Samarkand

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Samarcand)
Jump to: navigation, search
Samarkand
Uzbek: Samarqand, Самарқанд
Official seal of Samarkand
Seal
Samarkand is located in Uzbekistan
Samarkand
Samarkand
Location in Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 39°42′N 66°59′E / 39.700°N 66.983°E / 39.700; 66.983
Country Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan
Province Samarqand Province
Settled 5th century BC
Government
 • Type City Administration
 • Hakim (Mayor) Akbar Shukurov
Area
 • Total 108 km2 (42 sq mi)
Elevation 702 m (2,303 ft)
Population (2008)
 • Total 436,300
Time zone   (UTC+5)
Website http://samshahar.uz/

Samarkand (Uzbek: Samarqand Самарқанд; Russian: Самарканд from Sogdian: "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town"), alternatively Samarqand or Samarcand, traditionally was the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. It is now the nation's third largest, after fast-growing Namangan in the Ferghana Valley.[1] The city is most noted for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West, and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque (a modern replica) remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood.[2]

In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures.

Etymology[edit]

The city was known by its Greek name of Marakanda when Alexander the Great took it in 329 BC.[3] Another derives the name from the Sogdian asmara, "stone", "rock", and Sogdian kand, "fort", "town".[4]

People[edit]

According to various independent sources, Tajiks (Persian-speaking people) are the major ethnic group in the city, while ethnic Uzbeks form a growing minority.[5] Exact figures are difficult to evaluate, since many people in Uzbekistan either identify as "Uzbek" even though they speak Eastern Persian as their first language, or because they are registered as Uzbeks by the central government despite their Eastern Persian language and identity. As explained by Paul Bergne:

During the census of 1926 a significant part of the Tajik population was registered as Uzbek. Thus, for example, in the 1920 census in Samarkand city the Tajiks were recorded as numbering 44,758 and the Uzbeks only 3301. According to the 1926 census, the number of Uzbeks was recorded as 43,364 and the Tajiks as only 10,716. In a series of kishlaks [villages] in the Khojand Okrug, whose population was registered as Tajik in 1920 e.g. in Asht, Kalacha, Akjar i Tajik and others, in the 1926 census they were registered as Uzbeks. Similar facts can be adduced also with regard to Ferghana, Samarkand, and especially the Bukhara oblasts.[5]

History[edit]

Triumph by Vasily Vereshchagin, depicting the Sher-Dor Madrasah in the Registan.

Along with Bukhara,[6] Samarkand is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Central Asia, prospering from its location on the trade route between China and the Mediterranean (Silk Road). At times Samarkand has been one of the greatest cities of Central Asia.[7]

Early history[edit]

Archeological excavations held within the city limits (Syob and midtown) as well as suburban areas (Hojamazgil, Sazag'on) unearthed evidence of human activity as early as 40000 years old, which is late paleolithic era. A group of Mesolithic era (12-7 millennium BC) archeological sites were discovered at Sazag'on-1, Zamichatosh, Okhalik (suburbs of the city). Syob and Darg'om canals, supplying with water the city and its suburbs appeared around the 7th to 5th centuries BC (early Iron Age). There is no direct evidence of when exactly Samarkand was founded. Researchers of Institute of Archeology of Samarkand argue existence of the city between the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Samarkand has been one of the main centres of Sogdian civilization from its early days. By the time of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia it had become the capital of the Sogdian satrapy.

The Hellenistic period[edit]

While settlement in the region goes well back into pre-historic times, by the seventh century before the Common Era (BCE or B.C.), the town seems to have housed a substantial center of craft production and already boasted an extensive irrigation system. It was one of the easternmost administrative centers for Achaemenid Persia and had a citadel and strong fortifications. Alexander the Great conquered Samarkand in 329 BC. The city was known as Maracanda by the Greeks.[8] Written sources offer small clues as to the subsequent system of government.[9] They tell of an Orepius who became ruler "not from ancestors, but as a gift of Alexander".[10]

While Samarkand suffered significant damage during Alexander's initial conquest, the city recovered rapidly and under the new Hellenic influence flourished. There were also major new construction techniques; oblong bricks were replaced with square ones and superior methods of masonry and plastering were introduced.[11] It was later part of Seleucid Empire, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and Kushan Empire successively. Alexander's conquests introduced into Central Asia Classical Greek culture; at least for a time the Greek models were followed closely by the local artisans. The Greek legacy lived on in the various "Graeco-Bactrian" kingdoms of the area and the Kushan Empire of the first centuries of the Common Era whose territories extended well down into what is today Pakistan and India. During the Kushan era the city declined though; it did not really revive until the fifth century CE.

