Samuel Aloysius Murray (1869 – November 3, 1941) was an American sculptor, educator, and protégé of the painter Thomas Eakins.
Murray and Eakins
Murray, the 11th of 12 children of an Irish stone cutter and his wife, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and educated in the city's parochial schools. In September 1886, at age 17, he entered the seven-month-old Art Students' League of Philadelphia, where he studied under Eakins. He soon became a favored student, then Eakins's assistant, and was listed as an instructor in 1892. The two artists shared a studio at 1330 Chestnut Street from 1892 to about 1900, sometimes painting and sculpting from the same model.
The pair spent a great deal of time together: working side by side, bicycling around Philadelphia, attending boxing matches, fishing in Gloucester, New Jersey, and taking trips and vacations together. Murray accompanied Eakins on visits to Walt Whitman in Camden, New Jersey (across the Delaware River from Philadelphia), and, following the poet's death on March 26, 1892, they cast a plaster death mask of his face. Murray introduced Eakins to Catholic priests at St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, and Eakins painted portraits of a number of them.
Eakins painted an 1889 portrait of Murray, and featured him in a number of paintings and photographs. Murray modeled at least three figures of Eakins. The exact nature of their relationship is the subject of speculation, but Murray remained a lifelong friend to Eakins, and helped care for the disabled painter in his old age.
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Home Ranch by Eakins (1888). Franklin L. Schenck is the cowboy; Murray is the man at right.
Addison Gallery of American Art
Salutat by Eakins (1898). Murray is the man applauding at far right, with Benjamin Eakins (the artist's father) behind him.
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
Statuette of Thomas Eakins Sitting by Murray (1907). This depicts Eakins at work on his 1889 painting The Agnew Clinic.
At age 21 (reportedly, on Eakins's recommendation), Murray was hired by the Philadelphia School of Design for Women (now Moore College of Art) as an instructor in modeling from life and a lecturer in anatomy—a position he held for over 50 years. Among his students were Edythe Ferris, Bessie Pease Gutmann, Alice Neel, Anne Parrish, Ella Peacock, and most of the Philadelphia Ten.
Murray's career as a sculptor had a propitious beginning: in March 1896, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts mounted a solo exhibition of his work. (He was age 27.) His first major commission came in September 1896, for ten colossal terracotta statues of Biblical prophets to adorn the facade of Philadelphia's Witherspoon Building. Eakins is rumored to have assisted on the project, and at least six of the figures were modeled on members of their "circle":
Moses: Walt Whitman (posthumous).
Isaiah: George W. Holmes (posthumous, from Eakins's The Chess Players).
Deborah: Susan Macdowell Eakins (Eakins's wife).
Samuel: Franklin L. Schenck (from Eakins's Home Ranch and other paintings).
Jeremiah: William H. Macdowell (Eakins's father-in-law).
Huldah: Jennie Dean Kershaw (later Murray's wife).
The models for Elijah, Ezekiel, Daniel and John the Baptist have not been identified. The terracotta statues were removed from the building in 1961; only three of them survive: Moses, Elijah, and Samuel.
Over the course of half a century, he modeled about a dozen large sculptures in bronze, the ten Witherspoon prophets, and nearly 200 portrait busts, miniatures and statuettes. Some of the commissions – Commodore Joseph Barry (1906–08), Father William Corby (1909–10), Bishop John W. Shanahan Memorial (1916–18) – may have come through his ties to Philadelphia's Irish-Catholic community. (One of his sisters was a nun.) His work was shown frequently at PAFA's annual exhibitions from 1892 to 1933, occasionally at the National Academy of Design and the National Sculpture Society (both in New York City), and at exhibitions in the United States and the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris.
His most ambitious commission was for work on the Pennsylvania State Memorial (1909–10), on the Gettysburg Battlefield. An immense granite pavilion, Murray modeled the bas-reliefs of battle scenes over its four arches, and the 21-foot-tall (originally gold-patinaed) goddess that crowns its dome. The latter seems to echo Augustus Saint-Gaudens's Sherman Memorial in Central Park, New York City, of a decade earlier.
In 1916, he married illustrator Jennie Dean Kershaw, who had posed for one of the Witherspoon prophets twenty years earlier. They had no children. Murray died in Philadelphia, at the age of 72.
A competent sculptor and a sensitive modeler of faces, Murray is remembered more for his personal ties to Eakins than his body of work.
His widow donated a couple of his pieces to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, which also has a collection of his papers. The largest collection of his works is at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D.C. (although few are on display). The Hirshhorn also owns five scrapbooks of his drawings and photographs, and mounted the first retrospective exhibition of Murray's sculpture in 1982.
- Bust of Isaac Jones Wistar (bronze, 1890), Wistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
- Bust of Walt Whitman (plaster, 1892), Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Modeled from the death mask of Whitman made by Murray and Eakins.
- Bust of Benjamin Eakins (plaster, 1894), Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Won the Philadelphia Art Club's Gold Medal in 1894.
