Recognition of same-sex unions in Mexico
In Mexico, only civil marriages are recognized by the law, and all its proceedings fall under state legislation. Same-sex marriage is legally performed in Mexico City and in the states of Quintana Roo and Coahuila, but explicitly banned in the state of Yucatán (although the prohibition is limited to its performance within state boundaries, not its recognition, and it is still being challenged in the Mexican courts). In addition, same-sex couples have been able to marry in individual cases in Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, State of Mexico, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Veracruz, and Yucatán. Same-sex civil unions are legally performed in Mexico City and in the states of Coahuila, Colima, Jalisco, and Campeche. Since August 2010, same-sex marriages performed within Mexico are recognized by the 31 states without exception, and fundamental spousal rights (such as alimony payments, inheritance rights, and the coverage of spouses by the federal social security system) also apply to same-sex couples across the country.
In late November 2009, the leading party at the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District (ALDF), the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), announced that it was fine-tuning an amendment to the civil code to legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico City, a project endorsed by the local head of government, Marcelo Ebrard, but strongly opposed by the second largest political force in the country, the right-of-center National Action Party (PAN) and the Roman Catholic Church. The bill found support from over 600 non-governmental organizations, including the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) and Amnesty International (AI). On 21 December 2009, Mexico City became the first Latin American jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage. The law became effective on 4 March 2010.
On 5 August 2010, the Supreme Court voted 8-2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law. The Court later ruled on 10 August 2010, that Mexico City marriages are valid throughout the entire country.
On 28 November 2011, the first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after discovering that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did not explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage, but these marriages were later annulled by the governor of Quintana Roo in April 2012. In May 2012, the secretary of state of Quintana Roo reversed the annulments and allowed for future same-sex marriages to be performed in the state.
The 2012 Oaxaca case was pivotal in opening the door to legal same-sex marriage in every state in Mexico, through the injunction (amparo) process. Using international decisions, whose verdicts serve as legal precedent in Mexican courts, like the protections in the American Convention on Human Rights Karen Atala Riffo y Niñas v. Chile case, the U.S. cases Loving v. Virginia and Brown v. Board of Education and Mexico's own anti-discrimination ordinances, they ruled 5 December 2012 that: 1) Laws limiting marriage to one man and one woman, or for the purposes of perpetuating the species, violated federal law requiring that they "correspond to all persons without any distinction" and 2) That such laws were unconstitutional on the basis of discrimination by sexual orientation and usurpation of the right, not only of the individual but also the couple's right, to form a family. Barring legislative will to change State laws, a provision in the Mexican Code allows that five rulings in a state with the same outcome on the same issue override a statute and establish the legal jurisprudence to overturn it. Thus, marriages obtained by injunction could be performed in any state, regardless of whether the state Civil Code had been changed. It is also important to notice that a same sex marriage performed in any state is valid in all of the other states in Mexico, even if any particular state has no laws that allow it, according to federal law.
A landmark decision, issued on 29 January 2014, was the first injunction for marriage recognition in Puebla. The case involved a same-sex couple who legally married in Mexico City in 2012 and filed for spousal benefits with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in the state of Puebla, but were denied. Because the complainant died during the injunction process, a lower court had dismissed the case, but the Supreme Court of the Nation, granted the injunction and ordered recognition of the marriage by both the state of Puebla and the IMSS. The injunction will require IMSS to extend benefits equal to married heterosexual couples' benefits to gays and lesbians who are married or have entered into civil unions throughout Mexico.
- 1 Same-sex marriage
- 1.1 Mexico City (Federal District)
- 1.2 Aguascalientes
- 1.3 Baja California
- 1.4 Baja California Sur
- 1.5 Campeche
- 1.6 Chiapas
- 1.7 Chihuahua
- 1.8 Coahuila
- 1.9 Colima
- 1.10 Durango
- 1.11 Guanajuato
- 1.12 Guerrero
- 1.13 Hidalgo
- 1.14 Jalisco
- 1.15 State of México
- 1.16 Michoacán
- 1.17 Morelos
- 1.18 Nayarit
- 1.19 Nuevo León
- 1.20 Oaxaca
- 1.21 Puebla
- 1.22 Querétaro
- 1.23 Quintana Roo
- 1.24 San Luis Potosí
- 1.25 Sinaloa
- 1.26 Sonora
- 1.27 Tabasco
- 1.28 Tamaulipas
- 1.29 Tlaxcala
- 1.30 Veracruz
- 1.31 Yucatán
- 2 Civil unions
- 3 Public opinion
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Mexico City (Federal District)
On 24 November 2009, PRD assemblyman David Razú proposed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico City. Luis González Plascencia, chairman of the Humans Rights Commission of Mexico City, backed the bill and said that it was up to the Legislative Assembly to consider LGBT adoption. The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), International Amnesty (AI), the AIDS Healthcare Foundation and over 600 non-governmental organizations supported the legalization of same-sex marriage in Mexico City. The PAN has announced it will either go to the courts to appeal the law or demand a referendum. However, a referendum on same-sex marriage was rejected by the Legislative Assembly in a 36-22 vote on 18 December 2009. On 21 December 2009, the Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriage (39-20) in Mexico City. The bill changes the definition of marriage in the city's Civil Code from "a free union between a man and a woman" to "a free union between two people." The law would grant same-sex couples the same rights as opposite-sex couples, including adopting children. The PAN vowed to challenge the law in the courts. On 29 December 2009, Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard signed the bill into law, which became effective on 4 March 2010. On 5 August, the Supreme Court voted 8–2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law. The Court ruled on 10 August 2010, that Mexico City marriages are valid throughout the country.
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In May 2014, a male same-sex couple requested an injunction against the Registry in Aguascalientes for refusing to allow them to marry and against the constitutionality of sections 143 and 144 of the Civil Code. The injunction 1015/14 was approved 29 August 2014. A lesbian couple also applied for an amparo in May and received a favorable response 2 September 2014. 1 September 2014 Julián Elizalde Peña, coordinator of the organization, Collective SerGay of Aguascalientes, announced a third injunction had been requested. 3 September 2014, the first same-sex wedding was held in Aguascalientes. 13 October 2014 Elizalde Peña announced that a fourth individual amparo is pending and that a collective injunction is in process.
