He received his education at the yeshibah of Eisenstadt (Hungary), the gymnasium of Mainz, and the universities of Leipzig, Strasbourg, and Munich (Ph.D. 1872). In 1875 he became privat-docent of Semitic languages at the University of Strasburg, and was appointed librarian there in 1884. In 1894 he received the title of Professor.
- "Psychologie des Ibn Sinâ," 1872
- "Sa'adja's Kitâb al-Amânât," Leyden, 1880
- "Katalog der Kaiserlichen Universität- und Landesbibliothek Strasburg, Orientalische Handschriften," 1881
- "Firdusi Schahname," Leyden, 1884
- "Die Handschriften der Grossherzoglich Badischen Hof- und Landesbibliothek in Karlsruhe, Orientalische Handschriften," 1892
- "Die Masorah zum Onkelos," Amsterdam, 1896
- "Themistius 'De cælo'" (for the Aristoteles Commission of the Berlin Academy), Berlin, 1902.