|Elevation||240 m (790 ft)|
|• Official||Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||PB 42|
Before Independence, Samana was a part of Patiala Kingdom (PEPSU). Now it is a part of Patiala District of Punjab (India).
It traces its history to the days of Raja Jaipal who ruled over, among others, the territories of Bhatinda, Samana. It fell into the hands of Shahab-ud-Din Muhammad Gauri after the conquest of Ajmer and Delhi and was entrusted to Qutb-ud-Din Aibek in 1192, along with the territories of Ghuram and Sunam. With the increasing importance of Sirhind under the Mughals, Samana received a little set-back.
While Samana is said to be a place of saints and scholars during the Mughal days, it is notorious also for its professional executioners, who served at Delhi and Sirhind. Sayyad Jala-ud-Din, who executed Guru Teg Bahadur at Delhi in 1675 was from Samana. Beg brothers, who mercilessly butchered the younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh also belonged to Samana. This hated town was therefore one of the first places to have been sacked by Banda Bahadur. But the Mughals were yet too strong for the rising power of Sikhs and Samana had to be given up by them towards the end of 1710 AD.It was retaken in about 1742 AD by Baba Ala Singh, the founder of the Patiala ruling family and was recognized as a part of his territories by Ahamd Shah Durani.
As of 2001[update] India census, Samana had a population of 46,509. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Samana has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 61%. In Samana, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.Area: 5.5 sq.km – Density: 8,471.3 inh./sq.km  – Change: +2.43%/year [1991 → 2001]
Discovery of Tomb
This sleepy north Indian town is all set to become a major pilgrimage centre for Shia Muslims following the chance discovery of a tomb said to belong to Imam Sayyid Mash-had Ali, a son of Imam Ali Raza, the eighth descendant of Prophet Muhammad. Samana is located 28 kilometers from Patiala in the Indian state of Punjab. Tomb of Prophet's "descendant" was discovered by Zafarul-Islam Khan.
According to scholars of Muslim history, the discovery of the mazar is significant in that there is no mazar of any Imam in South Asia.
Scholars are of the view that Imam Sayyid Mash-had Ali was buried here about 1200 years ago and the town of Samana also takes its name from his mother. Facts related to this have been confirmed with old religious books, sources claimed. But we do not find “Mash-had” as one of the sons of Imam Ali Raza who, according to historical sources, had only two sons: Ali (the ninth Imam) and Moosa. According to some sources, he also had a third son called Yahya. The Samana tomb was discovered by chance during the visit of Lahore High Court Judge, Shabbar Rizvi, about three months ago, when the stone at the shrine was cleared. Judge Rizvi, whose family emigrated from Samana at the time of Partition, told the local administration that a great saint lies buried at the place and he asked them to clear the place. Upon clearing it the inscription emerged.
Since its discovery, the mazar has been thronged by a host of important Shia dignitaries, including clerics from Lucknow and diplomats from the Iranian embassy in Delhi. They are now working on plans for its restoration and renovation.
A team composed of Lucknow’s Maulana Kalbe Jawwad and two functionaries of the Iranian Embassy in Delhi accompanied by Dr Nasir Naqvi, a teacher of Punjabi University, visited the tomb. The Iran Cultural House in Delhi is planning to hold a seminar on this discovery in Chandigarh.
Maulana Kalbe Jawwad informed MG that while visiting Delhi recently he was told that there existed a tomb of a “saint” who is said to be a pedigree of the Eight or the Ninth Imam of the Shiites. During his visit to the place, he was told that Sayyids were living at the place but after Partition it was ruined as the Muslim inhabitants emigrated to Pakistan. Sikh Nihangs told him that they tried to build a Gurudwara on the spot but whenever they erected any structure it crumbled. Owing to superstition, they left the place untouched and asked the Punjab Waqf Board to grant them some other land and the same was granted to them at a distance of 200 meters from the site of the grave. Maulana Jawwad added that the tomb exists from the time of Emperor Akbar. He said that he would be leaving for Iran on 11 July to track the history of the tomb and if proved it would be the greatest religious site of Muslims in the Subcontinent as there is no proof that any descendant of the Prophet is buried in South Asia.
Maulana Jawwad also said that he is thinking of facilitating the transfer of about 5000 Shiite families to Samana in order to inhabit the place and take care of the tomb.
In Samana, Sant Kirpalji of Gurudwara Thada Saheb (situated at a distance of a kilometer from the tomb) told MG that the Sikh order called “Buddha Dal” took care of the tomb after Partition. Earlier the place was served by Thambi Baba who disappeared one day. Now a Brahmin called Mangat Ram takes care of the place and keeps it clean out of love. Sant Kirpalji also said that he has seen a book in Urdu about the history of Samana. According to him Persians of “Samanat” caste came here and inhabited the place centuries ago. They were cloth merchants.
