Samsi (also Shamsi) was an Arab queen who reigned in the 8th century BCE. As an ally of Rakhianu of Damascus, she fought the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III in 732 BCE. According to the Assyrian records, Samsi took part in a rebellion, however "Tiglath-Pileser defeated Samsi in the neighbourhood of Mount Sa-qu-ur-ri, killed many of her men, and took a great deal of booty." Israel Eph'al notes the Assyrian records claim she "fled for her life 'like a wild she-ass' to the desert. At this point she apparently decided to surrender to Tiglath-Pileser, and paid tribute." "Samsi remained queen after surrendering to Tiglath Pileser, but a qēpu was appointed over her by the king of Assyria." Samsi's predecessor was Zabibe, and her successor Yatie.
- Leick, 2001, p. 138.
- Eph'al (1982): 85.
- Eph'al (1982): 86.
- Ephʻal, Israel (1982). The Ancient Arabs: Nomads on the Borders of the Fertile Crescent 9th-5th Centuries B.C. Brill. ISBN 978-965-223-400-1.
- Leick, Gwendolyn (2001). Who's Who in the Ancient Near East (Illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-13231-2.
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