San Antonio River

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
San Antonio River
SanAntonio Watershed.png
Map of the San Antonio River and its associated watershed in South Texas.
Origin The San Antonio Springs near the University of the Incarnate Word in San Antonio, Texas.
Mouth Flows into the Guadalupe River, 10 mi northwest of the San Antonio Bay.
Basin countries US
Length 240 mi (386 km)
Source elevation 715 ft (215 m)
Avg. discharge 400 ft³/s (11 m³/s)[1]
Basin area 934 mi² (2419 km²)[2]

The San Antonio River is a major waterway that originates in central Texas in a cluster of springs in Midtown San Antonio, approximately four miles north of Downtown, and follows a roughly southeastern path through the state.[3] It eventually feeds into the Guadalupe River about ten miles from San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico. The river is 240 miles long and crosses five counties: Bexar, Goliad, Karnes, Refugio, and Wilson.

History[edit]

Naming the river[edit]

The first documented record of the river was from Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca on his explorations of Texas in 1535. The river was later named after San Antonio de Padua by the first governor of Spanish Texas, Domingo Terán de los Ríos in 1691.[4]

On June 13, 1691, Governor Terán and his company camped at a rancheria on a stream called Yanaguana They renamed the stream "San Antonio" because it was Saint Anthony's Day. Father Damián Massanet accompanied Governor Terán on his trip.[5]

Texas Revolution[edit]

During the Texas Revolution, the river was host to several major conflicts. The Battle of Concepcion occurred when the Mexican Forces in Bexar and Texan Militia fired upon each other in a small skirmish on the Mission's grounds. The Grass Fight occurred when Texan Militia mistook mules carrying grass to feed horses as mules carrying supply and gold money. The siege of Bexar was the climax of all these previous events when the Texan Militia surrounded Bexar and began continuous attacks into the Mexican stronghold of Bexar until the Mexican General Cos surrendered.

The San Antonio, near its source, at the Witte Museum in San Antonio, Texas

The Goliad Campaign occurred when 50 Texan Militia captured the Mission at Goliad, being used as a garrison by the Mexican Forces. The Battle of the Alamo occurred when 180 Texan Regulars and Volunteers occupied a 3 acre garrison built around an old Spanish mission. They withheld a Mexican Force of around 3,000 troops for twelve days until the garrison was overrun by a Mexican assault on dawn of the thirteenth day.

Notable features[edit]

Five major 18th century Spanish missions are lined up along the historical course of the river in San Antonio, including Mission Espada, Mission Concepcion, Mission San José, and Mission San Juan Capistrano. The most famous mission is San Antonio de Valero, better known as the Álamo, and its complementing fortress is Presidio San Antonio de Bexar. The Presidio La Bahía and its mission, Mission Nuestra Señora del Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga in Goliad, Texas are also located along the southern portion of the river.

The waterway is also host to the San Antonio River Walk, one of San Antonio's primary tourist destinations and the centerpiece of the city.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 28°30′26″N 96°53′28″W / 28.50722°N 96.89111°W / 28.50722; -96.89111