Sample entropy

Sample entropy (SampEn) is a modification of approximate entropy (ApEn), used extensively for assessing the complexity of a physiological time-series signal, thereby diagnosing diseased state.[1] Unlike ApEn, SampEn shows good traits such as data length independence and trouble-free implementation. Also, there is a small computational difference: In ApEn, the comparison between the template vector (see below) and the rest of the vectors also includes comparison with itself. This guarantees that probabilities $C_{i}'^{m}(r)$ are never zero. Consequently, it is always possible to take a logarithm of probabilities. Because template comparisons with itself lower ApEn values, the signals are interpreted to be more regular than they actually are. These self-matches are not included in SampEn.

There is a multiscale version of SampEn as well, suggested by Costa and others.[2]

Definition

Like approximate entropy (ApEn), Sample entropy (SampEn) is a measure of complexity [1]. But it does not include self-similar patterns as ApEn does. For a given embedding dimension $m$, tolerance[disambiguation needed] $r$ and number of data points $N$, SampEn is the negative logarithm of the probability that if two sets of simultaneous data points of length $m$ have distance $< r$ then two sets of simultaneous data points of length $m+1$ also have distance $< r$. And we represent it by $SampEn(m,r,N)$ (or by $SampEn(m,r,\tau,N)$ including sampling time $\tau$).

Now assume we have a time-series data set of length $N = { \{ x_1 , x_2 , x_3 , . . . , x_N \} }$ with a constant time interval $\tau$. We define a template vector of length $m$, such that $X_m (i)={ \{ x_i , x_{i+1} , x_{i+2} , . . . , x_{i+m-1} \} }$ and the distance function $d[X_m(i),X_m(j)]$ (i≠j) is to be the Chebyshev distance (but it could be any distance function, including Euclidean distance). We count the number of vector pairs in template vectors of length $m$ and $m+1$ having $d[X_m(i),X_m(j)] < r$ and denote it by $B$ and $A$ respectively. We define the sample entropy to be

$SampEn=-\log {A \over B}$

Where,

$A$ = no of template vector pairs having $d[X_{m+1}(i),X_{m+1}(j)] < r$ of length $m+1$

$B$ = no of template vector pairs having $d[X_m(i),X_m(j)] < r$ of length $m$

It is clear from the definition that $A$ will always have smaller value than $B$, so the value of $SampEn(m,r,\tau)$ will be always positive. A smaller value of $SampEn$ also indicates more self-similarity in data set or less noise.

Generally we take the value of $m$ to be $2$ and the value of $r$ to be $0.2 \times std$. Where std stands for standard deviation which should be taken over a very large dataset. For instance, the r value of 6 ms is appropriate for sample entropy calculations of heart rate intervals, since this corresponds to $0.2 \times std$ for a very large population.

Multiscale SampEn

The definition mentioned above is a special case of multi scale sampEn with $\delta=1$,where $\delta$ is called skipping parameter. In multiscale SampEn template vectors are defined with a certain interval between its each element specified by the value of $\delta$. And modified template vector is defined as $X_{m,\delta}(i)={x_i,x_{i+\delta},x_{i+2\times\delta},...,x_{i+(m-1)\times\delta} }$ and sampEn can be written as $SampEn \left ( m,r,\delta \right )=-\log { A_\delta \over B_\delta }$ And we calculate $A_\delta$ and $B_\delta$ like before.

Implementation

The SampEn can be implemented easily in many different programming language. One example among MatLab versions can be found here.

References

1. ^ Richman, JS; Moorman, JR (2000). "Physiological time-series analysis using approximate entropy and sample entropy". American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 278 (6): H2039–49. PMID 10843903.
2. ^ Costa, Madalena; Goldberger, Ary; Peng, C.-K. (2005). "Multiscale entropy analysis of biological signals". Physical Review E 71 (2). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.71.021906.