In September 2014, Cuauhtemoc Escobedo Tejada, legislative member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced that a civil unions bill and possibly a same-sex marriage initiative were to be introduced by the Governor of the state for consideration. Escobeda Tejada further announced that if the Governor did not introduce a bill, the PRD would. On 4 November 2014, Escobedo presented a Civil Unions initiative arguing that "marriage means protection to the mother, matrem, monium, protect, care for the mother," which is an insufficient concept for a civil contract which defines a partnership for "living together, forming a heritage, having children if they wish, and dealing with situations that arise for a couple." He acknowledged that a citizen's initiative on marriage equality had been presented a few weeks prior to his initiative. Debate on three initiatives with different schemes for marriage and civil unions began on 21 November 2014.
On 18 March 2013, a male same sex couple applied to marry in Ensenada, Baja California. They were denied on the 21st and filed for an amparo 12 April 2014. On 31 October 2014 the Seventh District Court ordered the City of Ensenada to allow their marriage, which had been denied by the registrar a year and a half earlier.
On 17 June 2013, a male same-sex couple were denied the right to marry in Mexicali and applied for an injunction. The injunction was approved in October 2013, but was appealed by the Registrar to the Supreme Court. On 25 June 2014 the initial injunction was upheld and Mexico's Supreme Court deemed the state's marriage ban unconstitutional. On 31 October 2014, the officer of civil registrar of Mexicali, Adriana Guadalupe Ramirez, notified the couple the decision would not be appealed, the refusal was withdrawn, and the marriage could proceed. Though Ramirez scheduled the ceremony for 21 November 2014, when the couple appeared in the Wedding Hall to marry, the judge refused to perform the ceremony and the celebrants were evacuated after a bomb threat was received. The Civil Registry claimed that discrepancies in documents had been rectified and announced a rescheduling of the wedding for 17 January 2015.
On 6 August 2013 a lesbian couple were denied marriage by the Civil Registrar in Mexicali and filed for an injunction. They received notice of their approval 524/2013 on 30 December 2013. On 26 August 2014, the lesbian couple became the first same-sex couple to legally marry in the state.
Three additional injunctions to create the jurisprudence for the law to be changed have been scheduled for filing in September 2014.
Baja California Sur
On 9 April 2010 the organization La Comunidad Sudcaliforniana en Diversidad Sexual proposed reforms to the Civil Code to allow for same-sex marriage and adoption. No action was taken by the legislature, as in both 2013 and 2014, local politicians deflected the issue saying that the public must be consulted. Even after the granting of the collective amparo, the members of the local Congress advised that the issue of gay marriage had not been discussed and was not on the legislative agenda.
In August 2014, 14 women and 4 men requested a collective injunction against Articles 330 and 150 of the Baja California Sur Civil Code, which bans same-sex marriage. On 21 October 2014, the first amparo in Baja California Sur was granted declaring articles 330 and 150 of the Civil Code unconstitutional, according to the lawyer who represented the couples. On 27 November 2014, a group of 20 members of the LGBT community of BCS presented an injunction for equal marriage in La Paz.
On 31 March 2014, a lesbian couple applied for marriage in Campeche but were denied in April 2014 based on a decision that same-sex couples must join via the state's Civil Union provisions. In July 2014, Mexico's Supreme Court denied them an injunction, but declared the current marriage laws were unconstitutional and told the local government that they must modify their Civil Code to allow same-sex marriages. It was later announced that the couple could marry after a district judge granted them an injunction, but the law must still be revised. PAN has said it will abide by the ruling. The couple was married on 30 August 2014. In September 2014 the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced that 16 persons, 10 from Campeche and 6 from Cuidad del Carmen have filed for injunctions and that analysis of changing the marriage statues is in progress.
Various LGBT activist groups delivered documents to the executive and legislative branches of government and the State Board of Human Rights on 15 February 2012 recommending amendments to the marriage laws of Chiapas to comply with federal anti-discrimination provisions. 29 November 2013, Diego Cadenas Gordillo, acting as a human rights activist, sent a bill to legalize same-sex marriage and reform the Civil Code and Civil Procedure for the state. The proposal was rejected on 13 December 2013, citing that "popular initiatives" must be supported by 1.5% of the electorate, or 50,500 voters. 3 January 2014 an injunction was filed before a federal judge because of the refusal of Congress to act on the initiative. The judge denied the injunction against the Civil Code and an appeal was filed in the Twentieth Circuit Court. In November 2014, the activist and lawyer Diego Cadenas Gordillo filed a request for formal intervention by the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR), claiming that the state legislature, the governor, nor the State Commission of Human Rights had responded to the discriminatory laws banning same-sex marriage in Chiapas.
After January 2014 clashes between the mayor of Chilo, Chiapas and religious groups, activists filed a complaint with the National Commission on Prevention of Discrimination (Conapred). 27 March 2014, the Hon Alejandra Ruiz Soriano, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) filed an initiative to amend 19 articles of the Civil Code and 15 articles of the Code of Civil Procedure, to incorporate the concept of marriage as "the free union of two people for the community of life, where both respect, equality and mutual aid are sought." In addition, it also standardized the concept of cohabitation, disregarding a person's sexual preference.
On 25 September 2014, a collective injunction was filed for marriage equality.
In December 2012, several human rights defenders and LGBT community agencies presented lawmakers with a proposal to amend Article 143 of the Civil Code of the State of Chihuahua, granting marriage equality. After years with no legislative action, in July 2014, the PAN bloc announced that they would consider approving Civil Unions but not equal marriage, in the state. The LGBT community rejected the proposal because it does not provide the possibility for the spouses to share social security benefits or pensions, among other benefits of marriage. In response to legislative inaction, a collective injunction was filed in July 2014 with the aim of having the Civil Code declared "unconstitutional." 30 September 2014 PT Deputy América Aguilar Gil announced that legislation similar to that which passed in Coahuila had been introduced to Congress. The collective injunction #3937-2014 was approved 13 November 2014 and declared Articles 134 and 135 of the Civil Code of the State of Chihuahua unconstitutional. It required reparations to the couples and the State Legislature to legislate for equal marriage.
