Samoset

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For the community in the United States, see Samoset, Florida.

Samoset (ca. 1590–1653) was the first Native American to make contact with the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony. On March 16, 1621, the settlers were more than surprised when Samoset strolled straight through the middle of the encampment at Plymouth Colony and greeted them in English, which he had begun to learn from a group of English sailors who took Samoset from what is now Maine.[1]

The orthography of Samoset's name varied depending on which Englishman was discussing him. Although he appeared as Samoset in some accounts, in others he appeared as Somerset. This odd Anglicisation of this Native American name probably came naturally to English explorers, many of whom hailed from the West Country. Even Captain Christopher Levett, a Yorkshireman, referred to this Native American name as Somerset in his account of his journey to explore New England in 1623 and 1624.[2] Capt. Levett entertained Samoset, along with other Native American leaders, in 1624 in the harbor of present-day Portland, Maine.[3]

History[edit]

Samoset was a sagamore (subordinate chief) of an Eastern Abenaki tribe that resided at that time in what is now Maine. The Abenaki spoke the Algonquian language, so Samoset could communicate with the Nauset and Wampanoag people of the area.[4] He was visiting the Wampanoag chieftain Massasoit.

On March 16, 1621, Samoset entered the encampment at Plymouth and spoke to the colonists. He had learned his broken English from fishermen that came to fish off Monhegan Island, and knew some of ship captains by name. After spending the night with the Pilgrims, he left to return with five others, who brought deerskins to trade. As it was Sunday, the colonists declined to trade at that time, but offered them some food. On March 22, 1621 Samoset came back with Squanto, the last remaining Patuxet, who spoke much better English than Samoset. Squanto arranged a meeting with Massasoit.[4]

Samoset is believed to have died around 1653 in what is today Bristol, Maine.[4]

From Mourt's Relation (1622): Samoset Comes to Plymouth[edit]

Friday the 16th a fair warm day towards; this morning we determined to conclude of the military orders, which we had begun to consider of before but were interrupted by the savages, as we mentioned formerly; and whilst we were busied hereabout, we were interrupted again, for there presented himself a savage, which caused an alarm. He very boldly came all alone and along the houses straight to the rendezvous, where we intercepted him, not suffering him to go in, as undoubtedly he would, out of his boldness. He saluted us in English, and bade us welcome, for he had learned some broken English among the Englishmen that came to fish at Monchiggon, and knew by name the most of the captains, commanders, and masters that usually come. He was a man free in speech, so far as he could express his mind, and of a seemly carriage. We questioned him of many things; he was the first savage we could meet withal. He said he was not of these parts, but of Morattiggon, and one of the sagamores or lords thereof, and had been eight months in these parts, it lying hence a day's sail with a great wind, and five days by land. He discoursed of the whole country, and of every province, and of their sagamores, and their number of men, and strength. The wind being to rise a little, we cast a horseman's coat about him, for he was stark naked, only a leather about his waist, with a fringe about a span long, or little more; he had a bow and two arrows, the one headed, and the other unheaded. He was a tall straight man, the hair of his head black, long behind, only short before, none on his face at all; he asked some beer, but we gave him strong water and biscuit, and butter, and cheese, and pudding, and a piece of mallard, all which he liked well, and had been acquainted with such amongst the English. He told us the place where we now live is called Patuxet, and that about four years ago all the inhabitants died of an extraordinary plague, and there is neither man, woman, nor child remaining, as indeed we have found none, so as there is none to hinder our possession, or to lay claim unto it. All the afternoon we spent in communication with him; we would gladly have been rid of him at night, but he was not willing to go this night. Then we thought to carry him on shipboard, wherewith he was well content, and went into the shallop, but the wind was high and the water scant, that it could not return back. We lodged him that night at Stephen Hopkins' house, and watched him.

The next day he went away back to the Massasoits, from whence he said he came, who are our next bordering neighbors. They are sixty strong, as he saith. The Nausets are as near southeast of them, and are a hundred strong, and those were they of whom our people were encountered, as before related. They are much incensed and provoked against the English, and about eight months ago slew three Englishmen, and two more hardly escaped by flight to Monchiggon; they were Sir Ferdinando Gorges his men, as this savage told us, as he did likewise of the huggery, that is, fight, that our discoverers had with the Nausets, and of our tools that were taken out of the woods, which we willed him should be brought again, otherwise, we would right ourselves. These people are ill affected towards the English, by reason of one Hunt, a master of a ship, who deceived the people, and got them under color of trucking with them, twenty out of this very place where we inhabit, and seven men from Nauset, and carried them away, and sold them for slaves like a wretched man (for twenty pound a man) that cares not what mischief he doth for his profit.

Saturday, in the morning we dismissed the savage, and gave him a knife, a bracelet, and a ring; he promised within a night or two to come again, and to bring with him some of the Massasoits, our neighbors, with such beavers' skins as they had to truck with us.[5]

Namesakes[edit]

The Samoset Council of the Boy Scouts of America (located in northeastern Wisconsin) is named after Samoset, along with middle schools in Lake Ronkonkoma, NY and Leominster, MA, and an elementary school in Bradenton, Florida. The town of Samoset, Florida, near Tampa Bay, is also named for him.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Winslow, Edward; William Bradford (1865) [1622]. Henry Martyn Dexter, ed. Mourt's Relation or Journal of the Plantation at Plymouth. Boston: John Kimball Wiggin. pp. 83–84. OCLC 8978744. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  2. ^ Matthews, Albert (1904). "Note on the Indian Sagamore Samoset". Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts (Boston: The Society) 6: 59–70 at 60. OCLC 1564125. Retrieved 2008-12-02.  (Of course, by that time Levett himself was residing in the West of England, and was married to a woman from Somersetshire.)
  3. ^ Maine: A Guide 'Down East,' Federal Writers' Project, Houghton-Mifflin Company, Boston, Mass., Printed by the Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1937
  4. ^ a b c "Samoset", Encyclopedia of World Biography
  5. ^ Winslow, Edward; William Bradford, Caleb Johnson, ed. "Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, 1622, Part I". The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  (Uses modern spelling.)