Sambali language

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Sambali
Sambal
Native to Philippines
Region Zambales, Pangasinan, Metro Manila, Palawan
Native speakers
70,000  (2000)[1]
Official status
Regulated by Commission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-3 xsb
Glottolog tina1248[2]
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Area where Sambal is spoken
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Sambali or Sambal is a Sambalic language spoken primarily in the Zambal municipalities of Santa Cruz, Candelaria, Masinloc, Palauig, and Iba, and in the Pangasinense municipality of Infanta in the Philippines; speakers can also be found in Panitian, Quezon, Palawan and Barangay Mandaragat or Buncag of Puerto Princesa.[citation needed]

Sambal is also termed Tina in some references. However, the term is considered offensive to the language's speakers. The pejorative term was first used in around the period 1976 to 1979 by researchers from the Summer Institute of Linguistics (now SIL International).[3]

Name[edit]

The name Tina or Tina Sambal was used by Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) researchers 1976–1979.[4] It is considered pejorative by many Sambals as it means 'bleach', a pun in Sambal Botolan.[5][6] Sambals would not normally recognize the reference.[7]

Phonology[edit]

Sambali has 19 phonemes: 16 consonants and three vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple.

Vowels[edit]

Sambali has three vowels. They are:

There are five main diphthongs: /aɪ/, /uɪ/, /aʊ/, /ij/, and /iʊ/.

Consonants[edit]

Below is a chart of Tina consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Stops Voiceless p t k (-) [ʔ]
Voiced b d g
Affricates Voiceless (ts) [tʃ]
Voiced
Fricatives s h
Nasals m n ng [ŋ]
Laterals l
Flaps r
Semivowels w y [j]

Note: Consonants [d] and [ɾ] sometimes interchange, as they were once allophones. Dy is pronounced [dʒ], ny [ɲ], sy [ʃ], and ty [tʃ].

Stress[edit]

Stress is phonemic in Sambal. Stress on words is very important, they differentiate words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. hikó (I) and híko (elbow).

Historical sound changes[edit]

Many words pronounced with /s/ and /ɡ/ in Cebuano ang Tagalog are pronounced with /h/ and /j/, respectively, in their cognates in Tina. Compare hiko and ba-yo with the Tagalog siko and bago.

Grammar[edit]

Nouns[edit]

Zambal Pronouns[edit]

Common singular pronouns[edit]

ang, 'yung (iyong) – yay hikon-mong, ya-rin hikon-moy ng, n'ung (niyong) – nin kon-moyo Sa – ha Nasa – Ison ha (near), Itaw ha (far)

Common plural pronouns[edit]

ang mgá, 'yung mgá (iyong mgá) – yay + first letter of plural word + aw (e.g. yay bawbabayi – ang mga babae; yay lawlalaki – ang mga lalaki) ng mgá, n'ung mgá (niyong mgá) – nin yay + first letter of plural word + aw (e.g. nin bawbabayi – ng mga babae, nin lawlalaki – ng mga lalaki) sa mgá – ha first letter of plural word + aw (e.g. habawbabayi – sa mga babae, halawlalaki – sa mga ki) Nasa mga – Iti, ison, itaw + pronoun

Personal singular pronouns[edit]

Si – hi Ni – Ni Kay – Kun ni na kay – hikun

Personal plural[edit]

Sina – Hila Nina – ni Kina – Kun li Nakina – Hikunla

Note: In a general conversation, “hi” is usually omitted or contracted from the pronoun. E.g. Hikunla tana hiya rin (sa kanila na lang iyan) is simply ‘kunla tana ‘ya-rin or even shorter as ‘kunlay na rin.

Example: The man arrived. Dumating ang lalaki: 1) Nakalato hiyay lalaki or nakalato ‘yay lalaki or ‘yay tawo . 2) Linu-mato hiyay lalaki; or 3) Lin’mato ‘yay lalaki or ‘yay tawo.

Yay (referring to object) Hiyay (singular person) Hikamon (plural second person) Hilay (plural third person)

Nakita ni Juan si Maria – Na-kit ni Juan hi Maria. "John saw Mary." Note that in Philippine languages, even the names of people require an article.

Plural nominal article[edit]

Pupunta sina Elena at Roberto sa bahay ni Miguel. Maku-ko hila Elena tan Roberto ha bali ni Miguel.

Pupunta – maku-ko Papunta – ma-mako Punta – mako Pumupunta – ampako Pupuntahan – ampaku-tawan

"Helen and Robert will go to Miguel's house."