On 30 April 2013, a male same-sex couple asked the Civil Registrar of Chihuahua to marry. The Civil Registrar rejected it because the State Constitution defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman. On 7 May 2013, the couple appealed the decision of the Civil Registar and on 19 August, judge, José Juan Múzquiz Gómez, of the Tenth District Court of the Chihuahua State recognized that they have the right to marry. The Civil Registar had up to 3 September to appeal the decision. The government of the state did not appeal the decision and allowed the deadline to pass, thereby allowing the couple to marry. On 31 October 2013, the second couple in the state and first lesbian couple was awarded an injunction 389/2013 in the 7th District Court. In February 2014, they married and were the first gay marriage in the city of Juárez. On 22 November 2013 the eighth District Judge Ignacio Cuenca Zamora, granted the third injunction to a lesbian couple. In December 2013, the fourth couple in Chihuahua were granted an injunction. They were first male couple to marry in Juárez and solemnized their marriage on 13 February 2014. In February 2014, the fifth individual injunction to marry in Chihuahua was granted to Hiram Gonzalez, president of the Center for Humanistic Grouping Related to Sexual Orientation Studies (CHEROS).
On 19 March 2014 seven lesbian couples applied for marriage at the 5th Civil Registry, were rejected, and applied for an injunction. On 30 June 2014 six additional couples filed a collective complaint. In July 2014, a same-sex couple were granted the right to marry via injunction, but the judge gave no instructions for reform to the Congress, Civil Registry or the Governor of the State. Unsatisfied with the scope of the judgment, an appeal was launched on 16 July 2014. On 17 October 2014 the case was elevated to the Supreme Court and is the first hearing of an equality case from Chihuahua presented to the high court. In mid-August 2014, the 6th same-sex marriage was held in Chihuahua. On 20 August 2014 the seventh same-sex marriage occurred in the state. There have been four marriages in Cuidad Juárez and three in the City of Chihuahua in 2014. However, as of July 2014, 33 amparos have been filed in the state, 22 in the capital and 11 in Ciudad Juárez, and nine have been approved. On 13 December 2014, a mass wedding for same-sex four lesbian couples who had obtained injunctions was held in Cuidad Juárez, which brought the total of same-sex weddings in the state to 14 for 2014.
On 5 March 2013 Congressman Samuel Acevedo Flores, Social Democratic Party, introduced a bill to the Congress of Coahuila to legalize same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples. 11 February 2014, Congress approved adoptions by same-sex couples with a vote of 23 in favor and two against (National Action Party and Democratic Unity of Coahuila); however, debate on marriage equality continued. On 8 August 2014, the Congress in Saltillo again began discussions regarding same-sex marriage. The bill passed on 1 September 2014 making it the second state to reform its Civil Code and third district where a couple may marry without an injunction. It took effect on 17 September, and the first couple married on 20 September.
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On 22 January 2013 the Civil Registry in Cuauhtémoc received a request from a gay couple to marry. After a team of lawyers reviewed the petition, on 27 February 2013, basing the decision on the declaration of the unconstitutionality of discriminatory laws, mayor Vizcaíno Indira Silva, from the municipality of Cuauhtémoc, granted the first same-sex marriage license in Colima. On 25 March 2013, the second same-sex marriage, and first lesbian union occurred. A third same-sex marriage in Cuauhtémoc was held on 4 April 2013 for a lesbian couple and the registrar announced at that time there were 20 to 30 marriages scheduled on the calendar. On 9 June 2013, a male gay couple was granted an injunction to marry in Colima, making the state the second in Mexico to win the right to marriage via "amparo" (injunction).
On 14 June 2013, Rosa Lilia Vargas Valle, a judge of the Second District Court of the Colima State, ruled that the Colima Civil Code is unconstitutional in limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples.
On 4 July 2013 the state congress approved an amendment to Article 147 of the constitution which formalized same-sex civil unions. Within 30 days, seven of Colima's ten municipalities approved the change to the civil code. An appeal to the changes was filed and the Supreme Court of the Nation agreed in August 2014 to review it. Deliberations began at the Supreme Court in September 2014 to determine whether the new Civil Code which provides only "wedlock" for same-sex couples and "marriage" to opposite-sex couples is discrimination via sexual orientation.
In September 2013 PRD deputy in Durango, Israel Soto Peña, introduced a bill to legalize same sex marriage in the state. As no action had been taken on the bill, in February 2014, he requested that it be expedited. On 10 April 2014, the bill was rejected claiming that it would not sufficiently address the legal changes necessary to correct the Civil Code. In May, Soto Peña announced that he would revamp the initiative and resubmit it, which he did on 1 November 2014.
In December 2013 the first same-sex male couple was able to marry in Durango after obtaining an injunction. It was appealed and the Supreme Court of the Nation ruled in favor of the couple. 13 November 2014 it was announced that 18 people had filed an injunction in Durango against the civil code defining marriage as only the union between a man and a woman. A first hearing is scheduled for 27 November 2014. On 28 November 2014, the State Congress and Government rejected the injunction stating that challenges to the Civil Code had to be made within 30 days of it being enacted thus were 66 years too late. In that regard, activists then escalated the injunction request to the Supreme Court of the Nation.
On 14 February 2014, a lesbian couple who sued the state of Guanajuato was approved for an injunction to marry. 19 March 2014, the couple became the first same-sex couple to marry in the state.
On 4 March 2014 Guillermo Romo Méndez, PRI deputy in Guanajuato, agreed to assist a group of 45 gay couples in submitting individual amparos to register their marriages in the state. 33 couples from Léon, 12 from Silao, 40 male same-sex couples and 5 lesbian couples made up the group of 45. 19 March 2014 the first collective injunction for Guanajuato was filed for 30 couples in Léon. 16 September 2014, it was announced by the Association of Human Development and Sexuality in Irapuato that a collective amparo of 320 persons was to be filed.
In response to the first amparo approval, on 21 February 2014, the PRD introduced a bill to the Congress to amend the Civil Code of the State so that marriages between same sex are allowed. The plan was endorsed by the PRI on 26 February 2014.
