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Sambir (Ukrainian: Самбір, Polish: Sambor) is a city in the Lviv Oblast, Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Sambir Raion (district), the city itself is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast. It is located at around , close to the border with Poland.
||It has been suggested that History of Sambir be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since September 2012.|
The settlement called Pohonych was first mentioned in the 13th century, when it was destroyed by the Tatars. The inhabitants founded a new village, called New Sambir, about two km (1.2 miles) from the old place. On 13 December 1390, the village was granted the Magdeburg rights, and was then owned by voivode Spytek of Melsztyn. On 5 June 1419 Polish King Władysław Jagiełło built there a wooden castle. In 1498, the city was destroyed by the Tatars, and because of that, King Jan I Olbracht released it from taxes. In 1637, the city partly burnt down, together with a local church. Famous Ukrainian cossacks - hetman Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny and Yuriy Kulchytsky were born 7 km (4.35 mi) away from the city - in the village of Kulchytsi. Petro Sagaydachnyi played a major role in helping the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth win battle of Khotyn (1621), and led a large Cossack regiment in the war with Moscow.
In 1772, Sambir was annexed by the Austrian Empire (see: Partitions of Poland), and it remained part of that country until 1918, when the area of the city saw Polish - Ukrainian fights over Eastern Galicia.
In 1919, Sambir, known in Polish as Sambor, became part of the Second Polish Republic, until its 1939 annexation by the Soviet Union (see Polish September Campaign). From 1941 to 1944, Nazi Germany occupied the town and in June 1943 declared it 'Judenrein'. After World War II, it was taken over by the Soviets, formally joining the Ukrainian SSR. It was home to Sambir air base during the Cold War. It has been part of independent Ukraine since 1991.
Sambir was home for number of famous Ukrainian writers, poets, and actors, including:
- Wladyslaw Abraham (1860 - 1941) - Polish lawyer and scientist, father of Roman Abraham,
- Wlodzimierz Antoniewicz (1893 - 1973) - Polish archaeologist, rector of the University of Warsaw,
- Wiktor Bieganski (1892 – 1974) - Polish actor, film director and screenwriter,
- Wladyslaw Byrka (1878 - 1945) - Polish lawyer, economist and politician. Chairman of PKO Bank Polski, deputy speaker of the Sejm,
- Tadeusz Dobrzanski (1916 - 1996) - Polish composer and conductor,
- Edward Fierich (1817 - 1896) - Polish lawyer, rector of the Jagiellonian University,
- Maurycy Kabat (1814 - 1890) - Polish lawyer, rector of the Lwow University,
- Stefan Kaczmarz (1895 - 1939) - Polish mathematician,
- Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny
- Les Kurbas (1887–1937) - Ukrainian movie and theater director,
- Juliusz Makarewicz (1872 - 1955) - senator in the Second Polish Republic, legal expert, professor of Lwow University,
- Maciej Prus (born 1937) - Polish actor and theatre director,
- Artur Sandauer (1913- 1989) - Polish literary critic, translator, professor of Warsaw University,
- Jozef Skowyra (born 1941) - Polish politician, deputy to the Sejm,
- Kasper Twardowski (1583 - 1641) - Polish poet,
- Seweryn Widt (1862 - 1912) - Polish engineer, professor of Lwow Polytechnic,
- Dominik Zbrozek (1832 - 1889) - Polish engineer and politician, professor of Lwow Polytechnic.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Sambir is twinned with:
- (Polish) Sambor (Sambir) in Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland (1889)
- Sambor history
- Sambor history and photos (in Polish)
- The Book of Sambor and Stari Sambor; a Memorial to the Jewish Communities