List of U.S. state laws on same-sex unions

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Introduction[edit]

Same-sex unions have been on the political radar in the United States since the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled in 1993 that denying marriage licenses to same-sex partners violated the Hawaii constitution unless there is a "compelling state interest." Since Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage in 2004, other states have redefined their own marriage laws, both for and against same-sex marriage.

This article tracks the status of those laws. It is intended only as a resource for the bottom line current legal status of same-sex unions right now regardless of pending litigation.[clarification needed] See same-sex marriage legislation in the United States for the outcome of specific legislation and same-sex marriage law in the United States by state for detailed descriptions.

Summary[edit]

Marriage is defined as the union of two U.S. citizens by the federal government as of June 26, 2013. The federal government recognizes all legally performed same-sex marriages, regardless of the current state of residence.

Currently, 27 U.S. states have enforceable amendments banning same-sex marriage in their state constitutions, including:

  • 9 states where an order overturning the ban has been stayed, pending action by a higher court;
  • 3 states, subject to Circuit Court of Appeals precedents;
  • 1 state, Ohio, where an order that the state recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages has been been stayed, pending action by a higher court;
  • 1 state, Tennessee, where a pre-trial preliminary injunction ordering that the state recognize the out-of-state same-sex marriages of the plaintiffs has been stayed, pending action by the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals;
  • 1 state, Florida, where rulings striking down the ban in two counties have been stayed, pending appeal.[1][2]

Another 3 states, and 2 territories, enforce bans on same-sex marriage by statute, including Wyoming and West Virginia, which are subject to Circuit Court of Appeals precedents, and Indiana, where an order overturning the ban has been stayed, pending action by a higher court.

On June 6, 2014, North Dakota became the last state to have their ban on same-sex marriage challenged in state or federal court. Currently, all states without marriage equality have court challenges in progress.[3] In keeping with the purpose of this article, cases will only be cited when there is a relevant ruling, or an unusual filing.

There are currently 20 U.S. states (plus the District of Columbia) that recognize in-state same-sex marriages.

Additionally, there are currently 3 U.S. states with limited recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriage:

  • In Henry v. Wymyslo, Ohio has been ordered to recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages, but the order is stayed except for the 4 named couples in the case;[4]
  • Missouri recognizes out-of-state same-sex marriages for tax-filing purposes, and has granted a divorce to a same-sex couple legally married in Massachusetts;[5][6]
  • The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals has ordered Indiana to immediately recognize the marriage of two of the plaintiffs in Baskin v. Bogan, while the appeal in the case proceeds.[7]

Many cities and counties in the United States also have municipal-level domestic partnership registries.

State-by-state listing[edit]

State laws regarding same-sex partnerships in the United States1
  Same-sex marriage legal2
  Domestic partnerships or civil unions granting privileges similar to marriage for same-sex domestic partners3
  Limited/enumerated privileges granted by state3
  No prohibition or recognition of same-sex marriage or unions in territory law
  Judicial rulings against ban on recognizing out-of-state same-sex marriages stayed pending appeal
  Judicial rulings against statutory ban on same-sex marriage stayed pending appeal
  Judicial rulings against constitutional ban on same-sex marriage, and any existing statutory bans, stayed pending appeal4
  Statute bans same-sex marriage
  Constitution bans same-sex marriage5

1 The federal government recognizes all legally performed same-sex marriages, regardless of the current state of residence.
2 A ruling striking down Colorado's same-sex marriage ban has been stayed until August 25. A Fourth Circuit ruling striking down Virginia's ban is not yet in effect. Ten Native American tribal jurisdictions also allow same-sex marriage. Some states in this category also allow other same-sex unions.
3 Not recognized by the federal government.
4 Most states in this category also have judicial rulings against bans on unions similar to marriage.
5 Many states in this category also ban unions similar to marriage. Most states in this category also have statutory bans.
State laws regarding same-sex unions in the United States1
  Civil unions or domestic partnerships granting privileges similar to marriage for same-sex domestic partners2
  Limited/enumerated privileges granted by state
  No prohibition of same-sex unions similar to marriage
  Judicial ruling against ban on same-sex unions stayed pending appeal
  Same-sex unions similar to marriage banned

1Same-sex marriage is legal in some states.
2Domestic partnerships in Washington are only available when at least one of the partners are 62 years of age or older.