Gay rights legislation that could likely include civil unions was being debated in Guerrero in 2009, but the legislation stalled. In 2014, gay rights organizations were still pressing the legislature to approve same sex marriage and adoption.
Though the couple announced they would marry on 28 September 2013, the first same-sex marriage in the state of Guerrero, was held 5 June 2014 in the town of Teloloapan, witnessed by the mayor, Ignacio Valladares. Valladares approved the couple's request for marriage based upon the Supreme Court of Justice's ruling that prohibiting same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. However, Guerrero's Civil Code does not allow for same-sex marriage. Lawyers in the state declared the marriage was both illegal and void and indicated that the mayor could be prosecuted and an appeal filed with the Supreme Court for not following the injunction procedure.
On 20 December, 2014 the first same sex ceremony was held in the city of Chilapa de Álvarez, Guerrero, Mexico, though the civil marriage was conducted in Iztapalapa in Mexico City. The couple expressed that they felt it was important for them to have a celebration complete with rings from their godparents, vows, and a toast with their friends and families in the city where they live and work, to help other same-sex people gain societal acceptance.
A domestic partnership act was introduced in Hidalgo in 2007  but stalled in the legislature as well as in successive congresses. In October 2013, the legislature indicated there was not sufficient "maturity" in the society to accept marriage equality and that the legislature would instead consider a conjugal partnership bill.
Due to the lack of legislative action, on 8 August 2014, a collective injunction for 6 LGBT people was presented to the twenty-ninth circuit of the Third District Court for the state of Hidalgo to contest the constitutionality of Articles 8, 11 and 143 of the Family Code and secure the right to marry.
A female same-sex couple was able to become the first same-sex couple to marry in the state on 14 December 2013. In December 2013, 12 couples of the same sex—eight women and four men—filed an injunction after being denied marriage. The injunction was granted 12 June 2014 and became the 2nd ruling invalidating the Civil Code of Jalisco. In January 2014 a male couple went to the Civil Registry in Guadalajara and were denied marriage based on Article 258 of the State Civil Code, which limits marriage to one man and one woman. They filed for an injunction in the Fourth District Court. On 24 March 2014, ten same-sex couples, went to the registry office in Guadelajara and were denied their request for marriage. With the support of CLADEM they filed for an injunction.
State of México
In 2008, an initiative for Civil Unions was launched in the State of México, but never advanced. In 2010, a citizen's initiative was presented to Congress for same-sex marriages. After 3 years, it had not been reviewed and thus in mid-2013 PRD deputy, Octavio Martinez, introduced a measure. In January 2014 Martinez advised the PRD would continue to press for marriage equality and insist that it be discussed by Congress.
On 15 February 2013, four same-sex couples filed documents to marry at the Civil Registry of Toluca and after their refusal, filed for an "amparo." On 24 June 2013, a federal judge granted the injunction ruling that the Civil Code of the state prohibiting their marriages was discriminatory, but the state filed an appeal. The appellate Court on Administrative Matters of the Second Circuit in the State, declared itself unable to resolve the dispute in January 2014, whereupon it was escalated to the State Supreme Court. Disposition of the case was set for 6 November 2014, however, the judge postponed the decision for an additional ten days.
On 13 November 2006, it was announced that civil unions bill for Michoacán, would be formally proposed. However, as of August 2009, it stalled, meaning was not discussed by the local congress. After marriage was passed in the Federal District, the PRD announced it would propose bills for equal marriage and same-sex adoption, along with same-sex civil unions (Law for Coexistence Partnerships) in 2010. A bill was submitted in March 2010 by the Grupo de Facto Diversidad Sexual, which proposed both marriage and cohabitation, but did not mention same-sex adoption. As with the previous proposal, it stalled.
After 4 years of legal processes, on 5 March 2014, a federal court ruled that a lesbian couple could marry. It was the first case in Mexico which was not elevated to the Supreme Court. The couple married on 12 March 2014. On 6 May 2014, it was announced that a second lesbian couple had obtained an injunction and seven more cases were pending. They married on 16 May 2014 and subsequently on 15 August 2014 filed the registration of their twin children's birth, which registration also had been approved by an injunction. It was the first registration in the state of a child born to a same-sex couple. Gerardo Herrera Pérez, leader of Grupo Facto de Diversidad Sexual en Michoacán, announced the collections of 100 signatures for a collective amparo in Michoacán in September 2014 and initiation of the first same-sex adoption in the state by a couple who are from Michoacán, but were married in Mexico City.
In Morelos, bills concerning same-sex marriage and adoption by same-sex couples were to be proposed by the Labor Party (PT) in mid-2010. The proposal was rejected by PAN in February 2010. A subsequent proposal was also rejected in March 2013. On 30 July 2013 The Civil Partnership Equity and Community Participation asked a federal court to rule in favor of marriage equality in Morelos. The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced in July 2014 that a vote on marriage equality will occur in September 2014. On 19 September 2014, civil society organizations including members of the Lesbian and Gay Collective in Morelos launched impeachment procedures against the members of the Committee on Constitutional Issues for failure to follow Article 54 of the Internal Regulations of Congress. The impeachment proceeding declares the same-sex marriage initiative has been in committee for 20 months, but the committee is legally required to submit, to the full Congress within 60 days, their recommendations and analysis on initiatives.
On 28 August 2013 a gay couple applied to marry in Morelos through an injunction. In January 2014, the injunction 1202/2013-IV, was granted by the judge of the Second District in Morelos, who ordered the Civil Registry 1 Xochitepec, to process the marriage application. They planned to marry on 17 May 2014. In January 2014, another gay couple began the process and in July were granted an injunction to marry. An appeal was launched, but after losing the appeal, the Registrar performed the marriage ceremony for the first same-sex marriage in the town of Ayala on 6 September 2014. Marquez Edgar Ortega, director of Care for Sexual Diversity, announced at the wedding that six shelters have been requested in Moreos. On 29 October 2014 a lesbian couple married in Cuernavaca.
