For the Nicaraguan dictator(s), see: Somoza
Samosa with chutney from Raipur, India
|Alternative name(s)||Samsa, somsa, sambosak, sambusa, samoosa, singada, samuza, somasi, somaas|
|Region or state||South Asia, Central Asia, Western Asia, Horn of Africa, North Africa, South Africa|
|Main ingredient(s)||Maida, potato, onion, spices, green chili, cheese, meat|
A samosa is a fried or baked pastry with a savory filling, such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, lentils, ground lamb, ground beef or ground chicken. The size, shape and consistency may vary, but typically, they are distinctly triangular. Samosas are often accompanied by chutney. They are a popular appetizer or snack in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Southwest Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the Mediterranean, the Horn of Africa, North Africa and South Africa.
Name variation 
Samosa (//; Hindi: समोसा, Urdu: سموسه) is generally used in the South Asian and South-east Asian countries. Other names are used in other areas: (Arabic: سمبوسك sambūsak), Bengali: সিঙাড়া , sing-ra in Assamese, Oriya: ષ્હિઙદ, shingada, Punjabi: ਸਮੋਸਾ, smosa, Hebrew: סמבוסק sambusak, Gujarati: સુમૉસ sumosa, Kannada: ಸಮೋಸಾ samosa, Malayalam: സമോസ, Marathi: समोसा, Persian: سمبوسه, Tamil: சமோசா, Telugu: సమోసా, Urdu: سموسه, sambusak, samsa (pronounced [ˈsamsə]) or somsa in Turkic Central Asia (Kazakh: самса, [sɑmsɑ́], Kyrgyz: самса, [sɑ́msɑ];, Uzbek: somsa, [sɒmsa], Uyghur: سامسا, [sɑmsɑ́]), as well as Turkey (Turkish: samsa böreği), sambusa among Arabs, Eritreans, Ethiopians, Somalis (Somali: sambuusa) and Tajiks (Tajik: самбӯса), sanbusé among Iranians (Persian: سنبوسه), samuza (Burmese: စမူဆာ, IPA: [sʰəmùzà]) among Burmese, sambosa [sam͡bosḁ] among Malagasy or chamuça in the Lusophone world.
The word "samosa" can be traced to the Persian سنبوساگ sanbosag. The pastry name in other countries also derives from this root, such as the crescent-shaped sanbusak or sanbusaj in Arab countries, sambosa in Afghanistan, samosa in India, samboosa in Tajikistan, samsa by Turkic-speaking nations, sambusa in parts of Iran, and chamuça in Goa, Mozambique and Portugal. While they are currently referred to as sambusak in the Arabic-speaking world, Medieval Arabic recipe books sometimes spell it sambusaj.
The samosa has been a popular snack in the South Asia for centuries. It is believed to have originated in Middle East (where it is known as sambosa) prior to the 10th century. Abolfazl Beyhaqi (995-1077), an Iranian historian has mentioned it in his history, Tarikh-e Beyhaghi. It was introduced to the Arabian subcontinent in the 13th or 14th century by traders from the region.
Ibn Battuta, the 14th-century traveller and explorer, describes a meal at the court of Muhammad bin Tughluq where the samushak or sambusak, a small pie stuffed with minced meat, almonds, pistachio, walnuts and spices, was served before the third course, of pulao.
Regional varieties 
Regions where the dish serves as a staple of local cuisine have different ways of preparing it.
The samosa contains a maida flour shell stuffed with some filling, generally a mixture of mashed boiled potato, onion, green peas, spices and green chili; The entire pastry is then deep fried to a golden brown colour, in vegetable oil. It is served hot and is often eaten with fresh Indian chutney, such as mint, coriander or tamarind. It can also be prepared as a sweet form, rather than as a savory one. Samosas are often served in chaat, along with the traditional accompaniments of yogurt, chutney, chopped onions, coriander, and chaat masala.
In Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand and other Northern States of India, a bigger version of the samosa with spicy filling of 'masala potatoes' peas, crushed green chillies' and sometimes dry fruits, and other variation fillings is quite popular. The samosa is relatively bigger in size as compared to other Indian and foreign variants.
In West Bengal, Shingaras (Bengali version of samosas) are snacks. They are found almost everywhere. Shingaras are easy to make but the folding is little tricky and many people do not know how to fold or make shingaras. Bengali shingaras are a bit smaller in size compared to those made in other parts of India and the filling is mainly of small pieces of potato and not mashed boiled potato along with other ingredients. They are wrapped in a thin dough and fried. The coating is of white flour and not wheat flour and it's slightly sweet in taste. What distinguishes good shingaras are flaky textures, almost as if they’re made with savoury pie crust.
Usually, shingaras are fried deep to a golden brown colour, in vegetable oil. They are served hot and consumed with ketchup or chutney, such as mint, coriander or tamarind. Shingaras are often served in chaat, along with the traditional accompaniments of yogurt, chutney, chopped onions and coriander, and chaat masala. Usually shingaras are eaten during the tea time as tiffin. They can also be prepared as a sweet form, rather than as a savoury one. Bengali shingaras tend to be triangular, filled with potato, peas and diced almond or other vegetables, and are more heavily fried and crunchier than either shingara or their Indian samosa cousins. Fulkopir shingara (Shingara filled with cauliflower mixture. In Bengal, there are non-veg varieties of shingara called "mangsher shingara"(mutton singara) and "macher shingara"(Fish shingara). There are also sweeter versions like the narkel er shingara (Coconut shingara) and others filled with khoya and dipped in sugar syrup.
