Sammy Davis, Jr.

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Sammy Davis, Jr.
Sammy Davis Jnr Allan Warren.jpg
1986 portrait by Allan Warren
Born Samuel George Davis, Jr.
(1925-12-08)December 8, 1925
Harlem, New York, U.S.
Died May 16, 1990(1990-05-16) (aged 64)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Cause of death
Throat cancer
Resting place
Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California
Occupation Singer, tap dancer, actor, musician
Years active 1928–1990
Religion Judaism
Spouse(s) Loray White (m. 1958–59)
May Britt (m. 1960–68)
Altovise Davis (m. 1970–90)
Children 4
Parents Sammy Davis, Sr.
Elvera Sanchez
Website
www.sammydavis-jr.com

Samuel George "Sammy" Davis, Jr. (December 8, 1925 – May 16, 1990) was an American entertainer. Primarily a dancer and singer, he was also an actor of stage and screen, musician, and impressionist, noted for his impersonations of actors, musicians and other celebrities. At the age of three Davis began his career in vaudeville with his father and Will Mastin as the Will Mastin Trio, which toured nationally. After military service Davis returned to the trio. Davis became an overnight sensation following a nightclub performance at Ciro's after the 1951 Academy Awards. With the trio, he became a recording artist. In 1954, he lost his left eye in an automobile accident, and several years later, he converted to Judaism.[1]

Davis's film career began as a child in 1933. In 1960, he appeared in the first Rat Pack film, Ocean's 11. After a starring role on Broadway in 1956's Mr Wonderful, Davis returned to the stage in 1964's Golden Boy, and in 1966 had his own TV variety show, The Sammy Davis Jr. Show. Davis's career slowed in the late 1960s, but he had a hit record with "The Candy Man" in 1972 and became a star in Las Vegas, earning him the nickname "Mister Show Business".[2][3][4]

As an African-American, Davis was the victim of racism throughout his life and was a large financial supporter of the Civil Rights movement. Davis had a complex relationship with the African-American community, and drew criticism after physically embracing President Richard M. Nixon in 1972. One day on a golf course with Jack Benny, he was asked what his handicap was. "Handicap?" he asked. "Talk about handicap — I'm a one-eyed Negro Jew."[5][6] This was to become a signature comment, recounted in his autobiography, and in countless articles.[7]

After reuniting with Sinatra and Dean Martin in 1987, Davis toured with them and Liza Minnelli internationally, before he died of throat cancer in 1990. He died in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, and his estate was the subject of legal battles.[8]

Davis was awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP and was nominated for a Golden Globe and an Emmy Award for his television performances. He was the recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 1987, and in 2001, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

Early life[edit]

Samuel George Davis, Jr. was born in the Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City, as an only child, to Sammy Davis, Sr., a black entertainer, and Elvera Sanchez,[9] a tap dancer of Afro-Cuban descent. At age 7, Davis appeared in a film in which he sang and danced with Ethel Waters[10] During his lifetime, Davis, Jr. stated that his mother was Puerto Rican and born in San Juan; however, in the 2003 biography In Black and White, author Wil Haygood writes that Davis, Jr.'s mother was born in New York City, to parents of Cuban, Afro-Cuban, and African-American descent, and that Davis, Jr. claimed he was Puerto Rican because he feared anti-Cuban backlash would hurt his record sales.[11][12][13]

Davis's parents were vaudeville dancers. As an infant, he was reared by his paternal grandmother. When he was three years old, his parents separated. His father, not wanting to lose custody of his son, took him on tour.

Will Mastin Trio: (L–R) Sammy Davis Sr., Sammy Davis Jr., and Will Mastin

Davis learned to dance from his father and his "uncle" Will Mastin, who led the dance troupe his father worked for. Davis joined the act as a child and they became the Will Mastin Trio. Throughout his career, Davis included the Will Mastin Trio in his billing. Mastin and his father shielded him from racism. Snubs were explained as jealousy, for instance. When Davis served in the United States Army during World War II, however, he was confronted by strong racial prejudice. He later said, "Overnight the world looked different. It wasn't one color any more. I could see the protection I'd gotten all my life from my father and Will. I appreciated their loving hope that I'd never need to know about prejudice and hate, but they were wrong. It was as if I'd walked through a swinging door for eighteen years, a door which they had always secretly held open."[14]

Career[edit]

Sammy Davis Jr. during the 1963 March on Washington

During service in WWII, the Army assigned Davis to an integrated entertainment Special Services unit and he found that the spotlight lessened the prejudice. Even prejudiced white men admired and respected his performances. "My talent was the weapon, the power, the way for me to fight. It was the one way I might hope to affect a man's thinking," he said.[15]

After his discharge, Davis rejoined the family dance act, which played at clubs around Portland, Oregon. He began to achieve success on his own and was singled out for praise by critics, releasing several albums.[16] This led to Davis being hired to sing the title track for the Universal Pictures film Six Bridges to Cross in 1954,[17][18] and later to his starring role in the Broadway play Mr. Wonderful in 1956.