In July 2014, a male same-sex couple was allowed to hold Nayarit's first gay wedding after a year of legal work. On 8 July, a federal judge ruled the ban unconstitutional. The couple married in the state's capital of Tepic. Four lesbian couples requested injunctions after being denied by the Civil Registry in early July 2014. On 31 October 2014, it was announced by the Civil Association CODISE that nine couples were awaiting decisions on injunctions. On 3 November 2014 a second lesbian couple married in Tepic after being granted an injunction. On 13 November 2014, the third same-sex marriage was held in Tepic for a lesbian couple who gained an amparo on 22 October 2014. The 4th same-sex marriage in Nayarit took place in the second week of December, 2014, marking the third lesbian union in the state.
In September 2013, a federal judge ordered the Civil Registry of Nuevo León to register the marriage of a female same-sex couple. Governor Rodrigo Medina said his administration would abide by the order, but only for that specific case. On 13 November 2013 a male same-sex couple went to the Civil Registry Administrative Office 4 in San Pedro, Nuevo León, made an application for marriage  and were told to expect a response within one week. In December 2013, they filed a complaint at the headquarters of the Ombudsman in the State Commission on Human Rights against the Registry for failure to provide them with an official response. In June 2014, Mariaurora Mota, the legal representative of Strategic Litigation, reported that nine injunctions have been filed in the state, but only one has been resolved. The State Constitutional Court will hold a hearing on 12 September 2014, to rule on an "amparo" filed by 50 members of the LGBT community claiming discrimination against their human rights contained in Articles 147 and 291 of the Civil Code for the State of Nuevo León. On 16 October 2014 the Supreme Court declared articles 147 and 219 of the Civil Code of the state unconstitutional and granted an injunction to 48 applicants for same-sex marriages.
As of 26 August 2012, a Mexican federal court judge has ordered the state of Oaxaca to perform same-sex marriages based on a recent constitutional amendment which bans discrimination based on sexual orientation. This ruling was reviewed by the Mexican Supreme Court and the Court issued a unanimous ruling overturning the ban on same-sex marriage.
In August 2011 three same-sex couples, four women and two men, applied to be married and were denied by the Civil Registry in Oaxaca. In January 2012 an injunction was sought, but was denied on 31 January. The couples appealed the judgment to the Collegiate Courts in Civil and Administrative Matters for the State. On 9 April 2012, one of the lesbian couples was granted permission by a judge to marry in Oaxaca, thus becoming the first approval for same-sex marriage in the state. The case was appealed. On 5 December 2012 the three couples won their appeal from the Supreme Court, but local officials refused to perform the marriages. The case returned to the Supreme Court and an additional ruling in favor of the couples was issued. The first lesbian couple received authorization to marry from the Civil Registrar on 25 February 2013. They were the first same-sex couple married in Oaxaca and celebrated their marriage on 22 March 2013. The male couple, received notice of their authorization on 3 June 2013 and on 5 June 2013, the third couple, the second injunction for a lesbian couple, was authorized. On 23 April 2014, the Mexican Supreme Court set further precedent in the State of Oaxaca. The case brought before the Court involved 39 same-sex couples who sought the right to marry, and marked the fourth of five necessary decisions. It was announced in November 2014 that a fourth same-sex marriage had been performed.
7 March 2013 a group of activists presented to the Legislature of Puebla a proposal, "The Law of Agnès Torres," which aimed at transforming Articles 831, 931, 932 and 935 of the Civil Code of Puebla and Article 751 of the Code of Civil Procedure to allow legal identity documents which are consistent with the personality and sex/gender identity of personal choice and protect LGBT citizens against discrimination. 8 November 2014, a march was held by activists and supporters, urging the Congress to pass the law to protect identity and approve marriage equality. The local Congress vetoed a Civil Unions bill in December 2014.
There have been as of August 2014, no marriages performed in the state but an important recognition case was granted via injunction 29 January 2014. A gay couple, married in 2012 in Mexico City had filed an injunction after IMSS refused to register the partner of one of the men for spousal benefit. The landmark ruling from the Supreme Court of the Nation required the state and Social Security Institute IMSS to recognize the marriage.
Equal Marriage Mexico, The Citizens Observatory of Sexual and Reproductive Rights, and El Taller AC began collecting signatures for a collective injunction in Puebla in early October 2014 with plans to submit the demand on 12 October. On 15 October 2014, it was confirmed a collective injunction for same-sex marriage had been filed by 36 people from throughout the state hoping to gain the right to same-sex marriage and have Article 294 of the Civil Code declared unconstitutional.
On 28 February 2014, two same-sex couples filed for an injunction against the Civil Registry in Querétaro. In August 2014, an injunction in favor of a lesbian couple was granted making them the first in the state to be allowed to marry. On 25 August 2014, the second injunction was also approved. As the officials did not object to the ruling within the 10 day period required by law, the first same-sex marriage was scheduled for October 2014. The ceremony was held, at the same registry which had previously denied them permission, on 4 October 2014. The third injunction in the state was requested in the first week of October 2014.
10 September 2014, it was announced that the legislature would be considering, in the present session, a Civil Unions bill, as the two prior injunctions obtained were insufficient to require Congress to evaluate marriage equality. 28 November 2014, Luis Bernardo Nava Guerrero, president of the Congressional Joint Commission, announced that the legislation would be postponed to 2015.
Same-sex marriages can be performed in Quintana Roo after a decision by the state's Secretary of State. In November 2011, some public officials in the state began performing same-sex marriages after reviewing the state's civil code. The Civil Code of Quintana Roo does not state sex or gender requirements for marriage, only specifying "people interested in getting married". A same-sex couple filed for a marriage license in Cancún and Chetumal after discovering this legal quirk, but both cities rejected their applications, arguing that a man-woman marriage was implied. The couple then applied in Lázaro Cárdenas Municipality, where authorities accepted the application. Quintana Roo's first two same-sex marriages were held in the community of Kantunilkin on 28 November 2011.
Cancún, Cozumel, and other resort areas in Quintana Roo planned to hold a same-sex group wedding in January 2012, but these weddings were suspended upon review by Luis González Flores, the Secretary of State of Quintana Roo. In April 2012, the two same-sex marriages performed in Kantunilkin were annulled by Quintana Roo Governor Roberto Borge Angulo, but these annulments were later reversed by González Flores in a decision that allowed for future same-sex marriages to be performed in the state.
