|• Mayor||Yusuf Ziya Yılmaz (AKP)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||(+90) 362|
Samsun is a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey. It is the provincial capital of Samsun Province and a major Black Sea port. The growing city has 2 universities, several hospitals, many shopping malls, a lot of light manufacturing industry, large sports centers and an opera company.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 People
- 4 Government
- 5 Geography
- 6 Architecture
- 7 Transport
- 8 Economy
- 9 Culture
- 10 Education
- 11 Media
- 12 Health
- 13 Parks
- 14 Sports
- 15 International relations
- 16 Notable people
- 17 See also
- 18 References
- 19 External links
The present name of the city may come from its former Greek name of Amisos by a shortening of Eis Amisos (meaning to Amisos) + ounta (Greek suffix for place names) to Sampsunda (Σαμψούντα) and then Samsun (pronounced [sɑmsun]).
During the Ottoman Empire the present name was written in Ottoman Turkish: صامسون
Paleolithic artifacts found in the Tekkeköy Caves can be seen in Samsun Archaeology Museum.
Tumuli, containing tombs dated between 300BC and 30BC, can be seen at Amisos Hill.
Samsun (then known as Amisos, alternative spelling Amisus) was settled between the years of 760 - 750 BC by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. The city's ideal combination of fertile ground and shallow waters attracted numerous traders.
In the 3rd century BC the city came under the expanded rule of the Kingdom of Pontus. The Amisos treasure may have belonged to one of the kings. The Kingdom of Pontus had been part of the empire of Alexander the Great. However, the empire was fractured soon after Alexander's death in the 4th century BC. At its height, the kingdom controlled the north of central Anatolia and mercantile towns on the northern Black Sea shores.
Samsun Castle was built.
When Constantinople was conquered in 1204 by the Fourth Crusade, Amisos was governed by a prudent official named Sabbas, who was accordingly popular. When the army of the Trebizond Empire under Emperor Alexios I appeared before its walls and demanded allegiance to Trebizond, Sabbas refused; the town was subjected to a siege until help arrived from the Sultan of Iconium. Knowing full well he lacked the resources to keep this city independent, Sabbas eventually acknowledged the nominal rule of Theodore Laskaris.[unreliable source?]
Samsun was one of the Genoese colonies.
In the later Ottoman period the land around the town mainly produced tobacco. The town was connected to the railway system in the second half of the 19th century, and tobacco trade boomed.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established the Turkish liberation movement in Samsun on May 19, 1919, the date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. Later in the war the city was bombarded. As of 1920, Samsun's population totaled about 36,000.
A US aırforce radio group was based in Samsun from 1956 until closure in the early 70s.
The grandparents of many of the present inhabitants migrated to Samsun from further east on the Black Sea.
Samsun is a long city which extends along the coast between two river deltas which jut into the Black Sea. It is located at the end of an ancient route from Cappadocia: the Amisos of antiquity lay on the headland northwest of the modern city center.
The city is growing fast: land has been reclaimed from the sea and many more apartment blocks and shopping malls are currently being built. Industry is tending to move (or be moved) east, further away from the city center and towards the airport.
To Samsun's west, lies the Kızılırmak ("Red River", the Halys of antiquity), one of the longest rivers in Anatolia and its fertile delta. To the east, lie the Yeşilırmak ("Green River", the Iris of antiquity) and its delta. The River Mert reaches the sea at the city.
Samsun has a borderline oceanic/humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb/Cfa); like most of the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey. Samsun has a typical Black Sea climate with high and evenly distributed rainfall the year round. Summers are warm and humid, and the average maximum temperature is around 27 °C (81 °F) in August. Winters are cool and damp, and the lowest average minimum temperature is around 3 °C (37 °F) in January.
Precipitation is heaviest in late autumn and early winter. Snow is quite common between the months of December and March but this usually varies considerably from year to year, and the snowcover and temperatures below the freezing point rarely last more than a couple of days.
The water temperature, like on the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, fluctuates between 8–20 °C (46–68 °F) throughout the year.
|Climate data for Samsun|
|Record high °C (°F)||22
|Average high °C (°F)||10
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.6
|Average low °C (°F)||3.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||74
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||10||10||11||9||8||6||4||4||6||7||8||9||92|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||93||84||124||150||217||270||310||279||210||155||120||93||2,105|
|Source #1: BBC Weather for record temperatures, precipitation, rainy days, sunshine and humidity|
|Source #2: = Climate-Data.org for average temperatures|
- Pazar Mosque, Samsun's oldest surviving building, a mosque built by the Ilkhanate Mongols in the 13th century.
- Valide or Büyük Mosque was built by the Batumlu Haci Efendi in 1884. Its name "Valide" comes from the mother of Sultan Abdulaziz.
- Haci Hatun Mosque dates from 1694
Long distance buses: the bus station is outside the city centre, but most bus companies provide a free transfer there if you have a ticket.
Railway: Passenger and freight trains run to Sivas via Amasya. The train station is in the city center. Freight trains are taken by ferry to railways at the port of Kavkaz in Russia, and will later see service to the port of Varna in Bulgaria and Poti in Georgia. 
Light rail: Modern trams run between the train station and Ondokuz Mayıs University.
City buses 
Dolmuş: The routes are numbered 1 to 4 and each route has different color minibuses.
Airline: Samsun-Çarşamba Airport is 23 km (14 mi) east of the city center. It is possible to reach the airport by Havas service buses: they depart from the coach park close to Kultur Sarayi in the city center. 
Horse-drawn carriages (Turkish:fayton) run along the seafront.