In 1959, Davis became a member of the famous Rat Pack, led by his friend Frank Sinatra, which included fellow performers Dean Martin, Joey Bishop, and Peter Lawford, a brother-in-law of John F. Kennedy. Initially, Sinatra called the gathering "the Clan", but Davis voiced his opposition, saying that it reminded people of the Ku Klux Klan. Sinatra renamed the group "the Summit", but the media referred to them as the Rat Pack, the name of its earlier incarnation led by Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall. The group made several movies together, including the original version of Ocean's Eleven (1960), Sergeants Three (1962), and Robin and the Seven Hoods (1964), as well as many joint stage appearances in Las Vegas and elsewhere.

Davis was a headliner at The Frontier Casino in Las Vegas, but he was required (as were all black performers in the 1950s) to lodge in a rooming house on the west side of the city, instead of in the hotels as his white colleagues did. No dressing rooms were provided for black performers, and they had to wait outside by the swimming pool between acts. Davis and other black artists could entertain, but could not stay at the hotels where they performed, gamble in the casinos, or dine or drink in the hotel restaurants and bars. Davis later refused to work at places which practiced racial segregation.[19]

Sammy Davis Jr. (left) with Walter Reuther (center) and Roy Wilkins (right) at the 1963 March on Washington.

In 1964, Davis was starring in Golden Boy at night and shooting his own New York-based afternoon talk show during the day. When he could get a day off from the theater, he would be recording new songs in the studio, or performing live, often at charity benefits as far away as Miami, Chicago, and Las Vegas, or doing television variety specials in Los Angeles. Davis knew he was cheating his family of his company, but he could not help himself; as he later said, he was incapable of standing still.

Although he was still a draw in Las Vegas, Davis's musical career had sputtered by the latter 1960s, although he had a No. 11 hit (#1 on the Easy Listening singles chart) with "I've Gotta Be Me" in 1969. His effort to update his sound and reconnect with younger people resulted in some "hip" musical efforts with the Motown record label.[20] But then, even as his career seemed at its nadir, Sammy had an unexpected #1 hit with "The Candy Man" in 1972. Although he did not particularly care for the song and was chagrined that he was now best known for it, Davis made the most of his opportunity and revitalized his career. Although he enjoyed no more Top 40 hits, he did enjoy popularity with his 1976 performance of the theme song from the Baretta TV series, "Baretta's Theme (Keep Your Eye on the Sparrow)" (1975–1978), which was released as a single (20th Century Records 2282). He occasionally landed television and film parts, including cameo visits to the television shows I Dream of Jeannie, All in the Family (during which he famously kisses Archie Bunker (Carroll O'Connor) on the cheek) and, with wife Altovise Davis, on Charlie's Angels. In the 1970s, he appeared in commercials in Japan for Suntory whiskey.

Davis performing in 1966.

On December 11, 1967, NBC broadcast a musical-variety special entitled Movin' With Nancy. In addition to the Emmy Award-winning musical performances, the show is notable for Nancy Sinatra, daughter of Frank Sinatra, and Sammy Davis, Jr., greeting each other with a kiss, one of the first black-white kisses in U.S. television history.[21]

Davis had a friendship with Elvis Presley in the late 1960s, as they both were top-draw acts in Vegas at the same time. Davis was in many ways just as reclusive during his hotel gigs as Elvis, holding parties mainly in his penthouse suite, and Elvis went to them occasionally. Davis sang a version of Presley's song "In The Ghetto" and made a cameo appearance in Presley's concert film Elvis: That's the Way It Is. One year later, he made a cameo appearance in the James Bond film Diamonds Are Forever, but the scene was cut.

In Japan, Davis appeared in television commercials for coffee, and in the United States, he joined Sinatra and Martin in a radio commercial for a Chicago car dealership.