In 2013, a lesbian couple were denied the right to marry and forced to obtain an injunction in Tulum. The Court concluded discriminatory acts had occurred and ordered the state to prevent further discrimination against homosexuals, requiring all Civil Registry offices in Quintana Roo to have marriage license applications for same sex couples. After an initial approval, denial of acceptance by the Registry, and an appeal, the injunction was received on 29 July 2014 and the couple were wed on 12 August 2014. A second lesbian couple were married in Tulum on 15 November 2014 and it was announced that the first male same-sex marriage was pending.
In November 2014, it was announced that a bill to officially legalize same-sex marriage in the state would be introduced and voted on in the current legislative session, thereby replacing the loophole used by couples.
San Luis Potosí
On 28 April 2014, a citizens initiative to change the laws in favor of same-sex marriage was submitted to the Congress of San Luis Potosí. On 8 August 2014, the Deputy Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights and Gender Equity, Miguel Maza Hernández said that analysis of the proposal would begin.
In July 2013, a male same-sex couple applied under amparo 459/2014 for the right to marry. On 30 May 2014 the first district court found that Article 15 of the Family Code of San Luis Potosí was discriminatory and 3 June 2014 granted the couple an injunction to marry in the state.
26 March 2014, a male couple went to the registrar at San Luis Potosí, were refused marriage, and applied for an injunction 391/2014-III, which was approved 4 August 2014 by the 6th District Court. On 7 August 2014, the First Official of the Civil Registry filed a counter-injunction to avoid recording the marriage. In October 2014, the appeal was denied by the second Appellate Court of the Ninth Circuit and the registrar was ordered to conduct the marriage. In November 2014 the State Commission of Human Rights (ECHR) announced that it was reviewing two complaints from parties who had received injunctions to marry but were being denied by the Civil Registry.
In early September 2014, a lesbian couple applied for the first same-sex license in Ciudad Valles and were advised that state law forbids their union and the previous amparo granted applied only to the couple previously approved.
In January 2013 the Family Code of the state of Sinaloa was changed to limit marriage or cohabitation to couples consisting of a man and a woman. Three injunctions were filed to contest the changes, but two were dismissed. On 12 July 2013, Seventh District Judge Teddy Abraham Torres López, of Los Mochis, granted injunction 262/2013/1 ruling that the Legislature of the state must comply with its obligations of equality and non-discrimination. The case has been elevated to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation. Within the state, 7 gay couples are seeking injunctions against the Civil Registry—3 in Culiacán, 2 in Mazatlán, and 2 in Los Mochis. On 24 September 2014, the Supreme Court granted the 3 injunctions sought in Culiacán and declared Articles 40 and 165 of the Civil Code unconstitutional. In mid-October 2014, 70 people from Mazatlán applied for an injunction in the Ninth District Court, which is the fourth Sinaloan injunction requested in the state.
On 23 November 2014, it was announced that for the first time, the Supreme Court of the Nation extended concubinage to same-sex couples in response to an injunction requested by a lesbian couple.
On 2 September 2014, the deputy Sandra Lara, launched an initiative to amend articles 40 and 165 of the Family Code and allow for same-sex marriage in the state. On 7 October 2014, the first reading of the proposal occurred. On 5 November 2014, the Party of Social Encounter (PES) introduced an initiative into the Sinaloan Congress to prevent same-sex couples from adopting children.
In the northwestern state of Sonora, an initiative to allow same-sex couples to marry was delivered to the state's Congress by former Labor Party candidate for governor, Miguel Angel Haro Moren, in January 2010. The proposal was rejected in February 2010 and the state filed a constitutional challenge against imposing laws of the Civil Code of the Federal District, concerning same-sex marriage, upon Sonora.
An important recognition case was filed in 2013. A male same-sex couple married in Mexico City in July 2012. They returned to Sonora and attempted to enroll as a couple in the Social Security program Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers Sonora. They were denied admittance on 8 October 2012 and filed for an injunction (amparo 2564/2013) with Court of Culiacan, Sinaloa. 9 October 2013 the court granted the injunction holding that the human right to form a family without discrimination had been violated.
In early May, a female couple from municipality of Luis B. Sanchez were denied marriage by the Civil Registry. On 26 May 2014, they for filed an injunction in the Fifth District Court of the Fifteenth Circuit in Mexicali. A hearing was held on 17 September 2014 and the couple received a favorable ruling  on 22 October 2014.
A second lesbian couple applied for marriage on 11 August 2014 to begin the injunction process.
After Mexico City's Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriages and LGBT adoption in December 2009, debate resurged in states where civil unions had been previously proposed. In 2009 in the southeastern state of Tabasco, 20 same-sex couples sent a motion to the state legislature asking to allow them to marry. The state's largest political parties, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), announced their support for same-sex marriage in the 2010 agenda. Despite the support of political parties, there was no legislative will to change the law, so in April 2014 an initiative to reform Article 154 of the Civil Code of the State of Tabasco was presented by the organization Tabasqueños United for Diversity and Sexual Health (Tudysex) to legalize same-sex marriage in Tabasco. In May 2014, the PRD announced that they would be willing to consider Civil Unions in Tabasco.
In 2011 a bill to provide "coexistence" for gay marriage and adoption was being promoted by local organizations in Tamaulipas. In 2012, organizers presented legislators with 25,000 signatures in favor of marriage equality. In 2013 the PRD agreed to bring the issue to the legislature and support the proposal. As there appeared to be no legislative desire to act, activists in June 2014 planned to organize a group of LGBT community members to began the injunction process for marriage in Tamaulipas. On 27 June 2014, an Indirect Collective Amparo challenging the constitutionality of the Civil Code Articles 124 and 43 of the State of Tamaulipas was filed in the Nineteenth Circuit Court. 57 persons were granted the right to marry in Tamaulipas on 1 October 2014 by federal judges in both the Third District Court based in Nuevo Laredo and the Ninth District court, based in Tampico. The state has 10 days to file an appeal. This was the first time that an injunction has been sought for individuals rather than just couples. Should any of the single parties wish to marry, their partners will be covered. It was also announced by the attorneys representing those seeking injunction, that an additional 68 persons had requested another collective injunction from Tampico. 80 persons interested in a collective injunction in Matamoros filed in early October 2014.
