San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth
|Site of Special Scientific Interest|
Schematic representation of the SAFOD borehole and pilot hole
|Area of Search||California|
The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a research project aimed at collecting geological data about the San Andreas Fault for the purpose of predicting and analysing future earthquakes. Located near the town of Parkfield, Monterey County, California, where quakes of Magnitude 2 frequently occur, it is based around a 3-kilometre borehole that cuts directly through the fault, where geophone sensors and GPS clocks have been installed. This data, along with samples collected during drilling, could shed new light on geochemical and mechanical properties around the fault zone.
SAFOD is part of the Earthscope Project, an earth science program using geological and geophysical techniques to explore the structure of the North American continent and to understand the origin of earthquakes and volcanoes. Earthscope is funded by the National Science Foundation in conjunction with the USGS and NASA. Data collected at SAFOD are available from The Northern California Earthquake Data Center at U.C. Berkeley and at the IRIS DMC.
- Chikyu Hakken, deep oceanic drilling program
- Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
- Kola Borehole (1970-2005, 12262m)
- KTB Borehole (1987-1995, 9101m)
- Mohorovičić discontinuity
- Project Mohole
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (March 2009)|
- Ellsworth, W.L.; S.H. Hickman; M.D. Zoback. "Seismology in the Source: The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth".
- Ellsworth, W.; S. Hickman; M. Zoback; E. Davis; L. Gee; R. Huggins; R. Krug; C. Lippus; P. Malin; D. Neuhauser (2005). "Observing the San Andreas Fault at depth". Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 86: 52.
- Zoback, M. D (1998). Scientific drilling into the San Andreas fault and site characterization research: Planning and coordination efforts. Final technical report.
- Zoback, M.D.; S.H. Hickman; W. Ellsworth (2002). The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD): testing fundamental theories of earthquake mechanics. 2002 Denver Annual Meeting.
- Zoback, M. (2003). Scientific Drilling into the San Andreas Fault: The SAFOD Experiment. AAPG Annual Meeting 2003.
- Zoback, M.D.; S. Hickman; W. Ellsworth (2005). "Overview of SAFOD Phases 1 and 2: Drilling, sampling and measurements in the San Andreas Fault zone at seismogenic depth". Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 86: 52. Bibcode:2005EOSTr..86...52H. doi:10.1029/2005EO050006.
- Zoback, M.D.; S.H. Hickman; W. Ellsworth; D. Kirschner; N.B. Pennell; J. Chery; S. Sobolev (2007). Preliminary Results from SAFOD Phase 3: Implications for the state of stress and shear localization in and near the San Andreas Fault at depth in central California. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract# T13G-03.
- Zoback, Mark D.; Hans-Peter Harjes. "Injection-induced earthquakes and crustal stress at 9 km depth at the KTB deep drilling site, Germany". Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- EarthScope (2008). "EarthScope: SAFOD Observatory". EarthScope. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany (2006-10-31). "ICDP - International Continental Scientific Drilling Program". German Continental Scientific Deep Drilling Program. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- "KTB Deep Crustal Laboratory of GFZ". KTB Deep Crustal Laboratory of GFZ. 2006. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- USGS; NSF (2009-01-29). "San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth". San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. Retrieved 2009-03-28.