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Samarkand – Crossroads of Culture
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Mosque Bibi Khanum (5).JPG
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Reference 603
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 2001 (25th Session)

The pre-Mongol period[edit]

Downtown with Bibi-Khanym Mosque

Samarkand was conquered by the Sassanians around AD 260. Under Sassanian rule the region became an essential site for Manichaeism, and facilitated the dissemination of the religion throughout central Asia.[12]

After the Sassanian disaster against the Hephtalites who managed to conquer Samarkand, Samarkand was controlled by the Hephtalites until they were defeated by the Göktürks, in an alliance with the Sassanid Persians during the Battle of Bukhara. The Turks ruled over Samarkand until they were defeated by the Sassanids during the Göktürk–Persian Wars. After the Islamic conquest of Iran the Turks conquered Samarkand and held it until Turkic qaghanate collapsed due to wars with the Chinese Tang Dynasty. During this time the city became a protectorate and paid tribute to the ruling Tang. The armies of the Umayyad Caliphate under Qutayba ibn Muslim captured the city in around AD 710.[12]

During this period, Samarkand was a diverse religious community and was home to a number of religions, including Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Manichaeism, Judaism and Nestorian Christianity.[13] However, after the Arab conquest of Sogdiana, Islam became the dominant religion in Samarkand, with much of the population converting.[14]

Legend has it that during Abbasid rule,[15] the secret of papermaking was obtained from two Chinese prisoners from the Battle of Talas in 751, which led to the foundation of the first paper mill of the Islamic world in Samarkand. The invention then spread to the rest of the Islamic world, and from there to Europe.

The Abbasid control of Samarkand soon dissipated and was replaced with that of the Samanids (AD 862–999), though it must be noted that the Samanids were still nominal vassals of the Caliph during their control of Samarkand. Under Samanid rule the city became one of the capitals of the Samanid dynasty and an even more important link amongst numerous trade routes. The Samanids were overthrown by Turkish tribes in around AD 1000. During the next two hundred years, Samarkand would be ruled by a succession of Turkish tribes, including the Seljuqs and the Khwarazm-Shahs.[16]

The tenth-century Iranian author Istakhri, who travelled in Transoxiana, provides a vivid description of the natural riches of the region he calls "Smarkandian Sogd":

I know no place in it or in Samarkand itself where if one ascends some elevated ground one does not see greenery and a pleasant place, and nowhere near it are mountains lacking in trees or a dusty steppe....Samakandian Sogd...[extends] eight days travel through unbroken greenery and gardens....The greenery of the trees and sown land extends along both sides of the river [Sogd]...and beyond these fields is pasture for flocks. Every town and settlement has a fortress...It is the most fruitful of all the countries of Allah; in it are the best trees and fruits, in every home are gardens, cisterns and flowing water...

The Mongol Period[edit]

The Mongols conquered Samarkand in 1220. Although Genghis Khan "did not disturb the inhabitants [of the city] in any way", according to Juvaini he killed all who took refuge in the citadel and the mosque. He also pillaged the city completely and conscripted 30,000 young men along with 30,000 craftsmen. Samarkand suffered at least one other Mongol sack by Khan Baraq to get treasure he needed to pay an army. The town took many decades to recover from these disasters.

The Travels of Marco Polo, where Polo records his journey along the Silk Road, describes Samarkand as a "a very large and splendid city..." Here also is related the story of a Christian church in Samarkand, which miraculously remained standing after a portion of its central supporting column was removed.

