List of U.S. state laws on same-sex unions

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State laws regarding same-sex marriage in the United States1
  Same-sex marriage legal
  Same-sex marriage ban overturned, decision stayed indefinitely
  Same-sex marriage banned where federal circuit court has found similar bans unconstitutional
  Same-sex marriage banned
  Same-sex marriage legality complicated2,3,4

1 Native American tribal jurisdictions have laws pertaining to same-sex marriage independent of state law. The federal government recognizes same-sex marriages, regardless of the current state of residence.
2 Most counties in Alabama had issued same-sex marriage licenses for several weeks after a federal court legalized same-sex marriage, but all have stopped in response to a conflicting order by the state supreme court. However, the state court did not nullify same-sex marriage recognition.
3 Many jurisdictions in Kansas issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, but same-sex marriage is not recognized by the state government.
4 Same-sex marriage licenses are issued by three jurisdictions within Missouri. Legal same-sex marriages are recognized by the state government. The state's same-sex marriage ban has been overturned, but the decision is stayed indefinitely.


State laws regarding same-sex unions similar to marriage in the United States1
  Domestic partnerships or civil unions granting state privileges of marriage2
  Same-sex unions granting limited/enumerated privileges
  Same-sex unions similar to marriage not available
  Same-sex union ban overturned, decision stayed
  Same-sex unions similar to marriage banned

1Not recognized by the federal government. However, same-sex marriage is legal in most states and is recognized by the federal government. Same-sex unions similar to marriage are provided at the local level in many jurisdictions.
2Domestic partnerships in Washington are only available when at least one of the partners is 62 years of age or older.

This article is intended as a resource for current legal status of same-sex unions. See same-sex marriage legislation in the United States and same-sex marriage law in the United States by state for more detailed descriptions, outcomes, and history of individual cases.

Same-sex unions have been on the political radar in the United States since the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled in 1993 that denying marriage licenses to same-sex partners violated the Hawaii constitution unless there is a "compelling state interest." Since Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage in 2004, other states have redefined their own marriage laws, both for and against same-sex marriage. As of June 6, 2014, all remaining state bans on same-sex marriage were being challenged in state or federal court.[1]

In keeping with the purpose of this article, cases will only be cited when there is a relevant ruling, or an unusual filing.

Same-sex marriage summary[edit]

Marriage is defined as the union of two U.S. citizens by the federal government as of June 26, 2013.
The federal government recognizes all same-sex marriages legally authorized under state, territory, or district law.

Same-sex marriage is legal in 37 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

13 states and 2 territories ban same-sex marriage, including Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Texas, where U.S. District Court orders overturning the bans have been indefinitely stayed, pending actions by higher courts.

Territorial law in Guam does not explicitly prohibit or permit same-sex marriage, but an application has been blocked on administrative grounds. Legal same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions are recognized.

The legal situation is more complicated in the following states:

  • In Alabama, the ban on same-sex marriage has been struck down, but the Supreme Court of Alabama has issued a contradictory ruling ordering all state probate judges to cease issuance of same-sex marriage licenses and all have complied with the order;
  • In Kansas, the ban on same-sex marriage has been struck down and availability of licenses varies by county, but the state government is refusing recognition;
  • In Missouri, as a result of separate state court rulings, all legal same-sex marriages are recognized by the state and the ban on same-sex marriage has been struck down, but the decision was not stayed, in a ruling that only applies to the City of St. Louis;

Several states are currently awaiting court rulings on same-sex marriage (Simple icon time.svg):

The U.S. Supreme Court has granted writs of certiorari, and consolidated, cases from Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee, and oral arguments are scheduled for April 28, 2015.[5]

Additionally, 2 territories do not prohibit or recognize same-sex marriage.

More details can be found in the Jurisdiction listing below.

Jurisdiction listing[edit]

Below is the status of the law in each of the 50 U.S. states, 5 U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia.