In May 27–28, 1973 Davis hosted (with Monte Hall) the first annual, twenty-hour Highway Safety Foundation telethon. Guests included Muhammad Ali, Paul Anka, Jack Barry, Dr. Joyce Brothers, Ray Charles, Dick Clark, Roy Clark, Howard Cosell, Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee, Joe Franklin, Cliff Gorman, Richie Havens, Danny Kaye, Steve Leeds,[22] Jerry Lewis, Hal Linden, Rich Little, Butterfly McQueen, Minnie Pearl, Boots Randolph, Tex Ritter, Phil Rizzuto, The Rockettes, Nipsy Russell, Sally Struthers, Mel Tillis, Ben Vereen, Lawrence Welk, and many more. It was a financial disaster. The total amount of pledges was $1.2 million. Actual pledges received were $525,000.[23]

Davis was a fan of daytime soap operas, particularly the shows produced by the American Broadcasting Company. This led to a cameo appearance on General Hospital and a recurring role as character Chip Warren on One Life to Live, for which he received a Daytime Emmy nomination in 1980. He was also a game show fan, appearing on the ABC version of Family Feud in 1979. He appeared on Tattletales with his third wife Altovise Davis in the 1970s. He made a cameo during an episode of the NBC version of Card Sharks in 1981.

In addition to American soaps, he was also a huge fan of the Australian show Prisoner: Cell Block H. Davis wanted to make an appearance in Prisoner, but the show ended (in 1986) before this could be arranged.[citation needed]

Davis was an avid photographer who enjoyed shooting family and acquaintances. His body of work was detailed in a 2007 book by Burt Boyar, named Photo by Sammy Davis, Jr.[24] "Jerry [Lewis] gave me my first important camera, my first 35 millimeter, during the Ciro's period, early '50s," Boyar quotes Davis. "And he hooked me." Davis used a medium format camera later on to capture images. Again quoting Davis, "Nobody interrupts a man taking a picture to ask ... 'What's that nigger doin' here?'" His catalog includes rare photos of his father dancing onstage as part of the Will Mastin Trio and intimate snapshots of close friends Jerry Lewis, Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, James Dean, Nat "King" Cole, and Marilyn Monroe. His political affiliations also were represented, in his images of Robert Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr. His most revealing work comes in photographs of wife May Britt and their three children, Tracey, Jeff and Mark.

Davis was an enthusiastic shooter and gun owner. He participated in fast-draw competitions—Johnny Cash recalled that Sammy was said to be capable of drawing and firing a Colt Single Action Army revolver in less than a quarter of a second.[25] Davis was skilled at fast and fancy gunspinning, and appeared on TV variety shows showing off this skill. He appeared in Western films and as a guest star on several "Golden Age" T.V. Westerns.

Personal life[edit]

Car accident and conversion to Judaism[edit]

Davis nearly died in an automobile accident on November 19, 1954, in San Bernardino, California, as he was making a return trip from Las Vegas to Los Angeles.[26] In 1953, he had struck up a friendship with comedian and host Eddie Cantor, who gave him a mezuzah. Instead of putting it by his door, as a traditional blessing, Davis would wear it around his neck as a good luck charm. The only time he forgot it, one night in 1954, he crashed his car on a way to a gig in California.[27] The accident occurred at a fork in U.S. Highway 66 at Cajon Boulevard and Kendall Drive (34°12′26″N 117°23′08″W / 34.2072°N 117.3855°W / 34.2072; -117.3855).[28] Davis lost his left eye to the bullet-shaped horn button (a standard 1954-55 Cadillac feature) as a result. His friend, actor Jeff Chandler, offered one of his own eyes if it would keep Davis from total blindness. The offer was not needed.[29] Davis wore an eye patch for at least six months following the accident.[30][31] He appeared on What's My Line? wearing the patch.[32] Later, he was fitted for a glass eye, which he wore for the rest of his life.

While in San Bernardino's Community Hospital, Eddie Cantor told him about the similarities between the Jewish and black cultures. Prompted by this conversation, Davis—who was born to a Catholic mother and Protestant father—began studying the history of Jews. He formally converted to Judaism several years later, in 1961.[5][33] One passage from his readings (from the book A History of The Jews by Abram L. Sachar), describing the endurance of the Jewish people, intrigued him in particular: "The Jews would not die. Three millennia of prophetic teaching had given them an unwavering spirit of resignation and had created in them a will to live which no disaster could crush."[34] In many ways, the accident marked a turning point in Davis's career, taking him from a well-known entertainer to a national celebrity.[26]

Marriages[edit]