14th century[edit]

In 1365, a revolt against Mongol control occurred in Samarkand.[17]

In 1370 Timur, the founder and ruler of the Timurid Empire, made Samarkand his capital. During the next 35 years he rebuilt most of the city and populated it with the great artisans and craftsmen from across the empire. Timur gained a reputation as a patron of the arts and Samarkand grew to become the centre of the region of Transoxiana. Timur’s commitment to the arts is evident in the way he was ruthless with his enemies but merciful towards those with special artistic abilities. He spared the lives of artists, craftmen and architects so that he could bring them to improve and beautify his capital. He was also directly involved in his construction projects and his visions often exceeded the technical abilities of his workers. Furthermore, the city was in a state of constant construction and Timur would often request buildings to be done and redone quickly if he was unsatisfied with the results.[18] Timur made it so that the city could only be reached by roads and also ordered the construction of deep ditches and walls, that would run five miles (8.0 km) in circumference, separating the city from the rest of its surrounding neighbors.[19] During this time the city had a population of about 150,000.[20] This great period of reconstruction is incapsulated in the account of Henry III's ambassador, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, who was stationed there between 1403 and 1406. During his stay the city was typically in a constant state of construction. "The Mosque which Timur had caused to be built in memory of the mother of his wife...seemed to us the noblest of all those we visited in the city of Samarkand, but no sooner had it been completed than he begun to find fault with its entrance gateway, which he now said was much too low and must forthwith be pulled down."[21]

15th century[edit]

Between 1424 and 1429, the great astronomer Ulugh Beg built the Samarkand Observatory. The sextant was 11 metres long and once rose to the top of the surrounding three-storey structure, although it was kept underground to protect it from earthquakes. Calibrated along its length, it was the world's largest 90-degree quadrant at the time.[22] However, the observatory was destroyed by religious fanatics in 1449.[22]

Modern history[edit]

Samarkand from space in September 2013.[23]

In 1500 the Uzbek nomadic warriors took control of Samarkand.[20] The Shaybanids emerged as the Uzbek leaders at or about this time.

In the second quarter of 16th century, the Shaybanids moved their capital to Bukhara and Samarkand went into decline. After an assault by the Persian king, Nadir Shah, the city was abandoned in the 18th century, about 1720 or a few years later.[24]

From 1599 to 1756, Samarkand was ruled by the Ashtarkhanid dynasty of Bukhara.

From 1756 to 1868, Samarkand was ruled by the Manghyt emirs of Bukhara.[25]

The city came under Russian rule after the citadel had been taken by a force under Colonel Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman in 1868. Shortly thereafter the small Russian garrison of 500 men were themselves besieged. The assault, which was led by Abdul Malik Tura, the rebellious elder son of the Bukharan Emir, and Bek of Shahrisabz, was repelled with heavy losses. Alexander Abramov became the first Governor of the Military Okrug, which the Russians established along the course of the Zeravshan River, with Samarkand as the administrative centre. The Russian section of the city was built after this point, largely to the west of the old city.

In 1886, the city became the capital of the newly formed Samarkand Oblast of Russian Turkestan and grew in importance still further when the Trans-Caspian railway reached the city in 1888. It became the capital of the Uzbek SSR in 1925 before being replaced by Tashkent in 1930.

Main sights[edit]

View of the Registan

Architecture and Influences[edit]

Bibi Khanum[edit]

Timur initiated the building of Bibi Khanum after his campaign in India in 1398-1399. Before its reconstruction after an earthquake in 1897, Bibi Khanum had around 450 marble columns that were established with the help of 95 elephants that Timur had brought back from Hindustan. Also from India, artisans and stonemasons designed the mosque’s dome, giving it its distinctiveness amongst the other buildings.[18]

Gur-i Amir[edit]

The best-known structure in Samarkand is the mausoleum known as Gur-i Amir. It exhibits many cultures and influences from past civilizations, neighboring peoples, and especially those of Islam. Despite how much devastation the Mongols caused in the past to all of the Islamic architecture that had existed in the city prior to Timur's succession, much of the destroyed Islamic influences were revived, recreated, and restored under Timur. The blueprint and layout of the mosque itself follows the Islamic passion of geometry and other elements of the structure had been precisely measured. The entrance to the Gur-i Amir is decorated with Arabic calligraphy and inscriptions, the latter being a common feature in Islamic architecture. The attention to detail and meticulous nature of Timur is especially obvious when looking inside the building. Inside, the walls have been covered in tiles through a technique, originally developed in Iran, called “mosaic faience,” a process where each tile is cut, colored, and fit into place individually.[18] The tiles were also arranged in a specific way that would engrave words relating to the city's religiosity; words like "Muhammad" and "Allah" have been spelled out on the walls using the tiles.[18]