  • The blue shading indicates what is currently allowed;
  • The khaki shading indicates that a judicial ruling overturning a state-wide ban is currently stayed pending appeal;
  • The green shading indicates that the ban has been struck down in compliance with circuit court precedent, but the state is continuing the legal fight in support of the ban;
  • The clock symbol (Simple icon time.svg) indicates that parties are awaiting a court ruling;
  • The "" symbol indicates that a petition for writ of certiorari, requesting review by the U.S. Supreme Court, is pending.
  • The "" symbol indicates that the U.S. Supreme Court has granted a petition for writ of certiorari and will hear the appeal.
Jurisdiction Civil marriage Other
same-sex unions
Notes
Restriction Same-sex marriage Civil Unions Domestic
Partnerships
Constitutional Amendment Statute Licenses Recognition
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama No No No -
See Note
Yes No No In orders that became effective on 9 February 2015, a U.S. District Court ruled that Alabama Constitution Article I, § 36.03 (2006) and Alabama Code 1975 § 30-1-19, which barred same-sex marriage, were unconstitutional.[6][7] The orders are subject to appeal.

On 3 March 2015, the state Supreme Court issued a contradictory ruling requiring all probate judges to cease issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. All probate judges have complied with this ruling as of 4 March 2015. [8]

Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa No No No No No No
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas Simple icon time.svg Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of Arkansas Circuit Court and/or U.S. District Court decisions Banned, pending final disposition of Arkansas Circuit Court and/or U.S. District Court decisions Banned Banned In Wright v. State of Arkansas, an Arkansas Circuit Court has ruled that the 2004 amendment that defined marriage as only allowable between a man and a woman, and related statutes, are unconstitutional.[9] The order has been stayed pending review by the Arkansas Supreme Court, which heard the case on November 20, 2014.[10]

The ban has also been struck down in U.S. District Court; a decision that has also been stayed pending review by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, which has scheduled oral arguments for 12 May, 2015.[11][12]

A motion to lift the stay on the order overturning the ban is pending before the Arkansas Supreme Court.

A number of same-sex couples in Arkansas are in a legal limbo, as they were married legally between the overturning of the ban, and the issuance of a judicial stay.

Flag of California.svg California No No Yes Yes No Yes
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado No No Yes Yes Yes No
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut No No Yes Yes Previously Available No
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware No No Yes Yes Previously Available No
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia N/A No Yes Yes No Yes
Flag of Florida.svg Florida No No Yes Yes No No In an order that became effective on January 6, 2015, a U.S. District Court ruled that Florida's ban on same-sex marriage was unconstitutional. The order is subject to appeal.

Florida County Circuit Courts in Broward, Monroe, Miami-Dade, and Palm Beach counties have also ruled that the state's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. These rulings are limited to the counties in question, and are subject to appeal.

Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia Yes Yes Banned Banned Banned A case against Georgia's ban on same-sex marriage has been stayed, pending U.S. Supreme Court action on the cases where writs of certiorari have been granted.[13]
Flag of Guam.svg Guam N/A No No Yes No No All marriages contracted outside of the territory of Guam, which would be valid by the laws of the country in which the same were contracted, are valid in the territory of Guam.[14]

Territorial law does not explicitly prohibit or permit same-sex marriage, but an application has been blocked on administrative grounds.[15]

On 15 April 2015, the Attorney General directed that effective immediately, marriage licenses are to be issued to same-sex couples.[16] This directive has been blocked by the Governor, whose actions are being challenged in the District Court of Guam.[17]

Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii No No Yes Yes Yes No
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois No No Yes Yes Yes No
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas No No Varies by County -
See Note
No - See Note Banned Banned Many Kansas counties are issuing same-sex marriage licenses, but the state government is refusing any recognition until all appeals have been exhausted.[18] The original complaint has been amended, in an attempt to compel state recognition.[19]
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky Yes Yes Banned - See Note Banned Banned The ban was upheld by Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.[20]

The U.S. Supreme Court has granted a writ of certiorari in Bourke v. Beshear for an appeal of the Sixth Circuit's decision.[5]

A county Family Court has granted a divorce to end an out-of-state same-sex marriage.[21]

Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana Simple icon time.svg Yes Yes Banned - See Note Banned No A state court has ruled that the state's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional, but the ruling only applies to Lafayette, Acadia and Vermilion parishes, and has been stayed pending appeal.[22]

Louisiana's ban was upheld in U.S. District Court, and an appeal of the ruling was heard by Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals on 9 January 2015.[3]

Flag of Maine.svg Maine No No Yes Yes No Limited
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland No No Yes Yes No Limited
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan Yes Yes Banned - See Note Very Limited - See Note Banned Banned The ban was upheld by Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.[20]

The U.S. Supreme Court has granted a writ of certiorari in DeBoer v. Snyder for an appeal of the Sixth Circuit's decision.[5]