In 1957, Davis was involved with Kim Novak, a young actress under contract to Columbia Studios. The head of the studio, Harry Cohn, was worried about the negative effect this would have on the studio because of the prevailing taboo against miscegenation. He called his friend, mobster Johnny Roselli, who was asked to tell Davis that he had to stop the affair with Novak. Roselli arranged for Davis to be kidnapped for a few hours to throw a scare into him. His hastily arranged and soon-dissolved marriage to black dancer Loray White in 1958 was an attempt to quiet the controversy.[35]

In 1960, Davis caused controversy again when he married white Swedish-born actress May Britt. Davis received hate mail while starring in the Broadway musical adaptation of Golden Boy during 1964–66 (for which he received a Tony Award nomination for Best Actor). At the time Davis appeared in the play, interracial marriages were forbidden by law in 31 US states (but were entirely legal in New York), and only in 1967 were those laws ruled unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.[36] Davis and Britt had one daughter Tracey and adopted two sons.[1] Davis performed almost continuously and spent little time with his wife. They divorced in 1968, after Davis admitted to having had an affair with singer Lola Falana. That year, Davis started dating Altovise Gore, a dancer in Golden Boy. They were married on May 11, 1970, by the Reverend Jesse Jackson. Kathy McKee replaced Altovise in Davis's nightclub act. Davis adopted a son, Manny, in 1989 and remained married until Davis's death in 1990.

Political beliefs[edit]

Sammy Davis, Jr. in the Yellow Oval Room of the White House with President Richard Nixon, March 4, 1973

Davis was a lifelong Democrat.[37]

In the early 1970s, he startled President Nixon with a hug during a live television broadcast. The incident was controversial. Davis also made a USO tour to South Vietnam at Nixon's request.

Previously Davis had won Nixon's respect with his participation in the Civil Rights Movement. Nixon invited Davis and his wife, Altovise, to sleep in the White House in 1973, the first time black people were invited to do so. The Davises spent the night in the Queens' Bedroom.[38]

Davis was a long-time donor to the Reverend Jesse Jackson's Operation PUSH organization. The Reverend Doctor Jesse Jackson also performed Davis's wedding.[39]

Death[edit]

Davis died in Beverly Hills, California, on May 16, 1990, of complications from throat cancer. Earlier, when he was told that surgery (laryngectomy) offered him the best chance of survival, Davis replied he would rather keep his voice than have a part of his throat removed; he subsequently was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation.[40] However, a few weeks prior to his death his entire larynx was removed during surgery.[13] He was interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California, next to his father and Will Mastin.

On May 18, 1990, two days after Davis's death, the neon lights of the Las Vegas Strip were darkened for ten minutes as a tribute to him. He was survived by his spouse, his daughter, his sons, his sister, his mother and his grandmother.

Legacy[edit]

Davis in 1989

Davis was portrayed by Don Cheadle in the HBO film The Rat Pack, a television film about the group of entertainers. Cheadle won a Golden Globe award for his performance.

Comedian Eddie Griffin has made his impersonation of Davis a major part of his act.

On later episodes of The Cosby Show, Cliff Huxtable (Bill Cosby) wore an "SDjr" pin as a tribute to Davis, who, in its 5th season, made a guest appearance in the episode "No Way, Baby".

On Saturday Night Live, Davis has been portrayed by Garrett Morris, Eddie Murphy, Billy Crystal and Tim Meadows.

Davis was portrayed on the popular sketch comedy show In Living Color by Tommy Davidson, notably a parody of the film Ghost, in which the ghost of Davis enlists the help of Whoopi Goldberg to communicate with his wife.

David Raynr also portrayed Davis in the miniseries Sinatra, a television film about the life of Frank Sinatra.

Davis was portrayed by Keith Powell in an episode of 30 Rock entitled "Subway Hero".

In the 1993 film Wayne's World 2, Tim Meadows portrays Davis in the dream sequence with Michael A. Nickles as Jim Morrison.

He was portrayed by Paul Sharma in the 2003 West End production Rat Pack Confidential.[41]

In September 2009, the musical Sammy: Once in a Lifetime premiered at the Old Globe Theater in San Diego with book, music and lyrics by Leslie Bricusse, and additional songs by Bricusse and Anthony Newley. The title role was played by Broadway Tony Award nominee Obba Babatundé.

Davis was mentioned in British singer Amy Winehouse's album Back to Black on the song "Me and Mr. Jones". The lyrics are as follows: "Aside from Sammy you're my best black Jew."