The ornaments and decorations of the walls include floral and vegetal symbols which are used to signify gardens. Gardens are commonly interpreted as paradise in the Islamic religion and they were both inscribed in tomb walls and grown in the city itself.[18] In the city of Samarkand, there were two major gardens, the New Garden and the Garden of Heart’s Delight, and these became the central areas of entertainment for ambassadors and important guests. A friend of Genghis Khan in 1218 named Yelü Chucai, reported that Samarkand was the most beautiful city of all where "it was surrounded by numerous gardens. Every household had a garden, and all the gardens were well designed, with canals and water fountains that supplied water to round or square-shaped ponds. The landscape included rows of willows and cypress trees, and peach and plum orchards were shoulder to shoulder."[26] The floors of the mausoleum is entirely covered with uninterrupted patterns of tiles of flowers, emphasizing the presence of Islam and Islamic art in the city. In addition, Persian carpets with floral printings have been found in some of the Timurid buildings.[27]

Turko-Mongol influence is also apparent in the architecture of the buildings in Samarkand. For instance, nomads previously used tents, or yurts, to display the bodies of the dead before they were to engage in proper burial procedures. Similarly, it is believed that the melon-shaped domes of the tomb chambers are imitations of those very yurts. Timur, naturally, used stronger materials, like bricks and wood, to establish these tents, but their purposes remain largely unchanged.[18]

The color of the buildings in Samarkand also has significant meaning behind it. For instance, blue is the most common and dominant color that will be found on the buildings, which was used by Timur in order to symbolize a large range of ideas. For one, the blue shades seen in the Gur-i Amir are colors of mourning. Blue was the color of mourning in Central Asia at the time, as it is in many cultures even today, and its dominance in the city's mausoleum appears to be a very rational idea. In addition, blue was also seen as the color that would ward off "the evil eye" in Central Asia and the notion is evident in the number of doors in and around the city that were colored blue during this time. Furthermore, blue was representative of water, which was a particularly rare resource around the Middle East and Central Asia; coloring the walls blue symbolized the wealth of the city.

Gold also has a strong presence in the city. Timur's fascination with vaulting explains the excessive use of gold in the Gur-i Amir as well as the use of embroidered gold fabric in both the city and his buildings. The Mongols had great interests in Chinese- and Persian-style golden silk textiles as well as nasij woven in Iran and Transoxiana. Past Mongol leaders, like Ogodei, built textile workshops in their cities in order to be able to produce gold fabrics themselves.

There is evidence that Timur tried to preserve his Mongol roots. In the chamber in which his body was laid, "tuqs" were found. "Tuqs" are poles with horses' tails hanging at the top, which was symbolic of an ancient Turkic tradition where horses, which were valuable commodities, were sacrificed in order to honor the dead.[18]

Climate[edit]

Samarkand features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa) that closely borders on a semi-arid climate with hot, dry summers and relatively wet, variable winters that alternate periods of warm weather with periods of cold weather. July and August are the hottest months of the year with temperatures reaching, and exceeding, 40 °C (104 °F). Most of the sparse precipitation is received from December through April. January 2008 was particularly cold, and the temperature dropped to −22 °C (−8 °F)[28]