Two bills were presented to the Tlaxcala Congress on 2 October 2009 to legalize gay marriage and eliminate discrimination. The initiative was blocked in 2010 by officials  and in fact, the state, along with officials from Guanajuato, Jalisco, Morelos and Sonora, sent a formal challenge to the acceptance of same-sex marriage passed by the Federal District. In June 2011, activists questioned why no action had been taken and were told that the initiatives were still "climbing the roster."  In February 2014, a PRD deputy, Eréndira Montiel Jiménez, promised to present new initiatives to eradicate discrimination and for a law of coexistence. The proposed law, introduced on 3 April 2014, outlined the legal framework to eliminate discrimination, to develop a form of coexistence "that has the purpose of marriage or concubinage," and to amend rules of adoption. In June 2014, activists urged Congress to act in favor of same sex marriages and anti-discrimination ordinances which had been submitted by Montiel Jiménez.
In March 2014 Cuauhtémoc Pola, deputy MP of "Citizens Movement," presented an initiative to introduce a Partnership of Coexistence law for Veracruz, but no legislative action occurred. In July 2014 a federal judge deemed the current marriage law of Veracruz to be discriminatory. Due to lack of action on the civil unions bill and the federal ruling, Cuauhtémoc Pola, introduced to Congress on 31 July 2014 a reform initiative for Article 75 of the Civil Code for marriage equality. In September 2014 Pola confirmed that the bill was still awaiting review by committees.
In February 2014, a male same-sex couple applied for marriage at the Civil Registry in Veracruz and were denied. They filed for an injunction which was granted 22 July 2014. Despite the approval the registrar in Veracruz refused to schedule a ceremony for the couple. After presenting their injunction to the registrar in Boca del Río, the wedding was scheduled for 6 December 2014. The ceremony was conducted at the Civil Registry and it was announced that a second wedding for a lesbian couple is being planned.
In the southeastern state of Yucatán, the local Congress overwhelmingly approved a ban on same-sex marriage in a 24–1 vote on 21 July 2009. The law raised heterosexual marriage and families to the constitutional level via the approval of amendments to the state's Civil Code. The bill was promoted by right-wing organization Pro Yucatán Network to reject all efforts by people of the same sex to form a family and adopt children. PAN politicians justified the ban alleging that "there still aren't adequate conditions within Yucatán society to allow for unions between people of the same sex." The event led to protests outside the local Congress by LGBT organizations, whose leaders were expected to appeal the case to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation.
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||14||14|
|National Action Party||9||9|
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||1||1|
|Labor Party / Convergence||1||1|
On 26 March 2013, a male same-sex couple asked the Civil Registar of Yucatán to marry. The Civil Registar rejected the bid saying that the State Constitution defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman. The couple appealed the decision of the Civil Registar and on 1 July the Third District Court of the Yucatán State recognized that they have the right to marry. Since the Civil registrar did not appeal the District Court decision the order (amparo) will take effect. 
Four male couples and two lesbian couples went to the civil registry office on 14 August 2013 to request to be married and were denied. They applied for individual injunctions and 3 of them were approved on 4 and 15 November and 17 December 2013 by the Courts in the First, Fourth and Third District. Both of the lesbian couples were approved and one male couple. On 6 January 2014 the first lesbian marriage in Yucatán took place. The second lesbian couple married on 25 January 2014. On 18 February 2014, the male couple wed at the Civil Registry of Mérida.
On 17 May 2014 a group of civil society organizations brought a legal action before the Constitutional Court of the State under the guise of "correcting a legislative omission." It was the first time a mechanism to correct an omission had been used in the nation as the basis of a suit. The organizations claimed 10 injunctions had been approved in the state without legislative action. The suit asked for Articles 49 and 94 of the Family Code which limits marriage to one man and one woman to be "considered in the broadest sense and that the gender of its members be undefined."
Being the seat of the Powers of the Union, Mexico City did not belong to any particular state but to all. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to directly elect the Head of Government of the Federal District and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly (ALDF) by popular vote in 1997. Ever since, the center-left Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) has controlled both political powers.
In the early 2000s, Enoé Uranga, an openly lesbian politician and activist, unsuccessfully pushed a bill that would have legalized same-sex civil unions in Mexico City under the name Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia (LSC; "Law for Coexistence Partnerships"). Despite being passed four times by legislative commissions, the bill repeatedly got stuck in plenary voting for its sensitive nature, which could be attributed to the widespread opposition from right-wing groups and then-Head of Government Andrés Manuel López Obrador's ambiguity concerning the bill. Nonetheless, since new left-wing mayor Marcelo Ebrard was expected to take power in December 2006, the ALDF decided to take up the bill and approved it in a 43–17 vote on 9 November.
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||34||33||1|
|National Action Party||17||16||1|
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||4||4|
|New Alliance Party||4||2||1||1|
|Ecologist Green Party of Mexico||3||3|
|Social Democratic Party||2||2|
The law was well received by feminist and LGBT groups, including Emilio Álvarez Icaza, then-chairman of the Federal District's Human Rights Commission, who declared that "the law was not a threat to anyone in particular and that it will be a matter of time before it shows positive consequences for different social groups." It was strongly opposed by right-wing groups such as the National Parents' Union and the Roman Catholic Church, which labeled the assemblymen who voted for the law as "sinners" and complained it was "vengeance against the Catholic Church from the more radical groups from the left, who felt it was a demand for justice." The law officially took effect on 16 March 2007. Mexico City's first same-sex civil union was between Jorge Cerpa, a 31-year-old economist, and Antonio Medina, a 38-year-old journalist. As of December 2009, 736 same-sex civil unions have taken place in the city since the law became effective, of which 24 have been annulled (3%).
In early September 2014, modifications to the Civil Union agreement were drafted to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and dissolution support. In essence, the law had provided that upon termination, domestic partners were only allowed support for a period equal to half the length of the partnership. The Supreme Court ruled that the provision was discriminatory as it accorded differential treatment in cases of partnership for cohabitation, marriage or concubinage.