Bike: The council are trying to set up automated bike rental along the seafront but have had problems with theft.
Samsun has a mixed economy.
Ports and shipbuilding
Samsun is a port city. In the early 20th century, the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey funded the building of a harbor. Before the building of the harbor, ships had to anchor to deliver goods, approximately 1 mile or more from shore. Trade and transportation was focused around a road to and from Sivas. Tobacco was also a major crop, with its own type being grown in Samsun - Samsun-Bafra, which the British described as being "small but very aromatic leaves," and commanding a "high price." The privately operated port fronting the city centre handles freight, including RORO ferries to Novorossiysk, whereas fishing boats land their catches in a separate harbour slightly further east. A ship building yard is under construction at the eastern city limit. Road and rail freight connections with central Anatolia can be used to send inland both the agricultural produce of the surrounding well rained upon and fertile land, and also imports from overseas. However a pipeline is used to import natural gas undersea from Russia and distribute it to Ankara.
There is a light industrial zone between the city and the airport. The main manufactured products are medical devices and products, furniture, tobacco products (although tobacco farming is now limited by the government), chemicals and automobile spare parts.
Local government and services
Provincial government and services (e.g. courts, prisons and hospitals) support the surrounding region. Agricultural research establishments support provincial agriculture and food processing.
There are many new shopping centers.
- Yabancılar Pazari (Foreigners Market)
The Atatürk Culture Center
Atatürk Kültür Sarayı (AKM - Palace of Culture). Concerts and other performances are held at the Kultur Sarayi, which is shaped much like a ski jump. Samsun State Opera and Ballet performs in The Atatürk Culture Center. Founded in 2009 it is one of the six state opera houses in Turkey. The Samsun Opera have performed Die Entführung (W. A. Mozart) in the annual İstanbul Opera Festival. In collaboration with The Pekin Opera, The Samsun Opera performed Puccini's Madama Butterfly in the Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival in 2012. Other performances include La Boheme, La Traviata, Don Quijote, Giselle. The current musical director is Lorenzo Castriota Skanderbeg.
- Archaeological and Atatürk Museum. The archaeological part of the museum displays ancient artifacts found in the Samsun area, including the Amisos treasure. The Atatürk section includes photographs of his life and some personal belongings. The museum is open from 8:30 till 12:00 and from 14:00 till 17:00.
- Atatürk (Gazi) Museum. It houses Atatürk's bedroom, his study and conference room as well as some personal belongings.
- Samsun City Museum. A new museum.
There is an annual international festival. http://www.dengegazetesi.com.tr/author_article_detail.php?id=8291. Missing or empty
There are two universities in Samsun: the state run Ondokuz Mayıs University and the private sector Canik Başarı University. There is also a police training college  and many small private colleges.
There is a local newspaper called Haber Gazetesi
There are many public and private hospitals.
- Batı (west) Park is a large park on land reclaimed from the sea
- Doğu (east) Park
- Atatürk Park contains his statue by Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel, which was completed in 1931. The statue was depicted on the obverse of the Turkish 100,000 lira banknotes of 1991-2001.
Tekkeköy Yaşar Doğu Arena opened in 2013.
Football is the most popular sport: in the older districts above the city center children often kick balls around in the evenings in the smallest streets. The city's football club is Samsunspor, which plays its games at the Samsun 19 Mayıs Stadium.
Basketball, volleyball, tennis, swimming, cable skiing (in summer), horse riding, go karting, paintballing, martial arts and many other sports are played. Cycling and jogging are only common along the sea front, where recreational fishing is also popular.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Samsun is twinned with:
- North Little Rock, Arkansas, United States (2006)
- İskele, Northern Cyprus (2006)
- Novorossiysk, Russia (2007)
- Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2007)
- Kalmar, Sweden (2008)
- Bordeaux, France (2010)
- Kiel, Germany (2010)
- Mustafa Dağıstanlı - two times Olympic gold medalist sports wrestler
- Orhan Gencebay - musician
- Tanju Çolak - 1987 European Golden Boot holder soccer player/striker
- Yıldıray Çınar - musician
- Mehmet Aslantuğ - actor
- Ece Erken – TV-hostess and actress
- Ahu Türkpençe
- Deniz Kılıçlı, college basketball player at West Virginia University
- Şefik Avni Özüdoğru, military officer in the Ottoman and Turkish armies
- Özhan Öztürk. Karadeniz: Ansiklopedik Sözlük (Blacksea: Encyclopedic Dictionary). 2 Cilt (2 Volumes). Heyamola Publishing. Istanbul.2005 ISBN 975-6121-00-9
- George Finlay, A History of Greece from its Conquest by the Romans to the Present Time (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1877), vol. 4 pp. 322-325
- Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 54.
- "Climate: Samsun - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". 31 August 2013. Climate-Data.org.
- "BBC Weather - Samsun". BBC Weather. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Samsun (tr)
- "Samsun-Kavkaz ferry line to link Turkey with Russia, Central Asia".
- "City buses".
- airport bus timetable
- Sambis projesi ne aşamada?
- Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 61.
- "Police college website (Turkish)".
- Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 7. Emission Group - One Hundred Thousand Turkish Lira - I. Series, II. Series & III. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
- "Samsun - Twin Towns". © Samsun-City.sk. Retrieved 2013-10-19.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Samsun.|
- Samsun travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Samsun Governor's Office (Turkish)
- Samsun Metropolitan Municipality (Turkish)
- Official Tourist Information
- Current port arrivals and departures
- Coins Amisus coins (click "Database" and search by state: Amisus)
- Amisos coins found on criminals
- Opera and Ballet
- A History of Amisos (Samsun)