A black and white portrait of Davis, drawn by Jim Blanchard, adorns the cover of avant-garde rock band Oxbow's second album King of the Jews.

Midwest radio personality Kevin Matthews impersonated Sammy Davis, Jr. many times on his radio show.

Comedian Jim Carrey has portrayed Davis on stage, in the film Copper Mountain, and in a stand-up routine.

Comedian Billy Crystal has portrayed Sammy Davis, Jr., in his stand-up routine, and at the Oscars.

In "Frank Sinatra vs. Freddie Mercury", the October 1, 2012 episode of the YouTube parody series Epic Rap Battles of History, actor/musician Tay Zonday portrays Davis in a cameo.[42]

"Sammy" is a song dedicated to Davis on the 1997 Gwar album Carnival of Chaos.

In the novel and its film adaptation Everything Is Illuminated, the grandfather's seeing-eye dog is named "Sammy Davis Jr. Jr".

Discography[edit]

Honors and awards[edit]

Grammy Awards[edit]

Year Category Song Result Notes
2002 Grammy Hall of Fame Award "What Kind of Fool Am I?" Inducted Recorded in 1962
2001 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award Winner
1972 Pop Male Vocalist "Candy Man" Nominee
1962 Record of the Year "What Kind of Fool Am I" Nominee
1962 Male Solo Vocal Performance "What Kind of Fool Am I" Nominee

Emmy Awards[edit]

Year Category Program Result
Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Sammy Davis Jr.'s 60th Anniversary Celebration Winner[43]
1989 Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series The Cosby Show Nominee
1980 Outstanding Cameo Appearance in a Daytime Drama Series One Life to Live Nominee
1966 Outstanding Variety Special The Swinging World of Sammy Davis Jr. Nominee
1956 Best Specialty Act — Single or Group Sammy Davis Jr. Nominee

Other honors[edit]

Year Category Organization Program Result
2008 International Civil Rights Walk of Fame Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site Inducted
2006 Las Vegas Walk of Stars[44] front of Riviera Hotel Inducted
1989 NAACP Image Award NAACP Winner
1987 Kennedy Center Honors John F. Kennedy Center for
the Performing Arts
Honoree
1977 Best TV Actor — Musical/Comedy Golden Globe Sammy and Company (1975) Nominee
1974 Special Citation Award National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Winner
1968 NAACP Spingarn Medal Award NAACP Winner
1965 Best Actor — Musical Tony Award Golden Boy Nominee
1960[45] Hollywood Walk of Fame Star at 6254 Hollywood Blvd.

Filmography[edit]

Stage[edit]