Below is the status of the law in each of the 50 states, plus the District of Columbia.

  • The Marriage restricted to opposite-sex couples only column tells whether that state contains any statutes or constitutional language that defines marriage as between a man and a woman or otherwise bans same-sex marriages.
    • The Constitution sub-column gives links to the constitutional amendment story, if existing.
    • The Statute leads to the corresponding section of Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States by state to afford full legislation about constitution and statutes. (Under construction, if not afforded, see HRC and Domawatch links below that page).
  • The other links (licenses - Civil unions status - domestic partnership status - provides for appropriate page denominations according to marriage - civil unions - domestic partnership and shows the existing pages if the link is active. Civil unions denomination is left in the plural form because it is the rule used for other countries (see Category:Marriage, unions and partnerships by country below )
    • The details for the marriage recognition (Recogn.) are to be found with the marriage license link when active. Since constitutional bans are more difficult to overturn, the marriage license and recognition columns have been merged in such cases for relevant states.
    • Def. means constitutional definition amendment for the corresponding unions or partnership. When it happens to be the same constitutional definition amendment as the link in the Marriage restricted to opposite-sex couples only - Constitution column, the Def. and Status columns have been merged. Otherwise another link is proposed to the other relevant amendment in the Def. column in relevant cases.
  • The blue shading indicates what is allowed.
  • The khaki shading indicates that an order overturning a state-wide ban is under appeal.
  • The green shading indicates that the state-wide ban is at risk from a stayed Circuit Court of Appeals ruling.
  • The clock symbol, Simple icon time.svg, indicates that arguments have been heard, and the parties are awaiting a court ruling.
  • The notes column gives better detail and recent possibilities.
State Marriage Same-sex unions Notes
Restricted to opposite-sex couples only by Result for same sex-marriages Civil Unions Domestic
Partnership
Constitution Statute Licenses Recogn. Def. Status Def. Status
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama Yes Yes Banned Banned No None
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska Yes Yes Banned No None No None
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona Simple icon time.svg Yes Yes Banned No None No None
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of Arkansas Circuit Court decision No No None In Wright v. State of Arkansas, an Arkansas Circuit Court has ruled that the 2004 amendment that defined marriage as only allowable between a man and a woman, and related statutes, are unconstitutional.[8] The order has been stayed pending review by the Arkansas Supreme Court.[9]
Flag of California.svg California No No Yes Yes No None
No Yes
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of Colorado District Court and/or U.S. District Court decisions Yes Yes No Yes A Colorado State District Court has ruled that "... the Marriage Bans violate plaintiffs' due process and equal protection guarantees under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution", but the order has been stayed, pending action by a higher court.[10]

A Federal District Court has ruled that Colorado's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional, but the order has been stayed, pending appeal.[11]

Colorado is subject to the precedents set when the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Kitchen v. Herbert and Bishop v. Oklahoma, which are stayed pending action by the Supreme Court.

Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut No No Yes Yes No No No None Civil unions were available between 2005 and 2010. All existing civil unions converted into civil marriages on October 1, 2010.
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware No No Yes Yes No No No None Civil unions were available between 2012 and 2013. All existing civil unions converted into civil marriages on July 1, 2014.
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia N/A No Yes Yes N/A None N/A Yes
Flag of Florida.svg Florida Yes Yes Banned. See Note. Banned No None Two Florida County Circuit Courts have ruled that the state's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. The orders have been stayed pending appeal, and only apply to Monroe and Miami-Dade counties.[1][2]
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia Yes Yes Banned Banned No None
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. Magistrate's decision Banned Banned A US Chief Magistrate has ruled that Idaho's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional.[12] The order has been stayed, and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals is scheduled to hear the case on September 8, 2014.[8]
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No None
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana No Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision No None No None In Baskin v. Bogan, the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana has ruled that Indiana's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional.

The ruling has been stayed, pending action by Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, which will hear the case on August 26, 2014.[13]

The Seventh Circuit has ordered Indiana to immediately recognize the marriage of two of the plaintiffs.[7]

A legislative initiative to amend the state constitution is under way, but the proposed amendment cannot appear on the ballot before 2016.

Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa No No Yes Yes No None No None
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas Yes Yes Banned Banned None Kansas is subject to the precedents set when the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Kitchen v. Herbert and Bishop v. Oklahoma, which are stayed pending action by the Supreme Court.
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned No None The United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky has ruled that Kentucky's constitutional amendment banning gay marriage is unconstitutional. The ruling has been stayed until the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals rules on the case cited below, and others, that are to be argued on August 6, 2014.[14]

Earlier, in Bourke v. Bashear the United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky ordered that Kentucky recognize valid same-sex marriages conducted in other jurisdictions.[15] The order has been stayed, and the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals is scheduled to hear the case on August 6, 2014.[16]

Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana Simple icon time.svg Yes Yes Banned Banned No None
Flag of Maine.svg Maine No No Yes Yes No None No Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland No No Yes Yes No None No Yes
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts No No Yes Yes No None No None
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision No None No None In DeBoer v. Snyder the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan ruled that Article 1, Section 25 of the Michigan State Constitution, which banned same-sex marriage, was unconstitutional.[17] The order has been stayed, and the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals is scheduled to hear the case on August 6, 2014.[16]
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota No No Yes Yes No None No None
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi Yes Yes Banned No None No None
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri Yes Yes Banned No None No None Gov. Jay Nixon (D) has signed an executive order that Missouri accept joint state tax returns from same-sex couples with valid out-of-state marriages who file a joint federal tax return.[5]

A Boone County Circuit Court judge has granted a divorce to a same-sex couple that were married in Massachusetts, but resident in Missouri.[6]

Flag of Montana.svg Montana Yes Yes Banned No None No None
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska Yes Yes Banned Banned Banned
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada Yes Yes Banned No None No Yes Nevada successfully defended their constitutional ban in US District Court (Sevcik v. Sandoval), but has withdrawn from defending the appeal before the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, which is scheduled to hear the case on September 8, 2014.
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire No No Yes Yes No No No None Civil unions were available between 2009 and 2009. All existing civil unions converted into civil marriages on January 1, 2011.
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico No No Yes Yes No None No None
Flag of New York.svg New York No No Yes Yes No None No None
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina Yes Yes Banned Banned Banned North Carolina is subject to the precedent set when the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Bostic v. Rainey. In view of this ruling, the Attorney General of North Carolina has announced that his office will no longer defend the state's ban on same-sex marriage.[18]
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota Yes Yes Banned Banned No None
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio Yes Yes Banned Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned No None In Henry v. Wymyslo, the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio ordered that Ohio recognize out-of-state same-sex marriage, but the order is stayed except for the 4 named plaintiff couples in the case.[4]

In Obergefell v. Wymyslo, the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio ordered that Ohio recognize valid same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions for death certificate purposes only. This decision has also been stayed.

The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals is scheduled to hear both cases on August 6, 2014.[16]

Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned No None Since 2013, same-sex marriages are performed by the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, a sovereign nation within the borders of Oklahoma despite the official state prohibition.[19]

The United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma ruled Article 2, Section 35 of the Oklahoma Constitution unconstitutional in Bishop v. Oklahoma. The decision has been affirmed by the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, but has been stayed pending action by the Supreme Court.

Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon No No Legal by US District Court Decision. Yes[20] No None
Yes Yes Oregon has recognized all out-of-state same-sex marriages since October 17, 2013.[20]

On May 19, 2014, in Geiger v. Kitzhaber, the United States District Court for the District of Oregon ruled Oregon's ban on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional.[21] The Supreme Court has refused a stay request from the National Organization for Marriage.[22]

Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania No No Yes Yes No None No None
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island No No Yes Yes No No No None Civil unions were only available between 2011 and 2013, and did not convert into civil marriages.
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina Yes Yes Banned Banned No None South Carolina is subject to the precedent set when the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Bostic v. Rainey.
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota Yes Yes Banned Banned Banned
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee Yes Yes Banned Banned - See Note No None No None The United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee had issued a preliminary injunction in Tanco v. Haslam that the state recognize the same-sex marriages of the plaintiffs. The order has been stayed, and the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals is scheduled to hear the case on August 6, 2014.[16]
Flag of Texas.svg Texas Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision and/or Texas District Court decisions Banned No None The United States District Court for the Western District of Texas issued a preliminary injunction that Article 1, Section 32, and related statutes, are unconstitutional in De Leon v. Perry. The decision is stayed, pending any appeal to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals.[23]

In a ruling involving the divorce of a same-sex couple, who were married in Washington DC, a State District Court found that Article 1, Section 32, and three sections of the Texas Family Code are unconstitutional.[24] The order has been stayed by the Texas 4th Court of Appeals, pending further review.[25]

Flag of Utah.svg Utah Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision No No None The United States District Court for the District of Utah ruled Amendment 3 and related statutes unconstitutional in Kitchen v. Herbert. The decision has been affirmed by the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, but has been stayed pending action by the Supreme Court.

