In Hinduism, Samudra manthan or Ksheera Sagara Manthanam, Churning of the Ocean of Milk is one of the most famous periods in the Puranas. The story appears in the Bhagavata Purana, the Mahabharata and the Vishnu Purana. In literal terms, this tale is an allegorical description of what transpires during a kundalini awakening process. Kundalini is a latent energy that lays dormant in the spine. Upon awakening, it rises in a sensation akin to a slithering snake, up the spinal column (Meru-danda, represented by Mount Meru in the story).
- Samudra manthanam — Manthanam is the Sanskrit equivalent of Manthan meaning 'to churn'.
- Sagar manthan — Sagar is another word for Samudra, both meaning an ocean or large water body.
- Kshirsagar manthan — Kshirsagar means the ocean of milk. Kshirsagar = Kshir (milk) + Sagar (ocean).
The story of Samudra Manthan
Lord Indra, the King of Devatas, while riding on an elephant, came across a sage named Durvasa who offered him a special garland. Lord Indra accepted the garland, placing it on the trunk of the elephant as a test to prove that he was not an egoistic God. The elephant, knowing that Lord Indra had no control over his own ego, threw the garland to the ground. This enraged the sage as the garland was a dwelling of Sri (fortune) and was to be treated as prasada. Durvasa Muni cursed Lord Indra and all devas to be bereft of all strength, energy, and fortune.
In battles that followed this incident, Devas were defeated and Asuras (demons) led by king Bali gained control of the universe. Devas sought help from God Vishnu Who advised them to treat asuras in a diplomatic manner. Devas formed an alliance with asuras to jointly churn the ocean for the nectar of immortality and to share it among them. However, Lord Vishnu told Devas that He would arrange that they alone obtain the nectar.
The churning of the Ocean of Milk or the Milky Way was an elaborate process. Mount Mandarachala, also known as Mount Meru, was used as the churning rod, and Vasuki, the king of serpents, became the churning rope. The demons (asuras) demanded to hold the head of the snake, while the demigods (devas), taking advice from Vishnu, agreed to hold its tail. As a result the demons were poisoned by fumes emitted by Vasuki. Despite this, the demigods and demons pulled back and forth on the snake's body alternately, causing the mountain to rotate, which in turn churned the ocean. However, once the mountain was placed on the ocean, it began to sink. Lord Vishnu in His second incarnation, in the form of a turtle Kurma, came to their rescue and supported the mountain on His back.
The Samudra Manthan process released a number of things from the Milk Ocean. One product was the lethal poison known as Halahala. (In some versions of the story, this poison escaped from the mouth of the serpent king as the demons and gods churned.) This terrified the gods and demons because the poison was so powerful that it could contaminate the Milk Ocean and destroy all of creation. On the advice of Lord Vishnu, the gods approached the compassionate Lord Shiva for help and protection. Lord Shiva inhaled the poison in an act to protect the universe, and Goddess Parvati pressed her hand in act to save the universe. Some stories suggest that the powerful goddess pressed his neck to stop the poison from spreading while other stories suggest that Goddess Parvati suckled him in the form of Goddess Tara to stop the poison form spreading. There is another aspect by Dvaitha or dualist philosophies that Lord Vayu collected the poison in a conch and drank the whole except a few drops that spilled from the conch. Lord Shiva took the drops in his skull made bowl and drank in total. It is the power of Parvati's ear rings that he was saved. As a result, The color of Lord Shiva's neck turned blue. For this reason, Lord Shiva is also called Neelakanta (the blue-throated one; "neela" = "blue", "kantha" = "throat" in Sanskrit). When the heat from the poison finally became unbearable for Lord Shiva, he used his trishul to dig for water, thus forming the Gosaikunda lake.
Halāhala (Hindi हलाहल) or Kalakootam (Sanskrit कालकूटं )
All kinds of herbs were cast into the ocean and fourteen Ratnas (gems or treasures) were produced from the ocean and were divided between asuras and gods. Though usually the Ratnas are enumerated as 14, the list in the scriptures ranges from 9 to 14 Ratnas. Most lists include: According to the quality of the treasures produced, they were accepted by Vishnu, the devas, and the asuras. There were three categories of Goddesses which emerged from the ocean;
- Lakshmi, the Goddess of Fortune and Wealth - who accepted Vishnu as Her eternal consort.