Climate data for Samarkand
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.8
(73)
26.7
(80.1)
31.7
(89.1)
36.2
(97.2)
39.5
(103.1)
41.4
(106.5)
42.4
(108.3)
41.0
(105.8)
38.2
(100.8)
35.2
(95.4)
29.9
(85.8)
26.7
(80.1)
42.4
(108.3)
Average high °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
9.1
(48.4)
14.2
(57.6)
21.1
(70)
26.4
(79.5)
32.2
(90)
34.1
(93.4)
32.9
(91.2)
28.3
(82.9)
21.6
(70.9)
15.3
(59.5)
9.1
(48.4)
20.9
(69.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
3.6
(38.5)
8.5
(47.3)
14.9
(58.8)
19.8
(67.6)
25.0
(77)
26.7
(80.1)
25.2
(77.4)
20.1
(68.2)
13.6
(56.5)
8.4
(47.1)
3.8
(38.8)
14.3
(57.7)
Average low °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−0.5
(31.1)
4.0
(39.2)
9.4
(48.9)
13.5
(56.3)
17.4
(63.3)
18.9
(66)
17.4
(63.3)
12.7
(54.9)
7.2
(45)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
8.5
(47.3)
Record low °C (°F) −25.4
(−13.7)
−22
(−8)
−14.9
(5.2)
−6.8
(19.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
4.8
(40.6)
8.6
(47.5)
5.9
(42.6)
0.0
(32)
−6.4
(20.5)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−22.8
(−9)
−25.4
(−13.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
46
(1.81)
100
(3.94)
60
(2.36)
36
(1.42)
6
(0.24)
4
(0.16)
1
(0.04)
4
(0.16)
17
(0.67)
34
(1.34)
47
(1.85)
396
(15.59)
Avg. precipitation days 12.4 12.4 14.6 12.6 8.4 2.8 1.7 0.7 1.8 6.4 8.5 10.7 93
Avg. snowy days 9 7 3 0.3 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.3 2 6 28
 % humidity 76 74 70 63 55 42 42 43 47 59 68 74 60
Mean monthly sunshine hours 133.3 132.8 170.5 219.0 316.2 378.0 396.8 362.7 309.0 235.6 174.0 130.2 2,958.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net,[29] World Meteorological Organization (UN) (precipitation days only)[30]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[31]

Notable people[edit]

Stans08-252 (3135014536).jpg

Also said to be the place of death of Muhammad b. Isma'il al-Bukhari,[disambiguation needed] one of the six prominent collectors of hadith of Sunni Islam. See Sahih Bukhari

Popular culture[edit]

Bazaar in Samarkand, illustration by Léon Benett for a Jules Verne novel, reflecting the city's exotic image for 19th-century Europeans
  • Samarkand is the title of a 1988 novel by Amin Maalouf, about Omar Khayyám's life.
  • The Amulet of Samarkand is the first book in the Bartimaeus Trilogy written by Jonathan Stroud.
  • The Road to Samarcand is one of Patrick O'Brian's early novels (1954) about an American teenage boy, the son of recently deceased missionary parents, who travels from China with a small party on the Silk Road en route to the West.
  • For part of the history espoused in Clive Barker's novel Galilee, the city of Samarkand is held as a shining light of humanity, and one of the characters longs to go there.[32]
  • Lord of Samarcand is a work of historical fiction by Robert E. Howard.
  • In Sergei Lukyanenko's The Last Watch, the main character Anton Gorodetsky visits Samarkand as part of his investigation and the city's landmarks feature heavily.
  • Samarkand can appear as an archetype of romantic exoticism, notably in the work by James Elroy Flecker: The Golden Journey to Samarkand (1913).
  • In Islamic literature and discussions, Samarkand has taken on a semi-mythological status and is often cited as an ideal of Islamic philosophy and society, a place of justice, fairness, and righteous moderation.
  • Nigerian writer Wole Soyinka, winner of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature, explores the metaphysical significance of the marketplace in a volume of poetry entitled Samarkand and Other Markets I Have Known, 2002.
  • Embassy to Samarkand by Ali Bey (Ruy González de Clavijo) is a narrative of the journey to Samarkand by the Spanish nobleman Ruy González de Clavijo, who travelled disguised as a Syrian notable (Ali Beg or Bey in Spanish), sent by the king of Spain as ambassador to Timur in the late 1300s. The book was published in 1406 after González de Clavijo's return to the metropolis.
  • Murder in Samarkand by Craig Murray is a book about the UK Ambassador to Uzbekistan's experiences in this role, until he resigned over human rights abuses in the country in October 2004.
  • In 1972, Swedish composer Thorstein Bergman (sv) wrote "Om du nånsin kommer fram till Samarkand (sv)" ("If you ever reach Samarkand") made notable by Swedish singer Lill Lindfors in 1978.
  • The objective of the fourth mission in the Genghis Khan campaign of the video game Age of Empires 2 is to destroy the city of Samarkand.
  • The fictional city of Zanarkand in the Final Fantasy series used Samarkand as inspiration.[33]
  • Samarkand was referred to by George Bailey as a place he would like to visit in "It's a Wonderful Life."

