfast cereals, energy bars, granola bars, yogurt, tortillas, bread, made into a gelatin-like substance or consumed raw.[13][14][15][16] The gelatin-gel can be used to replace as much as 25% of egg content and oil in cakes while providing other nutrients.[17]

Mexican agua fresca made of chía

Preliminary health research[edit]

Although preliminary research indicates potential for health benefits from consuming chia seeds, this work remains sparse and inconclusive.[18]

One pilot study found that 10 weeks ingestion of 25 grams per day of milled chia seeds, compared to intact seeds, produced higher blood levels of alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 long-chain fatty acid considered good for the heart, while having no effect on inflammation or disease risk factors.[19][20]

Drug interactions[edit]

Case reports have showed that there is an increased bleeding risk in patients using an anticoagulant if also consuming chia seeds;[21] accordingly, chia seeds should be used with caution by patients medicated with anticoagulants or aspirin.

Safety in pregnancy and lactation[edit]

There is a lack of safety information on the use of chia seeds in pregnancy and lactation, so it is advised to avoid use until more safety data has been established.[22][citation needed]

Cultivation[edit]

Climate and growing cycle length[edit]

The growing cycle length for chia varies over cultivation locations and is influenced by elevation.[23] For production sites located in different ecosystems in Bolivia, Argentina and Ecuador, growing cycles are between 100–150 days in duration.[24] Accordingly, commercial production fields are located in the range of 8–2200 meters altitude across a variety of ecosystems ranging from tropical coastal desert to tropical rain forest and inter-Andean dry valley.[24] In north-western Argentina, a time span from planting to harvest of 120–180 days is reported for fields located at elevations of 900–1500 meters.[25]

S. hispanica is a short-day flowering plant,[26] indicating its photoperiodic sensitivity and lack of photoperiodic variability in traditional cultivars has limited commercial use of chia seeds to tropical and subtropical latitudes until 2012.[27] Traditional domesticated lines of S. hispanica can now be grown in temperate zones at higher latitudes in the United States.[26] In Arizona or Kentucky, seed maturation of traditional chia cultivars is stopped by frost before or after flower set, preventing seed harvesting.[26] However, 2012 advances in plant breeding led to development of new early-flowering chia genotypes proving to have higher yields in Kentucky.[27]

Seed yield and composition[edit]

Seed yield varies depending on cultivars, mode of cultivation and growing conditions by geographic region. For example, commercial fields in Argentina and Colombia vary in yield range from 450 to 1250 kg/ha.[25][28] A small scale study with 3 cultivars grown in the Inter-Andean valleys of Ecuador produced yields up to 2300 kg/ha, indicating that favorable growing environment and cultivar interacted to produce such high yields.[23] Genotype has a larger effect on yield than on protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition or phenolic compounds, whereas high temperature reduces oil content and degree of unsaturation and raises protein content.[29]

Soil, seedbed requirements and sowing[edit]

The cultivation of S. hispanica requires light to medium clay or sandy soils.[30] The plant prefers well-drained, moderately fertile soils, but can cope with acid soils and moderate drought.[27][30] Sown chia seeds need moisture for seedling establishment, while the maturing chia plant does not tolerate wet soils during growth.[27]

Traditional cultivation techniques of S. hispanica involve soil preparation by disruption and loosening followed by seed broadcasting.[31] In modern commercial production, a typical seeding rate of 6 kg/ha and row spacing of 0.7–0.8 metres is usually applied.[25]

Fertilization and irrigation[edit]

S. hispanica can be cultivated under low fertilizer input, using 100 kg nitrogen per hectare or in some cases, no fertilizer is used.[26][28]

Irrigation frequency in chia production fields may vary from none to eight irrigations per growing season, depending on climatic conditions and rainfall.[28]

Genetic diversity and breeding[edit]

There is a wide range of wild and cultivated varieties of S. hispanica based on seed size, shattering of seeds and seed color.[32][33] Seed weight and color have high heritability, with a single recessive gene responsible for white color.[33]

Diseases and crop management[edit]

Currently, there are no major pests or diseases affecting chia production.[30] Essential oils in chia leaves have repellant properties against insects, making chia suitable for organic cultivation.[27] However, virus infections possibly transmitted via white flies may occur.[34] Weeds may present a problem in early development of the chia crop until its canopy closes, but because chia is sensitive to most commonly used herbicides, mechanical weed control is preferred.[27]

Mesoamerican usage[edit]

Drawing from the Florentine Codex showing a Salvia hispanica plant[3]