According to Sant Kirpalji and others in the area, the important tomb belongs to “Chauda Peer” (Wide Saint) who is considered the most important saint in the area. The adjacent tomb, according to them, belongs to his brother or wife. A third tomb to the right belongs to his maternal uncle who is addressed by the villagers as “Imam Saheb” or “Bada Peer” (Big Saint). Around 80 kela land (about 320 bighas) is attached to the tomb but most of it has been usurped by the villagers. Only five kelas is left for the tomb which is used for agriculture and the income is utilised for the upkeep and repair of the tomb. Sant Kirpalji keeps a separate register for this purpose.
The tomb is located in a large compound which is about four kilometers outside Samana town. It has an impressive Mughal style gate but the structures inside are in need of urgent repair. A number of graves are found all over the place (see sketch where G denotes graves; 1 is for Chauda Peer’s grave, 2 for his brother or wife’s grave, and 3 for the grave of his maternal uncle). The Persian epitaph planted in the wall facing the grave seems to be recent and made by a novice (see above). It reads: “Tomb of Hazrat Imam Mash-had Ali son of Hazrat Ali Moosa Raza. Built by Ajruddin Khan Mughal son of Bakhsh Allah Khan in the month of Blessed Ramadan 967 Hijri corresponding to Year 4 of Emperor Akbar.”
Then Chief Minister of Punjab, Captain Amrinder Singh, had ordered the concerned authorities to start working on the site immediately so that it could be declared a sacred place.
Samana is one of the 117 Vidhan Sabha Constituencies of Punjab. There are 237457 voters (122932 males and 114525 females) under Samana constituency.
List of MLAs of Samana Constituency
- 1977 : Gurdev Singh (SAD)
- 1980 : Sant Ram Singla (INC)
- 1985 : Hardial Singh Rajla(SAD)
- 1992 : Amrinder Singh (SAD)
- 1997 : Jagtar Singh Rajla (SAD)
- 2002 : Surjit Singh Rakhra (SAD)
- 2007 : Brahm Mohindra (INC)
- 2012 : Surjit Singh Rakhra (SAD)
Famous Personalities from Samana
- Harchand Singh Fatehgarh Channa - M.P. Ropar, Former MLA (Samana, Banoor, Amloh Punjab)
- Vijay Inder Singla - M.P. (Sangrur, Punjab), President of Punjab Youth Congress
- Surinder Singla - Former Finance Minister of Punjab, Former MLA (Bathinda, Punjab)
- Sant Ram Singla - Former Chairman of Punjab Mandi Board, Former MLA (Samana, Punjab)
- Ajinder Pal Singh Fatehgarh Channa - Member PPCC,Secretary PPCC (Punjab) Chairman District Handball Association.
- Ch. Bhajan Lal - Ex MLA Samana
- Nirmal Baba - Spiritual Guru
- Krishan Kumar Sharma "Rasik" - Poet
People of Samana are very religious in nature. There are more than 150 temples, mosques, gurudwaras in the town. People are very kind hearted. They donate to various ashrams, centers and contribute towards any relief campaigns.
Places to Visit
Gurudwara Thada Sahib: Thada Sahib is a beautiful Historical Gurudwara. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji came to this place when was on the way to Delhi. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji came here to the place of Sai Anayat Ali. Adjoining was the Area of Cruel Muslim, who had thrown Cow Bones in the well when Guru Sahib's sikh went there for water. After that Guru Sahib got a well dug there.
Bir Gurdialpura Wildlife Sanctuary: Bir Gurdialpura Wildlife Sanctuary is about 15 km from Samana. It was one of the important hunting reserves of the erstwhile rulers of Patiala state. It was declared a protected forest and then as a sanctuary under the Fauna of Patiala Act. The sanctuary has a good ecological value and habitat for number of wild animals.
Panchmukhi Mandir: Panchmukhi Mandir is one of the ancient temples of Samana. It is a large and beautiful temple devoted to Lord Shiva. Every year, a grand festival is celebrated in this temple on the occasion of Mahashivaratri. Mata Naina Devi Mandir is also there inside this mandir.
Panj Peer Mazar: It is a major pilgrimage centre for Shia Muslims. Sayyid Mash-had Ali was buried here about 1200 years ago and the town of Samana also takes its name from his mother. According to scholars of Muslim history, the discovery of the mazar is significant in that there is no mazar of any Imam in South Asia.
New Gaushaala: It is one of largest Gaushaalas in Punjab. It is built on the banks of Bhakra, on Samana-Patiala road. It is fully accompalished with world class infrastructure and facilities. It covers 12 acres area. People visit here on the daily basis and offers charity and help.
Pingla Ashram: It is a charitable center and home for mentally retarded, handicapped and elderly helpless people. It was started by Dr. Hari Ram. It is being operated by a committee of reputed people of Samana. It is managed by the donations from generous people of local town, adjacent villages and abroad.
Shri Sai Baba Mandir: It is located at the distance of 3 km from Samana. myser mandir with mata bala sundri madinr is here
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Gurudwara Shri Thada Sahib, Samana (HistoricalGurudwaras.com)