Nasaan ang mga aklat? Ayti yay lawlibro?

Na kay Tatay ang mga susi. Hikun niTatay yay sawsusi or ‘Kunni Tatay yay sawsusi. "Father has the keys."

Malusog ang sanggol. Maganda yay lalaman nya-nin makating/makalog. "That baby is healthy."

Pronouns (Panghalip)[edit]

Personal pronouns are categorized by case. The indirect forms also function as the genitive.

1st person singular Ako – hiko Ko – ko Akin – hikunko (shortened to ‘kunko)

1st person dual Kita – ta, kunta

1st person plural inclusive Tayo – hitamo or ‘tamo Natin – hikuntamo or ‘kuntamo Atin – hikuntamo or ‘kuntamo

1st person plural exclusive Kami – hikami or ‘kami Namin – mi Amin – hikunmi or ‘kunmi

2nd person singular ikáw – hika mo – mo iyó – hikunmo or ‘kunmo 2nd person plural Kayo – hikamo or ‘kamo Ninyo –moyo Inyo – hikunmoyo or ‘kunmoyo

3rd person singular Siya – hiya Niya – naya Kaniya – hikunnaya or ‘kunnaya

3rd person plural Silá – hila Nilá – la Kanilá – hikunla or ‘kunla

Examples: Sulat is hulat (Masinloc) or sulat (Sta. Cruz) Sumulat ako. Humulat ko or Sumulat ko. "I wrote."

Sinulatan ako ng liham. Hinulatan nya hiko or hinulatan nya’ ko. "He/She wrote me a letter." Hinomulat ya ‘kunko, nanulat ya kunko, or hinulatan mya ko.

Ibibigay ko sa kaniyá. Ebi ko ‘kunna (hikuna). "I will give it to him/her."

Genitive pronouns follow the word they modify. Oblique pronouns can take the place of the genitive pronoun but they precede the word they modify.

Ang bahay ko. Yay bali ko. Ang aking bahay. Yay ‘kunkon bali. "My house."

Demonstrative Pronouns[edit]

Enclitic Particles[edit]

Existential[edit]

Interrogative Words[edit]

Sambal – Tagalog – English

Ayti – Saan – Where Ania - Ano - What Anongkot - Bakit

Sample texts[edit]

Philippine national proverb[edit]

Below is a translation in Sambal of the Philippine national proverb[8] “He who does not acknowledge his beginnings will not reach his destination,” followed by the original in Tagalog.

  • Sambal: “Hay kay tanda mamanomtom ha pinangibatan, kay maka-lato ha ampako-taw-an.”
  • Tagalog: “Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.”

The Lord’s Prayer[edit]

Version from Matthew[edit]

Ama mi a ison ha langit,
sambawon a ngalan mo.
Ma-kit mi na komon a pa-mag-ari mo.
Ma-honol komon a kalabayan mo iti ha lota
a bilang anamaot ison ha langit.
Biyan mo kami komon nin
pa-mangan mi para konan yadtin awlo;
tan patawaron mo kami komon ha kawkasalanan mi
a bilang anamaot ha pa-matawad mi
konlan ampagkasalanan komi.
Tan komon ando mo aboloyan a matokso kami,
nokay masbali ipa-lilih mo kamin kay makagawa doka,
ta ikon moy kaarian, kapangyarian tan karangalan a homin
panganggawan. Amen.[9]

Version from Luke[edit]

Ama mi, maipatnag komon a banal mon kapangyarian.
Lomato ana komon a awlon sikay mag-ari.
Biyan mo kamin pa-mangan mi sa inawlo-awlo.
Inga-rowan mo kami sa kawkasalanan mi bilang
pa-nginganga-ro mi konlan nagkasalanan komi
tan ando mo kami aboloyan manabo sa tokso.
Wamoyo.[9]

Examples[edit]

Loan words[edit]

Numbers[edit]

Common expressions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sambali at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tina Sambal". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Call Me Sambal – Don't Call Me Tina
  4. ^ http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/sipl/SIPL_2-2_032-034.pdf
  5. ^ Don't Call Me Tina
  6. ^ http://angsambal.wordpress.com/2010/12/16/call-me-sambal/
  7. ^ [1] (p. 84)
  8. ^ National Philippine Proverb in Various Philippine Languages
  9. ^ a b Sambal, Tina

External links[edit]