S. hispanica is described and pictured in the Mendoza Codex and the Florentine Codex, sixteenth century Aztec codices created between 1540 and 1585. Both describe and picture Salvia hispanica and its usage by the Aztec. The Mendoza Codex indicates that the plant was widely cultivated and given as tribute in 21 of the 38 Aztec provincial states. Economic historians suggest that it was a staple food that was as widely used as maize.[3]

Aztec tribute records from the Mendoza Codex, Matrícula de Tributos, and the Matricula de Huexotzinco (1560)—along with colonial cultivation reports and linguistic studies—give detail to the geographic location of the tributes, and provide some geographic specificity to the main S. hispanica growing regions. Most of the provinces grew the plant, except for areas of lowland coastal tropics and desert. The traditional area of cultivation was in a distinct area that covered parts of north-central Mexico south to Nicaragua. A second and separate area of cultivation, apparently pre-Columbian, was in southern Honduras and Nicaragua.[35]

Decorative and novelty uses[edit]

Main article: Chia Pet

In the United States, the first substantial wave of chia seed sales were tied to Chia Pets in the 1980s. These "pets" come in the form of clay figures that serve as a base for a sticky paste of chia seeds; the figures are then watered and the seeds sprout in a form suggesting the figure's fur. About 500,000 chia pets a year are sold in the US as novelties or house plants.[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  2. ^ "Salvia hispanica L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2000-04-19. Retrieved 21 March 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c Cahill, Joseph P. (2003). "Ethnobotany of Chia, Salvia hispanica L. (Lamiaceae)". Economic Botany 57 (4): 604–618. doi:10.1663/0013-0001(2003)057[0604:EOCSHL]2.0.CO;2. 
  4. ^ Kintzios, Spiridon E. (2000). Sage: The Genus Salvia. CRC Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-90-5823-005-8. 
  5. ^ Stephanie Strom (November 23, 2012). "30 Years After Chia Pets, Seeds Hit Food Aisles". New York Times. Retrieved 26 November 2012. Whole and ground chia seeds are being added to fruit drinks, snack foods and cereals and sold on their own to be baked into cookies and sprinkled on yogurt. ... 
  6. ^ Anderson, A.J.O. and Dibble, C.E. "An Ethnobiography of the Nahuatl", The Florentine Codex, (translation of the work by Fr. Bernardino de Sahagún), Books 10–11, from the Period 1558–1569
  7. ^ Mark Griffiths, Editor. Index of Garden Plants. (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 2nd American Edition, 1995.) ISBN 0-88192-246-3.
  8. ^ a b USDA SR-21 Nutrient Data (2010). "Nutrition facts for dried chia seeds, one ounce". Conde Nast, Nutrition Data. 
  9. ^ Chia: The Ord Valley's new super crop
  10. ^ USDA SR-21 Nutrient Data (2010). "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Seeds, flaxseed". Conde Nast, Nutrition Data. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  11. ^ USDA SR-21 Nutrient Data (2010). "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Seeds, sesame seed kernels, dried (decorticated)". Conde Nast, Nutrition Data. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  12. ^ The European Union, "Commission Decision of 13 October 2009 authorising the placing on the market of Chia seed(Salvia hispanica) as a novel food ingredient under Regulation (EC) No 268/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council" (L294/14) 2009/827/EC pp. 14–15 (November 11, 2009)
  13. ^ "Chewing Chia Packs A Super Punch". NPR. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  14. ^ Albergotti, Reed. "The NFL's Top Secret Seed". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  15. ^ Trujillo-Hernández, C.A.; Rendón-Villalobos R.; Ortíz-Sánchez A.; Solorza-Feria J. (2012). "Formulation, physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial evaluation of corn tortillas supplemented with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.)". Czech Journal of Food Science 30 (2): 118–125. 
  16. ^ Costantini, Lara; Lea Lukšič; Romina Molinari; Ivan Kreft; Giovanni Bonafaccia; Laura Manzi; Nicolò Merendino (2014). "Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients". Food Chemistry 165: 232–240. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.095. ISSN 0308-8146. Retrieved 2014-10-09. 
  17. ^ Borneo R, Aguirre A, León AE (2010). "Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations". J Am Diet Assoc 110 (6): 946–9. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.011. PMID 20497788. 