International relations[edit]

Colour photograph of a Madrasa taken in Samarkand c. 1912 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky.
Fields near Samarkand

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Alexander Morrison, Russian Rule in Samarkand 1868-1910: A Comparison with British India (Oxford, OUP, 2008) (Oxford Historical Monographs).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Uzbekistan: Provinces, Major Cities & Towns - Statistics & Maps on City Population". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  2. ^ Энциклопедия туризма Кирилла и Мефодия. 2008.
  3. ^ "History of Samarkand". Sezamtravel. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites (2nd edition ed.). London: McFarland. p. 330. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3. Samarkand City, southeastern Uzbekistan. The city here was already named Marakanda, when captured by Alexander the Great in 329 B.C.. Its own name derives from the Sanskrit words samar, "stone", "rock", and kand, "fort", "town". 
  5. ^ a b Paul Bergne: The Birth of Tajikistan. National Identity and the Origins of the Republic. International Library of Central Asia Studies. I.B. Tauris. 2007. Pg. 106
  6. ^ Vladimir Babak, Demian Vaisman, Aryeh Wasserman, Political organization in Central Asia and Azerbaijan: sources and documents, p.374
  7. ^ Guidebook of history of Samarkand", ISBN 978-9943-01-139-7
  8. ^ Columbia-Lippincott Gazeteer (New York: Comubia University Press, 1972 reprint) p. 1657
  9. ^ Wood, Frances (2002). The Silk Road: two thousand years in the heart of Asia. London. 
  10. ^ Shichkina, G.V. (1994). "Ancient Samarkand: capital of Soghd". Bulletin of the Asia Institute 8: 83. 
  11. ^ Shichkina, G.V. (1994). "Ancient Samarkand: capital of Soghd". Bulletin of the Asia Institute 8: 86. 
  12. ^ a b Dumper, Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. California. p. 319. 
  13. ^ Dumper, Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. California. 
  14. ^ Whitfield, Susan (1999). Life Along the Silk Road. California: University of California Press. p. 33. 
  15. ^ Quraishi, Silim "A survey of the development of papermaking in Islamic Countries", Bookbinder, 1989 (3): 29–36.
  16. ^ Dumper, Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. California. p. 320. 
  17. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Ed., p. 204
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Marefat, Roya (Summer 1992). "The Heavenly City of Samarkand". The Wilson Quarterly 16 (3): 33–38. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  19. ^ Wood, Frances (2002). The Silk Roads: two thousand ears in the heart of Asia. Berkeley. pp. 136–7. 
  20. ^ a b Columbia-Lippincott Gazeteer, p. 1657
  21. ^ Le Strange, Guy (trans.) (1928). Clavijo: Embassy to Tamburlaine 1403-1406. London. p. 280. 
  22. ^ a b "Samarqand". Raw W Travels. Retrieved November 1, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Samarkand, Uzbekistan". Earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  24. ^ Britannica. 15th Ed., p. 204
  25. ^ Columbia-Lippincott Gazeteer. p. 1657
  26. ^ Liu, Xinru (2010). The Silk Road in world history. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516174-8. 
  27. ^ Cohn-Wiener, Ernst (June 1935). "An Unknown Timurid Building". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 66 (387): 272–273+277. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  28. ^ Samarkand.info. "Weather in Samarkand". Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  29. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Samarkand" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  30. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Samarkand". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Climatological Normals of Samarkand, Uzbekistan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  32. ^ Clive Barker, Galilee ISBN 0-00-617805-7rm
  33. ^ (2001) in Studio BentStuff: Final Fantasy X Ultimania Ω (in Japanese). DigiCube/Square Enix, 476. ISBN 4-88787-021-3.
  34. ^ "Самарқанд ва Флоренция биродар шаҳарларга айланди" (in Uzbek). www.kun.uz. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  35. ^ semerkanddergisi.com

External links[edit]


Preceded by
Gurganj
Capital of Khwarazmian Empire
1212–1220
Succeeded by
Ghazna
Preceded by
Tabriz
Capital of Iran (Persia)
1370–1501
Succeeded by
Tabriz
Preceded by
-
Capital of Timurid dynasty
1370–1505
Succeeded by
Herat