Michigan recognizes same-sex marriages performed after DeBoer v. Snyder was decided and before that order was stayed.[23]

Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi Simple icon time.svg Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision No No The ban was struck down in U.S. District Court on 25 November 2014.[24]

The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals stayed the order, and heard the appeal on 9 January 2015.[3]

Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri Yes Yes Limited Availability -
See Note
Yes - See Note No No As a result of a state court decision, Missouri recognizes all legally authorized same-sex marriages.[25]

A state circuit court struck down the ban on same-sex marriage, in a ruling that explicitly applies to the city of St. Louis, but two counties have issued same-sex marriage licenses on their own volition.[26] The state has announced that it will appeal the ruling, but will not seek a stay.[27]

In Lawson v. Kelly, the state-wide ban on same-sex marriage was struck down in U.S. District Court, but the ruling has been stayed pending action by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, which has scheduled oral arguments for 12 May, 2015.[28][12]

A motion to lift the stay on the order overturning the ban is pending before the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Flag of Montana.svg Montana No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned Banned A U.S. District Court has ordered that "all relevant state officials are ordered to treat same-sex couples the same as different sex couples in the context of processing a marriage license or determining the rights, protections, obligations or benefits of marriage."[29] The order has been stayed by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, which has scheduled oral arguments for 12 May, 2015.[12]
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada No No Yes Yes No Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire No No Yes Yes Previously Available No
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey No No Yes Yes Yes Limited
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of New York.svg New York No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota Yes Yes Banned Banned Banned Cases against North Dakota's ban on same-sex marriage have been stayed, pending U.S. Supreme Court action on the cases where writs of certiorari have been granted.
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg Northern Mariana Islands No No No No No No
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio Yes Yes Banned - See Note Banned Banned The ban was upheld by Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.[20]

The U.S. Supreme Court has granted a writ of certiorari in Obergefell v. Hodges for an appeal of the Sixth Circuit's decision.[5]

In some cases, divorces have been granted to same-sex couples.[30]

Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon No No Yes Yes No Yes
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico No Yes Banned Banned No No Puerto Rico's ban has been upheld in U.S. District Court, and an appeal has been filed with the First Circuit Court of Appeals.

On 20 March 2015, Puerto Rico announced that it would file a brief in the appeal, agreeing that the ban should be struck down.[31]

On 14 April 2015, the First Circuit Court of Appeals announced that it would not schedule arguments until the U.S. Supreme Court has decided Obergefell v. Hodges, and the associated cases from the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island No No Yes Yes Previously Available No
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned Banned The ban has been struck down by U.S. District Judge Karen Schreier, but the order has been stayed pending action by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, which has scheduled oral arguments for 12 May, 2015.[32][12]

A motion to lift the stay on the order overturning the ban is pending before the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee Yes Yes Banned - See Note No No The ban was upheld by Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.[20]

The U.S. Supreme Court has granted a writ of certiorari in Tanco v. Haslam for an appeal of the Sixth Circuit's decision.[5]

Flag of Texas.svg Texas Simple icon time.svg Yes Yes Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned, pending final disposition of U.S. District Court decision Banned Banned In 2013, the Texas Supreme Court heard arguments in two cases where same-sex couples married elsewhere were seeking divorce in Texas.[4]

U.S. District Court issued a preliminary injunction that Article 1, Section 32, and related statutes, were unconstitutional in De Leon v. Perry.[33] The decision was stayed, pending an appeal to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which heard the case on 9 January 2015.[3]

Travis County Probate Court, ruling in a case involving an estate, found that the state's ban on same-sex marriage was unconstitutional.[34]

Under court order, Travis County has issued a marriage license to a same-sex couple.[35]

A motion to lift the stay on the order overturning the ban is pending before the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svgU.S. Virgin Islands N/A Yes Banned Banned No No
Flag of Utah.svg Utah No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont No No Yes Yes Previously Available No
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington No No Yes Yes No Limited
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia No No Yes Yes No No
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin No No Yes Yes No Limited
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming No No Yes Yes No No
Jurisdiction Civil marriage Other
same-sex unions
Notes
Restriction Same-sex marriage Civil Unions Domestic
Partnerships
Constitutional Amendment Statute Licenses Recognition

Jurisdiction status by federal circuit[edit]

*A bold circuit court indicates circuit precedent in favor of same-sex marriage.
*An italic circuit court indicates circuit precedent upholding same-sex marriage bans.
Note: American Samoa is outside of the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals system. Federal cases have been heard in Hawaii and the District of Columbia. The High Court of American Samoa is subject to U.S. Supreme Court precedent.