- Apsaras, various divine nymphs like Rambha, Menaka, Punjisthala, Urvasi, Thilothamai, etc. - chose the demigods as their companions
- Varuni or Sura, goddess and creator of alcohol - taken - somewhat reluctantly (she appeared dishevelled and argumentative) - accepted the demons.
Likewise, three types of supernatural animals appeared;
- Kamadhenu or Surabhi(sanskrit:kāmadhuk), the wish-granting divine cow - taken by Vishnu, and given to sages so ghee from her milk could be used in sacrifices.
- Airavata, and several other elephants, taken by Indra, leader of the devas.
- Uchhaishravas, the divine 7-headed horse - given to the demons.
There were three valuables;
- Kaustubha, the most valuable jewel in the world, worn by lord Vishnu.
- Parijat, the divine flowering tree with blossoms that never fade or wilt - taken to Indraloka by the devas.
- A powerful bow - symbolic of the demon's belligerence.
Additionally produced were;
- Chandra, the moon which adorned Shiva's head
- Dhanvantari, the doctor of the gods with Amrita the nectar of immortality. (At times, considered as two different Ratnas)
- Halahala, the poison swallowed by Shiva
- Shankha Vishnu's conch
- Jyestha - the goddess of misfortune
- the umbrella taken by Varuna
- the earrings given to Aditi, by her son Indra
- Kalpavriksha plant
- Nidra or sloth
Here, is a famous chant describing the 14 Ratnas from the Churning of the Milky Ocean.
- लक्ष्मीः कौस्तुभपारिजातकसुराधन्वन्तरिश्चन्द्रमाः। ::
- गावः कामदुहा सुरेश्वरगजो रम्भादिदेवाङ्गनाः। ::
- अश्वः सप्तमुखो विषं हरिधनुः शङ्खोमृतं चाम्बुधेः।::
- रत्नानीह चतुर्दश प्रतिदिनं कुर्यात्सदा मङ्गलम्। ::
The nectar of immortality
Finally, Dhanvantari, the heavenly physician, emerged with a pot containing Amrita, the heavenly nectar of immortality. Fierce fighting ensued between Devas and Asuras for the nectar. To protect the nectar from Asuras, the divine Garuda took the pot, and flew away from the battle-scene. While Garuda was in his flight over planet Earth, it is believed that four drops of nectar fell at four places - Prayag (Allahabad), Haridwar, Ujjain and Nasik. This legend is the basis for the belief that these places acquired a certain mystical power and spirituality.A Kumbh Mela is celebrated at the four places every twelve years for this reason. People believe that after bathing there during the Kumbha mela, one can get the primeval heaven and moksha(sanskrit:mokṣha). However, Rahu, one of the Asuras, eventually got hold of the nectar and started celebrating. Frightened, devas (demigods) appealed to Vishnu, who then took the form of Mohini. As a beautiful and enchanting damsel, Mohini distracted the asuras, took the amrita, and distributed it among the Devas, who drank it. Asura RahuKetu , disguised himself as a deva and drank some nectar. Due to their luminous nature, the sun god Surya and the moon god Chandra noticed the switching of sides. They informed Mohini. But before the nectar could pass his throat, Mohini cut off his head with her divine discus, the Sudarshana Chakra.But as the nectar had gone down his throat he did not die. From that day, his head was called Rahu and body was called Ketu. Later Rahu and Ketu became planets. The story ends with the rejuvenated Devas defeating the asuras.
In 2012 Hyderabad based Eva Motion Studios released a story titled "Kamadhenu, Kalpavriksha and Boy (KKB)" or "BoVineBo" (in English) that seeks to give a fictional twist to the presumed 'gaps' in the Sagar Manthan saga. The story was created and written by well-known animation writer Raj Viswanadha (of Chhota Bheem/Chorr Police etc fame).
Video link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DO7dtSUP8v8
- Symbolism of the elements in this story
- The story of the churning as found in the Mahabharata
- The story of the churning as found in the Vishnu Purana
- The story of the churning as found in the Ramayana