On May 19, 2014, the United States District Court for the District of Utah ordered Utah to recognize same-sex marriages performed prior to the decision cited above being stayed.[26] The order has been stayed pending appealing the ruling.[27]

Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont No No Yes Yes No No No None Civil unions were only available between 2000 and 2009, and did not convert into civil marriages.
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia No No Yes Yes No None No None The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia ruled Article 1, Section 15-A, and related statutes unconstitutional in Bostic v. Rainey. The decision has been affirmed by the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals, but the decision is not final, and is subject to appeal.
Flag of Washington.svg Washington No No Yes Yes No None Yes, for ages 62+ only. Legal All existing Domestic Partnerships, where both parties were under age 62, converted into civil marriages on June 30, 2014. New Domestic Partnerships (same-sex or opposite-sex) can only be contracted if at least one party is aged 62 or older.
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia No Yes No No No None No None A US District Court Judge has stayed a challenge to West Virginia's laws on same-sex marriage, pending the ruling of the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals in Virginia's Bostic v. Rainey.[28]

West Virginia is subject to the precedent set when the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Bostic v. Rainey.

Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision No Limited Legal The US District Court has ruled, in part, that "It is DECLARED that art. XIII, § 13 of the Wisconsin Constitution violates plaintiffs' fundamental right to marry and their right to equal protection of laws under the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution".[29] The ruling has been stayed, pending action by Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, which will hear the case on August 26, 2014.[13]
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming No Yes No No No None No None Wyoming is subject to the precedents set when the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Kitchen v. Herbert and Bishop v. Oklahoma, which are stayed pending action by the Supreme Court.
State Marriage Same-sex unions Notes
Restricted to opposite-sex couples only by Result for same sex-marriages Civil Unions Domestic
Partnership
Constitution Statute Licenses Recogn. Def. Status Def. Status

State Status by Federal Circuit Court of Appeals[edit]

Circuit Same-Sex Marriage Notes
Banned Ban Overturned,
But Order Stayed
Subject to
Circuit Precedent
Legal
US-CourtOfAppeals-1stCircuit-Seal.svg First Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
US-CourtOfAppeals-2ndCircuit-Seal.png Second Connecticut
New York
Vermont
US-CourtOfAppeals-3rdCircuit-Seal.svg Third Delaware
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
US-CourtOfAppeals-4thCircuit-Seal.png Fourth North Carolina
South Carolina
West Virginia
Maryland
Virginia
West Virginia's ban is by statute.
US-CourtOfAppeals-5thCircuit-Seal.png Fifth Louisiana
Mississippi
Texas Texas's ban has been struck down in state and federal court.
US-CourtOfAppeals-6thCircuit-Seal.png Sixth Ohio
Tennessee
Kentucky
Michigan
Ohio has been ordered to recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages, but the order has been stayed.

Arguments in five cases, covering all four states, are scheduled for August 6, 2014.

US-CourtOfAppeals-7thCircuit-Seal.png Seventh Indiana
Wisconsin
Illinois Indiana's ban is by statute.
Arguments in the Wisconsin and Indiana cases have been scheduled for August 26, 2014.
US-CourtOfAppeals-8thCircuit-Seal.png Eighth Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
South Dakota
Arkansas Iowa
Minnesota
Arkansas's ban has been struck down at the state level.
US-CourtOfAppeals-9thCircuit-Seal.svg Ninth Alaska
Arizona
Montana
Nevada
Idaho California
Hawaii
Oregon
Washington
Arguments in Sevcik v. Sandoval (Nevada) and Latta v. Otter (Idaho) are scheduled for September 8, 2014. Nevada is not defending their case.
US-CourtOfAppeals-10thCircuit-Seal.png Tenth Colorado
Oklahoma
Utah
Kansas
Wyoming
New Mexico Colorado's ban has been struck down in state and federal court.