TV[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sammy Davis Jr. Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved on June 6, 2013.
  2. ^ Casey Kasem's American Top 40 – The 70's from April 29 & May 6, 1972
  3. ^ Sammy Davis Jr.: Mr. Show Business. Legacy.com. Retrieved on February 2, 2013.
  4. ^ Sammy Davis Jr. – Mr Show-Business (Vinyl, LP) at Discogs. Discogs.com. Retrieved on February 2, 2013.
  5. ^ a b Religion: Jewish Negro Time Magazine February 1, 1960
  6. ^ Sammy Davis Jr. Is My Mixed Marriage Mixing Up My KidsEbony Magazine October 1966 p. 124
  7. ^ Rebecca Dube Menorah Illuminates Davis Jr.'s Judaism The Forward May 29, 2009
  8. ^ LegalZoom Will Upheld In Sammy Davis, Jr. Estate Battle – TheStreet
  9. ^ "Elvera Sanchez Davis, obituary, September 8, 2000". The New York Times. September 8, 2000. Retrieved September 18, 2009. 
  10. ^ Michael Bublé & Frank Sinatra Jr. on George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight (2012) on YouTube. Retrieved on 2013-05-12.
  11. ^ "What Made Sammy Dance?". Time. October 23, 2003. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  12. ^ "Extra! Extra! Late-Breaking News From The World Of Entertainment". Daily News (New York). October 14, 1996. Retrieved September 18, 2009. [dead link]
  13. ^ a b Haygood, Wil (2003). In Black and White: The Life of Sammy Davis, Jr.. New York: A. A. Knopf (Random House). p. 516. ISBN 0-375-40354-X. Retrieved April 29, 2006. 
  14. ^ Davis, Jr., Sammy; Boyer, Burt; Boyer, Jane (2000). Sammy: an autobiography: with material newly revised from Yes I can and Why me. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 9780374293550. OCLC 43567619. 
  15. ^ "Sammy Davis Jr.". Oral Cancer Foundation. February 6, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  16. ^ E.g. Billboard, July 25, 1953, p. 11.
  17. ^ Haygood, Wil (October 7, 2003). In black and white: the life of Sammy Davis Jr. A. A. Knopf. p. 156. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  18. ^ Fishgall, Gary (September 30, 2003). Gonna do great things: the life of Sammy Davis Jr. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-7432-2741-4. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  19. ^ Sammy Davis Jr., Burt Boyar, and Jane Boyar, Sammy: The Autobiography of Sammy Davis Jr. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000).
  20. ^ Eugene Chadbourne (2008). "Sammy Davis Jr. Now". Allmusic. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  21. ^ Nancy Sinatra (June 17, 2000). Nancy Sinatra Reminisces; Alan Dershowitz Talks About Justice; Hamilton Jordan Discusses Cancer; Lou Cannon Puts Reagan in Perspective (transcript). Interview with Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN. 
  22. ^ Davis, Jr, Sammy (June 22, 1973). "Advertisement thanking the participants". New York Daily News (NYC). p. 55. 
  23. ^ Staff Writer (1973). "The Highway Safety Foundation: A Chronology". Documenting reality. Retrieved 3/4/2014. 
  24. ^ Boyar, Burt (2007). Photo by Sammy Davis, Jr. New York: Regan Books. p. 338. ISBN 9780061146053. 
  25. ^ Hurst, Jack (August 26, 1994). "Johnny Cash's War Within". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  26. ^ a b Sammy Davis Jr. Turns Near Tragedy into Triumph, San Bernardino Sun, September 28, 2008[dead link]
  27. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/jfk-refused-sammy-davis-jr-perform-white-house/story?id=23379345
  28. ^ Price, Mark J. (November 25, 2012). "Local History: Akron Legend About Sammy Davis Jr. Turns Out to Be True". Akron Beacon Journal. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  29. ^ Davis, Jr., Sammy; Boyar, Jane & Burt (1990). Yes I can : the story of Sammy Davis, Jr. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-52268-5. 
  30. ^ "Nice Fellow". Time (Time Warner). April 18, 1955. Retrieved September 18, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Pamphlet from Birdland Jazz Club". 1955. Retrieved September 18, 2009. [dead link]
  32. ^ Sammy Davis Jr. eye-patched on YouTube
  33. ^ Green, David B. (May 16, 2013). "This day in Jewish history / Sammy Davis Jr. dies - This Day in Jewish History - Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  34. ^ Weiss, Beth (March 19, 2003). "Sammy Davis, Jr.". The Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  35. ^ Reid, Ed; Demaris, Ovid (1963). The Green Felt Jungle. Cutchogue, New York: Buccaneer Books. LCCN 63022217. 
  36. ^ Loving v. Virginia.
  37. ^ Jacobs, George; Stadiem, William (2003). Mr. S.: The Last Word on Frank Sinatra. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-051516-3. 
  38. ^ Harris, Gardiner (November 9, 2008). "The Underside of the Welcome Mat". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Davis supports Jackson", Minden Press-Herald, February 6, 1984, p. 1
  40. ^ Sue Rochman (2007). "The Cancer That Silenced Mr. Wonderful's Song". Cancer Research Magazine 2 (3). Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  41. ^ Rival Rat Pack Reopens West End Whitehall, 18 Sep – News. Whatsonstage.com. Retrieved on 2013-02-10.
  42. ^ "Frank Sinatra vs. Freddie Mercury". Epic Rap Battles of History. YouTube. October 1, 2012.
  43. ^ The Envelope. "Awards Database: Sammy Davis Jr.". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  44. ^ "Las Vegas Walk of Stars". Lasvegaswalkofstars.com. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  45. ^ "Sammy Davis, Jr.". Retrieved June 11, 2010. "inducted on August 2, 1960" 

Further reading[edit]

Autobiographies[edit]

Biographies[edit]

  • Haygood, Wil (2003). In Black and White: The Life of Sammy Davis, Jr. New York: A. A. Knopf (Random House). ISBN 0-375-40354-X. 
  • Birkbeck, Matt. (2008) Deconstructing Sammy. Amistad. ISBN 978-0-06-145066-2
  • Silber, Jr., Arthur (2003) "Sammy Davis, Jr: Me and My Shadow, Samart Enterprises, ISBN 0-9655675-5-9

Other[edit]

External links[edit]