Circuit Civil marriage for same-sex couples Notes
Banned Ban overturned,
but order stayed
Banned contrary to
circuit precedent
Legal
US-CourtOfAppeals-1stCircuit-Seal.svg
First
Puerto Rico Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Puerto Rico's ban has been upheld in U.S. District Court, and an appeal has been filed with the First Circuit Court of Appeals. The Commonwealth has announced that it will file a brief agreeing that the ban should be struck down, but the case will not be heard until the U.S. Supreme Court decides the cases from the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.
US-CourtOfAppeals-2ndCircuit-Seal.png
Second
Connecticut
New York
Vermont
US-CourtOfAppeals-3rdCircuit-Seal.svg
Third
U.S. Virgin Islands Delaware
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
US-CourtOfAppeals-4thCircuit-Seal.png Fourth* Maryland
North Carolina
South Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia
North Carolina has filed a petition for writ of certiorari for Supreme Court review.
US-CourtOfAppeals-5thCircuit-Seal.png
Fifth Simple icon time.svg
Louisiana Mississippi
Texas
Appeals of cases from all three states were heard by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals on 9 January 2015.[3]
US-CourtOfAppeals-6thCircuit-Seal.png
Sixth
Kentucky
Michigan
Ohio
Tennessee
The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the bans in all four states.[20]

The U.S. Supreme Court has granted writs of certiorari in cases from all four states.[5] The cases have been consolidated, and arguments, scheduled for April 28, 2015, will be limited to two questions:

  • Does the Fourteenth Amendment require a state to license a marriage between two people of the same sex?
  • Does the Fourteenth Amendment require a state to recognize a marriage between two people of the same sex when their marriage was lawfully licensed and performed out-of-state?

Michigan recognizes same-sex marriages performed after DeBoer v. Snyder was decided and before that order was stayed.[23]

US-CourtOfAppeals-7thCircuit-Seal.png Seventh Illinois
Indiana
Wisconsin
US-CourtOfAppeals-8thCircuit-Seal.png
Eighth
North Dakota Arkansas
Missouri
Nebraska
South Dakota
Iowa
Minnesota
As a result of state court actions, Missouri recognizes legally enacted same-sex marriages performed elsewhere, and the ban on same-sex marriage has been struck down in the city of St. Louis. The ban has also been struck down in U.S. District Court; this is the order that has been stayed, pending action by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals.

The Eighth Circuit has announced that it intends to hear arguments in the Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota cases on 12 May 2015.

US-CourtOfAppeals-9thCircuit-Seal.svg
Ninth
Alaska
Arizona
California
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
Oregon
Washington
Guam and Northern Mariana Islands are subject to the precedents set when the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Latta v. Otter and reversed Sevcik v. Sandoval. Neither territory explicitly allows or prohibits same-sex marriage, but Guam recognizes legal same-sex marriages performed elsewhere.

Idaho has filed a petition for writ of certiorari for Supreme Court review.[36]

US-CourtOfAppeals-10thCircuit-Seal.png Tenth Colorado
Kansas
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Utah
Wyoming
The ban in Kansas has been struck down in U.S. District Court, but while many counties are issuing same-sex marriage licenses, the state government is refusing any recognition until all appeals have been exhausted.[18] The original complaint has been amended, in an attempt to force state recognition.[19]
US-CourtOfAppeals-11thCircuit-Seal.png
Eleventh
Georgia Alabama
Florida
The Alabama and Florida rulings are subject to Circuit Court appeal.

The Eleventh Circuit has announced that it will not hear any appeals until after the U.S. Supreme Court has decided the cases from the Sixth Circuit (see above).

