Samuel Botsford Buckley (May 9, 1809 – February 18, 1884) was an American botanist, geologist, and naturalist. He graduated from Wesleyan University in 1836.
Buckley investigated the botany of the southern states in the United States and discovered there many new species of plants and shells. The new genus "Buckleya distichophilla" was named in his honor. He also was the State Geologist of Texas (1860–61); determined the height of Mount Buckley (named in his honor), in North Carolina, and several other summits; and was the scientific editor of the State Gazette in Austin, Texas (1871-1972). He wrote numerous scientific papers and a book on the trees and shrubs of the U.S.