Georgian Kingdom after its dissolution. Samtskhe is the southernmost Georgian state.
The Principality of Meskheti (Georgian: მესხეთის სამთავრო) or Principality of Samtskhe (Georgian: სამცხეს სამთავრო) was a Georgian feudal principality existing between 1268 and 1628. Its territory consisted of modern Meskheti and the historical region of Tao-Klarjeti. Samtskhe-Saatabago was established after the expansion of the dukedom of Samtskhe. Dukes of Samstkhe were always distinguished by their longing for higher autonomy from the king of Georgia. After the Mongol invasion and their conquest of Georgia, Sargis I Jaqeli and David VII of Georgia rebelled against their Mongol overlords, but failed, and after a myriad of events Samtskhe-Saatabago was designated as a Khasinju, a territorial unit submitting only to the Khan, nominally being a Ulus. Samtskhe-Saatabago managed to remain a culturally developed part of Georgia as well as maintaining territorial integrity, sometimes even expanding along its borders. Samtskhe-Saatabago, which was fully independent at a time, was again incorporated in the Georgian Kingdom by George V of Georgia, who claimed maternal descent from the House of Jaqeli. George V made Samtskhe-Saatabago an integral part of Georgia once again. At the end of the 14th century, Timur's forces invaded Samtskhe-Saatabago several times. After the weakening of Georgian monarchy, the rulers of Samtskhe turned to separatism once more.