- Statuette of Susan MacDowell Eakins (plaster, 1894), Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, PA.
- Bust of Thomas Eakins (bronze, 1894, 1924 cast), Philadelphia Museum of Art.
- Ten Biblical Prophets (terracotta, 1896–98), Witherspoon Building, Philadelphia, PA (removed 1961, three survive).
- Bust of James H. Windrim (bronze, 1901–02), Smith Memorial Arch, West Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, PA. Won a Silver Medal at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition.
- Commodore John Barry (bronze, 1906–08), Independence Hall, Philadelphia, PA.
- Statuette of Thomas Eakins Sitting (plaster, 1907), Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, PA.
- Joseph Leidy (bronze, 1907), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
- Father William Corby (bronze, 1909–10), Gettysburg Battlefield, Gettysburg, PA. The statue stands on the same rock on which Father Corby stood while granting absolution to Union troops before the second day of the battle. A copy is at the University of Notre Dame.
- Goddess of Victory and Peace (bronze, 1909–10), Pennsylvania State Memorial, Gettysburg Battlefield, Gettysburg, PA. Murray also modeled the bas-reliefs above the monument's arches.
- Sorrow (bronze, 1912), Alfred O. Deshong Memorial, Chester Rural Cemetery, Chester, PA. A statuette of Sorrow (bronze, circa 1910) and Murray's Bust of Alfred O. Deshong (bronze, circa 1916) are in the Alfred O. Deshong Collection at Widener University.
- Bishop John W. Shanahan Memorial (bronze, 1916–18), Cathedral of Saint Patrick, Harrisburg, PA. Located at the rear of the nave, the memorial features a large bronze crucifix set in a niche of white marble.
- Admiral George W. Melville (bronze, 1923), Philadelphia Naval Yard, Philadelphia, PA. A 1904 statuette of this is at the American Philosophical Society.
- Senator Boies Penrose (bronze, 1930), Pennsylvania State Capitol, Harrisburg, PA.
Statuette of Susan MacDowell Eakins (plaster, 1894), Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, PA.
Bust of James H. Windrim (bronze, 1901–02), Smith Memorial Arch, Philadelphia, PA.
Joseph Leidy (bronze, 1907), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
Father William Corby (bronze, 1909–10), Gettysburg Battlefield, Gettysburg, PA.
Goddess of Victory and Peace (bronze 1909-10), atop the Pennsylvania State Monument, Gettysburg Battlefield, Gettysburg, PA. Murray also modeled the bas-reliefs above the arches.
Sorrow (bronze, 1912), Alfred O. Deshong Memorial, Chester Rural Cemetery, Chester, PA.
Admiral George W. Melville (bronze, 1923), Philadelphia Naval Yard, Philadelphia, PA.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sculptures by Samuel Murray.|
- Mariah Chamberlin-Hellman, "Samuel Murray, Thomas Eakins, and the Witherspoon Prophets," Arts Magazine, May 1979, pp. 134–39.
- Susan James-Gadzinski and Mary Mullen Cunningham, "Samuel Murray 1869-1941," American Sculpture in the Museum of American Art of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (PAFA, 1997), pp. 156–67.
- Sidney D. Kirkpatrick, The Revenge of Thomas Eakins (Yale University Press, 2006).
- Margaret McHenry, Thomas Eakins Who Painted (privately printed, 1946).
- Abigail Schade, "Samuel Murray (1870-1941)," Philadelphia: Three Centuries of American Art (Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1976), p. 442.
- Nicholas B. Wainwright, ed., Sculpture of a City: Philadelphia's Treasures in Bronze and Stone (Fairmount Park Association, 1974).
- McHenry, pp. 71-72.
- The school closed its doors in early 1893.
- McHenry, p. 85.
- Home Ranch from Philadelphia Museum of Art.
- Kirkpatrick, p. 445.
- This was to be the only solo exhibition during his lifetime.
- Sculptor Alexander Stirling Calder modeled statues of Presbyterian theologians for the same building.
- Chamberlin-Hellman, pp. 134-39.
- Saint-Gaudens's Angel
- Circa 1897 photograph of Jennie Dean Kershaw from Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.
- Samuel Murray and Thomas Eakins papers from Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.
- Michael W. Panhorst, Samuel Murray: The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Collection, May 20 to July 18, 1982 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982).
- Bust of Isaac Jones Wistar from SIRIS.
- Bust of Walt Whitman from Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.
- Bust of Benjamin Eakins from Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.
- Bust of Thomas Eakins from Philadelphia Museum of Art.
- Witherspoon Building from Philadelphia Architects and Buildings.
- Bust of James H. Windrim from Philadelphia Public Art.
- Thomas Eakins Sitting from Metropolitan Museum of Art.
- Father Corby from Draw the Sword.
- Goddess of Victory and Peace from Flickr.
- Deshong Collection from Widener University.
- Bishop Shanahan Memorial St. Patrick's Cathedral virtual tour (page 26).
- Boies Penrose from Flickr.