In South India, samosas are slightly different, in that they are folded in a different way more like Portuguese chamuças, with a different style pastry. The filling also differs, typically featuring mashed potatoes with spices, fried onions, peas, carrots, cabbage, curry leaves, green chillies, etc.. It is mostly eaten without chutney. Samosas in South India come in different sizes, and fillings are greatly influenced by the local food habits. Samosas made with spiced mashed potato mixture are quite popular in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.
The Bengali version of the samosa is called a Shingara and is normally much smaller than the standard Indian samosa.
Samosas of various types are available all over Pakistan. In general, most samosa varieties sold in the southern Sindh province and in the eastern Punjab, especially the city of Lahore are spicier and mostly contain vegetable or potato based fillings. On the other hand, the samosas sold in the west and north of the country mostly contain meat based fillings and are comparatively less spicy. In Pakistan, samosas of Karachi are famous for their spicy flavour, whereas samosas from Fasilabad are noted for being unusually large. The samosas are eaten with various accompaniments such as mint chutney, tamarind, plum or tomato chutney, yogurt and a side portion of onion salad. Another distinct variety of samosa available in Karachi is called kaghazi samosa (or paper samosa in English) due to its thin and crispy covering which resembles a wonton or spring roll wrapper. The filling is usually made up of mixed vegetables or minced meat. Both versions are very popular. Another variant, popular in eastern Punjab, consists of samosas with side dishes of mashed, spiced chickpeas, onion and coriander salad, as well as various chutneys to top the samosas. The samosas are fried or baked pastry with a savory filling, such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, lentils, ground lamb, ground beef or ground chicken. A sweet variety of samosa is also popular in the country. This sweet samosa is filled with a combination of sugar, dried fruits, nuts and sometimes anise seeds. These samosas were a traditional gift sent to people to congratulate them on births, weddings etc.
Central Asia 
In Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, samosas are almost always baked and never fried. The dough can be a simple bread dough, or a layered pastry dough. The most common filling for traditional samosa is lamb and onions, but beef, chicken, and cheese varieties are also quite common from street vendors. Samosas with other fillings, such as potato or pumpkin (usually only when in season), can also be found.
In Central Asia, samosas are often sold on the street as a hot snack. They are sold at kiosks, where only samosas are made, or alternatively, at kiosks where other fast foods (such as hamburgers) are sold. Many grocery stores also buy samosas from suppliers and resell them.
The local equivalent of samosas in Indonesia are known as pastel, usually filled with eggs, ground beef or chicken.
Horn of Africa 
Samosas are a staple of local cuisine in the Horn of Africa (Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti), where they are known as sambusa. While they can be eaten any time of the year, they are usually reserved for special occasions, such as Ramadan, Christmas or Meskel.
In Israel, a sambusak is a semicircular pocket of dough filled with mashed chickpeas, fried onions and spices. It is associated with Sephardic Jewish cuisine and Arabic Palestinian cuisine. An Israeli sambusak is not as spicy as the Indian version.
Portuguese-speaking countries 
In Goa and Portugal, samosas are known as chamuças, usually filled with chicken, beef, pork, lamb or vegetables, and generally served quite hot. They are an integral part of Goan cuisine and are a common snack in Portugal.
Chamuças are also relatively common in Brazil (where they are known by the name pastel) and several former Portuguese colonies in Africa, such as Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Angola, and Mozambique.
English-speaking countries 
Samosas have become popular in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Kenya, Canada, and the United States. They may be called samboosa or sambusac, and in South Africa they are often called samoosa. Frozen samosas are increasingly available in grocery stores in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
While samosas are traditionally fried, many Westerners prefer to bake them, as this is viewed as more convenient and healthier by some diners. Variations using phyllo, or flour tortillas are sometimes used.
See also 
- Arnold P. Kaminsky; Roger D. Long (23 September 2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Lovely triangles "Hindustan Times", 23 August 2008.
- Rodinson, Maxime, Arthur Arberry, and Charles Perry. Medieval Arab cookery. Prospect Books (UK), 2001. p. 72.
- Uzbek samsa Consulate General of Yemen in New York City. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- Davidson, Alan (1999). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211579-0.
- Beyhaqi, Abolfazl, Tarikh-e Beyhaghi, p. 132.
- Savoury temptations The Tribune, 5 September 2005.
- "Origin of the Samosa". The Samosa Connection. samosa-connection.com. "sambusak: "minced meat cooked with almonds, pistachios, onions and spices placed inside a thin envelop of wheat and deep-fried in ghee"."
- Regal Repasts Jiggs Kalra and Dr Pushpesh Pant, India Today Plus, March 1999.
- Recipes for Dishes Ain-i-Akbari, by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak. English tr. by H. Blochmann and Colonel H. S. Jarrett, 1873–1907. Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, Volume I, Chapt, 24, page 59. “10. Quṭáb, which the people of Hindústán call sanbúsah. This is made several ways. 10 s. meat; 4 s. flour; 2 s. g'hí; 1 s. onions; ¼ s. fresh ginger; ½ s. salt; 2 d. pepper and coriander seed; cardamum, cuminseed, cloves, 1 d. of each; ¼ s. of summáq. This can be cooked in twenty different ways, and gives four full dishes.”
- Samosa recipeSamosa recipe from Gujarat. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- "Gems in Israel: Sabich - The Alternate Israeli Fast Food".
- "Lineups threaten to stall Fredericton's hot samosa market". CBC.ca. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- Fox, Chris (29 July 2009). "Patel couldn't give her samosas away". The Daily Gleaner (dailygleaner.com). p. A1. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- South African English is lekker!. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- Fennel-Scented Spinach and Potato Samosas. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- Potato Samosas. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Samosa|
- North Indian Samosa - Step by Step Cooking.
- The Ismaili Nutrition Centre Chicken Samosa recipe includes health and nutritional information and a visual guide to folding samosas.