US-CourtOfAppeals-DCCircuit-Seal.png
District of Columbia
District of Columbia
US-CourtOfAppeals-FederalCircuit-Seal.svg
Federal Circuit
Recognizes same-sex marriages legally authorized under state, territory, or district law.
Circuit Civil marriage for same-sex couples Notes
Banned Ban overturned,
but order stayed
Banned contrary to
circuit precedent
Legal

See also[edit]

In general[edit]

In the United States of America[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lawsuit Filed to Block Nation's Last Unchallenged Same-Sex Marriage Ban in North Dakota - abcnews.go.com". AP. June 6, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Courts make no decision on gay marriage arguments - westport-news.com". AP. November 20, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Same-sex marriage bans in 3 Southern states heard in federal court - cbsnews.com". CBS/AP. January 9, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Texas high court to consider state jurisdiction over same-sex divorces - lgbtqnation.com". AP. August 24, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Gay Marriage Gets U.S. Supreme Court Review in Landmark Case - businessweek.com". Bloomberg News. January 16, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  6. ^ "Federal judge rules Alabama laws banning same-sex marriage unconstitutional - wsfa.com". WFSA 12. January 23, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2015. 
  7. ^ "Second Alabama gay couple wins same-sex marriage challenge - al.com". AL.com. January 27, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Alabama Supreme Court Orders Temporary Stop To New Same-Sex Marriage Licenses - buzzfeed.com". BuzzFeed. March 3, 2015. Retrieved March 3, 2015. 
  9. ^ "Gay Marriages Cleared In Arkansas, But On Hold In Idaho - WSIU.org". WSIU. May 15, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Arkansas Supreme Court takes up gay marriage case - timesunion.com". AP. November 20, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Federal Judge Overturns Arkansas' Gay Marriage Ban - arkansasbusiness.com". AP. November 25, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Emergency Stay Puts Same-Sex Marriage On Hold - wowt.com". WOWT 6 News. March 5, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Georgia’s gay marriage case stayed until after U.S. Supreme Court hearing - thegavoice.com". GA Voice. January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 20, 2015. 
  14. ^ "Chapter 3. The Contract of Marriage" (PDF). Guam Code Annotated. Compiler of Laws, Supreme Court of Guam. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Guam same-sex couple ready to fight for marriage in court - mvariety.com". Marianas Variety. April 9, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 
  16. ^ "AG allows marriage licenses for same-sex couples - kuam.com". KUAM News. April 15, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2015. 
  17. ^ "1:15-cv-00009 #11". Equality Case Files. Retrieved April 16, 2015. 
  18. ^ a b "Kansas agencies not recognizing gay marriages yet - ljworld.com". AP. November 20, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  19. ^ a b "ACLU amends same-sex marriage lawsuit - 6lawrence.com". AP. November 26, 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2014. 
  20. ^ a b c d e "Gay marriage bans in four states upheld on appeal - usatoday.com". USA Today. November 6, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Gay divorce granted by family court judge - courier-journal.com". The Courier-Journal. January 12, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2015. 
  22. ^ "Louisiana same-sex marriage ruling stayed pending appeal, attorney general says - nola.com". Times-Picayune. September 26, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "Michigan will recognize about 300 same-sex marriages from March; will not appeal court's decision - wxyz.com". WXYZ. February 4, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2015. 
  24. ^ "Mississippi’s Same-Sex Marriage Ban Is Unconstitutional, Federal Judge Rules - buzzfeed.com". BuzzFeed. November 25, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Koster won't appeal same-sex marriage ruling - news-leader.com". AP. October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Gay marriage now legal in Missouri - but only in St Louis - gaystarnews.com". Gay Star News. November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. 
  27. ^ "St. Louis Judge Rules Missouri Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional - ozarksfirst.com". Ozarks First. November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. 
  28. ^ "Missouri ban on gay marriage unconstitutional-federal judge - townhall.com". Reuters. November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014. 
  29. ^ "Judge Strikes Down Nebraska's Ban On Same Sex Marriage - nbcneb.com". 10/11 News. March 2, 2015. Retrieved March 2, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Ohio judges divided on same-sex divorce - norwalkreflector.com". MCT Regional News. October 14, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Puerto Rican government to no longer defend marriage ban - washingtonblade.com". Washington Blade. March 20, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Federal Judge Strikes Down South Dakota’s Ban on Marriage Equality - hrc.org". Human Rights Campaign. January 12, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Read the federal judge's decision striking down Texas's gay marriage ban - apps.washingtonpost.com". Washington Post. February 26, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Travis Co. Probate Judge finds Texas ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional - myfoxaustin.com". Fox Austin. February 17, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  35. ^ "Travis County clerk issues first same-sex marriage license in Texas - statesman.com". Austin American-Statesman. February 19, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2015. 
  36. ^ "Supreme Court asked to hear Idaho same-sex marriage case - metroweekly.com". Metro Weekly. January 5, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2015. 

External links[edit]