  18. ^ Ulbricht C et al (2009). "Chia (Salvia hispanica): a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration". Rev Recent Clin Trials 4 (3): 168–74. doi:10.2174/157488709789957709. PMID 20028328. 
  19. ^ Stephanie Strom (November 23, 2012). "30 Years After Chia Pets, Seeds Hit Food Aisles". New York Times. Retrieved 26 November 2012. significantly more alpha-linolenic acid in omega-3 reached the bloodstream and was converted into eicosapentaenoic acid, a long-chain fatty acid considered good for the heart ... 
  20. ^ Nieman DC, Gillitt N, Jin F, Henson DA, Kennerly K, Shanely RA, Ore B, Su M, Schwartz S (2012). "Chia seed supplementation and disease risk factors in overweight women: a metabolomics investigation". J Altern Complement Med 18 (7): 700–8. doi:10.1089/acm.2011.0443. PMID 22830971. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  21. ^ Hu Z1, Yang X, Ho PC, Chan SY, Heng PW, Chan E, Duan W, Koh HL, Zhou S. "Herb-drug interactions: a literature review.". Drugs. 2005;65(9):1239-82. 
  22. ^ Ernst E. "Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe?". BJOG. 2002 Mar;109(3):227-35. 
  23. ^ a b Ayerza (h), Ricardo; Wayne Coates (2009). "Influence of environment on growing period and yield, protein, oil and α-linolenic content of three chia (Salvia hispanica L.) selections". Industrial Crops and Products 30 (2): 321–324. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.03.009. ISSN 0926-6690. Retrieved 2014-09-29. 
  24. ^ a b Ayerza, Ricardo (2009). "The Seed’s Protein and Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition, and Growing Cycle Length of a Single Genotype of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as Affected by Environmental Factors". Journal of Oleo Science 58 (7): 347–354. 
  25. ^ a b c Coates, Wayne; Ricardo Ayerza (h) (1998). "Commercial production of chia in Northwestern Argentina". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 75 (10): 1417–1420. Retrieved 2014-10-08. 
  26. ^ a b c d Jamboonsri, Watchareewan; Timothy D. Phillips; Robert L. Geneve; Joseph P. Cahill; David F. Hildebrand (2012). "Extending the range of an ancient crop, Salvia hispanica L.—a new ω3 source". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59 (2): 171–178. doi:10.1007/s10722-011-9673-x. Retrieved 2014-09-29. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f "Chia". Cooperative Extension Service. University of Kentucky – College of Agriculture. 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-18. 
  28. ^ a b c Coates, Wayne; Ricardo Ayerza (1996). "Production potential of chia in northwestern Argentina". Industrial Crops and Products 5 (3): 229–233. Retrieved 2014-10-08. 
  29. ^ Ayerza (h), Ricardo; Wayne Coates (2009). "Some quality components of fours chia (Salvia hispanica L.) genotypes grown under tropical coastal desert ecosystem conditions". Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 4 (8): 301–307. ISSN 1682-3974. 
  30. ^ a b c Muñoz, Loreto A.; Angel Cobos; Olga Diaz; José Miguel Aguilera (2013). "Chia Seed ( Salvia hispanica ): An Ancient Grain and a New Functional Food". Food Reviews International 29 (4): 394–408. doi:10.1080/87559129.2013.818014. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  31. ^ Cahill, Joseph P. (2005). "Human Selection and Domestication of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.)". Journal of Ethnobiology 25 (2): 155–174. doi:10.2993/0278-0771(2005)25[155:HSADOC]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0278-0771. Retrieved 2014-09-29. 
  32. ^ Cahill, J. P. and B. Ehdaie (2005). "Variation and heritability of seed mass in chia (Salvia hispanica L.)." Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52(2): 201-207. doi: 10.1007/s10722-003-5122-9. Retrieved 2014-11-29
  33. ^ a b Cahill JP, Provance, MC (2002). "Genetics of qualitative traits in domesticated chia (Salvia hispanica L.)". Journal of Heredity 93 (1): 52–55. PMID 12011177. Retrieved 2014-11-29. 
  34. ^ Celli, Marcos; Maria Perotto; Julia Martino; Ceferino Flores; Vilma Conci; Patricia Pardina (2014). "Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica)". Viruses 6 (9): 3450–3457. doi:10.3390/v6093450. ISSN 1999-4915. Retrieved 2014-12-02. 
  35. ^ "A second apparently pre-Columbian cultivation area is known in southern Honduras and Nicaragua."Jamboonsri, Watchareewan; Phillips, Timothy D.; Geneve, Robert L.; Cahill, Joseph P.; Hildebrand, David F. (2011). "Extending the range of an ancient crop, Salvia hispanica L.—a new ω3 source". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (Springer). Online First. doi:10.1007/s10722-011-9673-x. 
  36. ^ Chia Pet | Arts & Culture | Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-26.