11 April 2013 the Party of the Democratic Revolution introduced a measure to create a Civil Partnership of Coexistence for Campeche. The bill was unanimously passed 20 December 2013, and while it covers both same-sex and opposite-sex couples, it specifically provides that it "shall not constitute a civil partnership of people living together in marriage and cohabitation." An additional distinction is that it is not filed with the Civil Registrar, but with the Public Registry of Property and Trade.
Coahuila de Zaragoza
The legalization of same-sex civil unions in Coahuila had started to be discussed as early as November 2006. On 11 January 2007, in a 20–13 vote the congress of the northern state of Coahuila legalized same-sex civil unions under the name Pacto Civil de Solidaridad (PCS, Civil Pact of Solidarity), which gives property and inheritance rights to same-sex couples. Similar to France's Pacte Civil de Solidarité and Germany's Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft.
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||20||19||1|
|National Action Party||9||9|
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||2||1||1|
|Democratic Unity of Coahuila||2||2|
|Ecologist Green Party of Mexico||1||1|
"The PCS represents a sensible response to the existence of citizens who traditionally have been victims of discrimination, humiliation and abuse. This does not have to do with morality. It has to do with legality. As human beings, we have to protect them as they are. It has to do with civil liberty," said congresswoman Julieta López, who pushed the bill, of the centrist Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), whose 19 members voted for the law. Luis Alberto Mendoza, deputy of the center-right National Action Party (PAN), which opposed, said the new law was an "attack against the family, which is society's natural group and is formed by a man and a woman." Other than that, the PCS drew little opposition. Bishop Raúl Vera, who heads the Catholic Diocese of Saltillo, declined to condemn the law. While Vera insisted that "two women or two men cannot get married," he also sees gay people as a vulnerable minority. "Today we live in a society that is composed in a different way. There are people who do not want to marry under the law or in the church. They need legal protection. I should not abandon these people." Unlike Mexico City's law, once same-sex couples have registered in Coahuila, the state protects their rights no matter where they live in the country. Twenty days after the law had passed, the country's first same-sex civil union took place in Saltillo, Coahuila. It was between 29-year-olds Karina Almaguer and Karla Lopez, a lesbian couple from Tamaulipas. Since 2007, 196 same-sex couples have entered into a PCS, none of them have been annulled.
In July 2009, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) introduced a formal initiative to legalize civil unions in the western state of Colima. Nevertheless, the following month, the local legislature decided not to take up the initiative, following widespread opposition from right-wing groups. In December 2009, Governor of Colima Mario Anguiano Moreno agreed to discuss the legalization of civil unions and adoption by same-sex couples in the current legislature.
On 4 July 2013, the State Congress approved a new form of union, called "enlace conyugal" (conjugal bond) for same-sex couples, which according to PRI Deputy Martín Flores Castañeda grants the same rights and obligations as marriage, but it is doubtful whether such rights and obligations would be recognized outside the state.
In 2013, deputies of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM), Citizens' Movement (MC) and an independent deputy presented the Free Coexistence Act (Ley de Libre Convivencia). In it is established that same-sex civil unions can be applied in the state, as long as they are not considered as marriages, there is no adoption and they are performed with a civil law notary. On 31 October 2013, Jalisco congress approved the Act in a 20–15 vote, one abstained and three were absent.
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||17||15||1||1|
|National Action Party||13||11||2|
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||2||2|
|Ecologist Green Party of Mexico||1||1|
Similar bills have been proposed by the PRD in at least six states. On 7 December 2006, a similar bill to that of Mexico City was proposed in Puebla, but it faced strong opposition and criticism from deputies of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the National Action Party (PAN), who declared that "the traditional family is the only social model, and there cannot be another one." 15 March 2011 the Law of Society for Coexistence was first proposed. After five reviews in the ensuing years, on 8 June 2014 the law was postponed until a later session. 29 September 2014, the legislature announced that there would be no discussion in this term.
A proposal for civil unions was submitted to the legislature of Zacatecas on 30 June 2011  and lawmakers admitted in 2013 that it was not prioritized. In March 2014, legislators again refused to approve the measure.
In a Parametría poll, conducted from 17 to 20 November 2006, 1,200 Mexican adults were asked if they would support a constitutional amendment that would legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico. 17% responded yes, 61% said no and 14% had no opinion. The same poll showed 28% in support of same-sex civil unions, 41% were opposed and 28% had no opinion. From 27 to 30 November 2009, major Mexican newspaper El Universal polled 1,000 Mexico City citizens concerning the legalization of same-sex marriage in the city. 50% supported it, 38% were against it and 12% had no idea. The same poll showed that support was stronger among the youngest population (age: 18–29), 67%, and weaker among the oldest (age: 50-onwards), 38%. With 48% the most cited reason was "right of choice" for the supporters, followed by "everybody is equal" with 14%. 39% of the opposers cited "it is not normal" as the main reason to not support same-sex marriage, followed by "we lose values" with 18%.
Guillermo Bustamante Manilla, a PAN member and president of UNPF, as well as the father of Guillermo Bustamante Artasánchez, a law director of the Secretary of the Interior, opposes abortion and same-sex civil unions and has called the latter as "anti-natural." He has publicly asked voters not to cast votes for "abortionists" parties and those who are in favor of homosexual relationships.
A study conducted by Vanderbilt University in 2010 concluded that 37.8% of Mexicans support same-sex marriage. A poll conducted in July 2013 found a significant increase in support for same-sex marriage, with 52% of Mexicans in favour of legalising same-sex marriage. When broken down by religion, support was 52% among Roman Catholics and 62% among non-religious people. However, in the same poll, only 24% of respondents supported same-sex adoption.
In early 2014 the Strategic Communication Cabinet, a statistical consulting services company, published a report called "Social Intolerance In Mexico", in which polls that covered several social issues were conducted in the 45 largest cities and municipalities. The study found that the strongest support for same-sex marriages was registered in Mexico City, Tijuana, San Luis Potosí, Colima and La Paz; whereas it was the weakest in Durango, Ciudad Victoria, Aguascalientes, Chihuahua and Monterrey. Additionally, adoption by same-sex couples was more widely accepted in Mexico City, the border cities of Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, as well as Xalapa and Cancun; meanwhile the least support was found in Chihuahua, Guadalajara, Aguascalientes, Durango and Campeche.
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