Wyoming's ban is by statute.

US-CourtOfAppeals-11thCircuit-Seal.png Eleventh Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Circuit Same-Sex Marriage Notes
Banned Ban Overturned,
But Order Stayed
Subject to
Circuit Precedent
Legal

See also[edit]

In general[edit]

In USA[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Florida judge overturns gay-marriage ban in Keys, Attorney General to appeal - csmonitor.com". AP. July 17, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-17. 
  2. ^ a b "State judge strikes down Florida's gay marriage ban, stays ruling - http://uk.reuters.com/". Reuters. July 25, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  3. ^ "Lawsuit Filed to Block Nation's Last Unchallenged Same-Sex Marriage Ban in North Dakota - abcnews.go.com". AP. June 6, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  4. ^ a b "Ohio Ordered To Recognize Out-Of-State Gay Marriages - wutc.org". NPR. April 14, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-14. 
  5. ^ a b "Missouri to accept joint tax returns from gay couples - kansascity.com". Kansas City Star. November 14, 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  6. ^ a b "Boone County judge grants gay couple a divorce - columbiatribune.com". Columbia Tribune. May 4, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  7. ^ a b "Appeals court orders state to recognize one same-sex marriage - indystar.com". Indy Star. July 1, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-01. 
  8. ^ a b "Gay Marriages Cleared In Arkansas, But On Hold In Idaho - WSIU.org". WSIU. May 15, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  9. ^ "Arkansas high court suspends same-sex marriage ruling - clarionledger.com". AP. May 16, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-16. 
  10. ^ "Adams County Judge says civil unions do not substitute for marriage, rules bans 'unconstitutional' - thedenverchannel.com". 7 News Denver. July 9, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  11. ^ "Judge rules Colorado gay marriage ban unconstitutional - coloradoan.com". AP. July 23, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  12. ^ "Federal Judge Strikes Down Idaho's Gay Marriage Ban - magicvalley.com". Magic Valley. May 13, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  13. ^ a b "Oral arguments in Wisconsin, Indiana marriage cases set for Aug. 26 - wisconsingazette.com". Wisconsin Gazette. July 25, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  14. ^ "Gays have right to marry in Kentucky, judge rules - courier-journal.com". The Courier Journal. July 1, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-01. 
  15. ^ "SAME-SEX MARRIAGE NOW LEGALLY RECOGNIZED IN KY. - hosted.ap.org". AP. February 27, 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Four-way hearing on same-sex marriage - scotusblog.com". SCOTUS Blog. June 17, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  17. ^ Tresa Baldas (21 March 2014). "Judge strikes down Michigan ban on gay marriage as unconstitutional; state asks for a stay". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  18. ^ "@NCCAPITOL NC to stop fighting challenges to marriage amendment after Virginia law overturned - wral.com". WRAL. July 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-28. 
  19. ^ Heide Brandes (1 November 2013). "Oklahoma gay couple marry under Native American law". Reuters. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Oregon to begin recognizing same-sex marriages performed out of state/
  21. ^ "Oregon gay marriage ban struck down by federal judge; same-sex marriages to begin - oregonlive.com". The Oregonian. May 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  22. ^ "U.S. High Court Refuses to Halt Gay Marriages in Oregon - bloomberg.com". Bloomberg. June 4, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  23. ^ "Read the federal judge's decision striking down Texas's gay marriage ban - apps.washingtonpost.com". Washington Post. February 26, 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-26. 
  24. ^ "Judge in same-sex divorce case rules Texas gay marriage ban unconstitutional - lgbtqnation.com". LGBTQ Nation. April 24, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-24. 
  25. ^ "Texas appeals court blocks ruling in same-sex couple’s divorce case - lgbtqnation.com". LGBTQ Nation. April 26, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-26. 
  26. ^ "Judge: Utah must honor same-sex marriages performed during 17-day window - sltrib.com". The Salt Lake Tribune. May 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  27. ^ "Supreme Court delays benefits for Utah gay couples - news.yahoo.com". AP. July 18, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  28. ^ "Judge puts lawsuit challenging W.Va. gay marriage ban on hold pending federal appeal - wvah.com". AP. June 10, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  29. ^ "Judge overturns Wisconsin's same-sex marriage ban - 620wtmj.com". 620 WTMJ. June 6, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 

External links[edit]