|Molar mass||256.76 g/mol (anhydrous)
364.80 g/mol (hexahydrate)
|Appearance||pale yellow solid (anhydrous)
cream-coloured solid (hexahydrate)
|Density||4.46 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.383 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
|Melting point||682 °C (1,260 °F; 955 K)|
|92.4 g/100 mL (10 °C)|
|Crystal structure||hexagonal, hP8|
|Space group||P63/m, No. 176|
|Tricapped trigonal prismatic
|Promethium(III) chloride, Europium(III) chloride|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Samarium(III) chloride, also known as samarium trichloride, is an inorganic compound of samarium and chloride. It is a pale yellow solid that rapidly absorbs water to form a hexahydrate, SmCl3.6H2O. The compound has few practical applications but is used in laboratories for research on new compounds of samarium.
Like several related chlorides of the lanthanides and actinides, SmCl3 crystallises in the UCl3 motif. The Sm3+ centres are nine-coordinate, occupying trigonal prismatic sites with additional chloride ligands occupying the three square faces.
Preparation and reactions
SmCl3 is prepared by the "ammonium chloride" route, which involves the initial synthesis of (NH4)2[SmCl5]. This material can be prepared from the common starting materials at reaction temperatures of 230 °C from samarium oxide:
- 10 NH4Cl + Sm2O3 → 2 (NH4)2[SmCl5] + 6 NH3 + 3 H2O
The pentachloride is then heated to 350-400 °C resulting in evolution of ammonium chloride and leaving a residue of the anhydrous trichloride:
- (NH4)2[SmCl5] → 2 NH4Cl + SmCl3
- 2 Sm + 6 HCl → 2 SmCl3 + 3 H2
- SmCl3 + 3 KF → SmF3 + 3 KCl
Samarium(III) chloride is used for the preparation of samarium metal, which has a variety of uses, notably in magnets. Anhydrous SmCl3 is mixed with sodium chloride or calcium chloride to give a low melting point eutectic mixture. Electrolysis of this molten salt solution gives the free metal.
Samarium(III) chloride can also be used as a starting point for the preparation of other samarium salts. The anhydrous chloride is used to prepare organometallic compounds of samarium, such as bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)alkylsamarium(III) complexes.
- F. T. Edelmann, P. Poremba (1997). W. A. Herrmann, ed. Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry 6. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag.
- Meyer, G. (1989). "The Ammonium Chloride Route to Anhydrous Rare Earth Chlorides-The Example of YCl3". Inorganic Syntheses 25: 146–150. doi:10.1002/9780470132562.ch35. ISBN 978-0-470-13256-2.
- L. F. Druding, J. D. Corbett (1961). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83 (11): 2462. doi:10.1021/ja01472a010. Missing or empty
- J. D. Corbett (1973). Rev. Chim. Minerale 10: 239. Missing or empty
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1984). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-022057-6.
- G. A. Molander, E. D. Dowdy (1999). Shu Kobayashi, ed. Lanthanides: Chemistry and Use in Organic Synthesis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 119–154. ISBN 3-540-64526-8.