San Diego International Airport
|San Diego International Airport
|IATA: SAN – ICAO: KSAN – FAA LID: SAN|
|Owner/Operator||San Diego County Regional Airport Authority|
|Serves||Greater San Diego|
|Location||North Harbor Drive
San Diego, California
|Focus city for||Southwest Airlines|
|Elevation AMSL||17 ft / 5 m|
FAA airport diagram
|Statistics (2009, 2010)|
|Total Passengers (2010)||16,889,622|
|International Passengers (2009)||194,172|
|Traffic Movements (2009)||199,209|
|Source: FAA, Airport Authority|
San Diego International Airport (IATA: SAN, ICAO: KSAN, FAA LID: SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field, is a public airport 3 mi (4.8 km) northwest of downtown San Diego, California, 15 mi (24 km) from the Mexico – United States border at Tijuana, Mexico. It is operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.
San Diego International is the busiest single-runway commercial airport in the United States, and the second-busiest single-use runway in the world after London Gatwick with about 550 departures and arrivals carrying 50,000 passengers each day, and a total of 17,250,269 passengers in 2012. San Diego is the largest metropolitan area that is not an airline hub or secondary hub; however, San Diego is a focus city for Southwest Airlines.
- 1 History
- 2 Flight operations
- 3 Relocation proposals
- 4 Terminals
- 5 Airlines and destinations
- 6 Statistics
- 7 General aviation
- 8 Other nearby commercial airports
- 9 Nearby military airfields
- 10 Accidents and incidents
- 11 Security Breach
- 12 Awards
- 13 Grounds
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The airport is near the site of the Ryan Airlines factory, but it is not the same as Dutch Flats, the Ryan airstrip where Charles Lindbergh flight tested the Spirit of St. Louis before his historic 1927 transatlantic flight. The site of Dutch Flats is on the other side of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, in the Midway area, near the current intersection of Midway and Barnett avenues.
Inspired by Lindbergh's flight and excited to have made his plane, the city of San Diego passed a bond issue in 1928 for the construction of a two-runway municipal airport. Lindbergh encouraged the building of the airport and agreed to lend his name to it. The new airport, dedicated on August 16, 1928, was San Diego Municipal Airport – Lindbergh Field.
The airport was the first federally certified airfield to serve all aircraft types, including seaplanes. The original terminal was on the northeast side of the field, on Pacific Highway. The airport was also a testing facility for several early U.S. sailplane designs, notably those by William Hawley Bowlus (superintendent of construction on the Spirit of St. Louis) who also operated the Bowlus Glider School at Lindbergh Field from 1929–1930. On June 1, 1930, a regular San Diego – Los Angeles airmail route started. The airport gained 'international airport' status in 1934, and a United States Coast Guard Air Base next to the field was commissioned in April 1937. The Coast Guard's fixed-wing aircraft used Lindbergh Field until the mid-1990s when the fixed-wing aircraft were retired.
The Army Air Corps took over the field in 1942, improving it to handle the heavy bombers being manufactured in the region. This transformation, including an 8,750 ft (2,670 m) runway, made the airport "jet-ready' long before jet airliners came into service. The May 1952 C&GS chart shows 8700-ft runway 9 and 4500-ft runway 13.
Pacific Southwest Airlines established its headquarters in San Diego and started service at Lindbergh Field in 1949. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 42 departures per day: 14 American, 13 United, 6 Western, 6 Bonanza, and 3 PSA (5 PSA on Friday and Sunday). American had a nonstop flight to Dallas and one to El Paso; aside from that, nonstop flights did not reach beyond California and Arizona. Nonstop flights to Chicago started in 1962 and to New York in 1967.
The original terminal was on the north side of the airport and was used until the 1960s; the current Terminal 1 opened on the south side of the airport on March 5, 1967. It was not until July 11, 1979 that Terminal 2 opened. These terminals were designed by Paderewski Dean & Associates. A third terminal, dubbed the Commuter Terminal, opened July 23, 1996. Terminal 2 was expanded by 300,000 square feet (27,871 m2) in 1998, opening on January 7, 1998. The expanded Terminal 2 and the Commuter Terminal were designed by Gensler and SGPA Architecture and Planning. In the 1990s the official name became San Diego International Airport, but it is still often referred to as Lindbergh Field. As downtown San Diego developed, the airport's 3600-ft second runway was closed.
Built and operated by the City of San Diego through the sale of municipal bonds to be repaid by airport users, then the San Diego Unified Port District, the airport is now operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.
The Green Build
San Diego International Airport's expansion program, dubbed "The Green Build", is expected to help the airport meet current and future travel demands. Opened on August 13, 2013, the project focuses on expansion and enhancements at Terminal 2. Additions include 10 gates on the west side of Terminal 2 West, a two-level roadway separating arriving and departing passengers, additional security lanes, and an expanded concession area.
On February 8, 2008, SANDAG and the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority discussed long-term future measures with three goals: (1) optimize the airport, (2) improve transit to the airport region-wide, and (3) reduce traffic congestion near the airport. They created the Ad Hoc Airport Regional Policy Committee, chaired by then-San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders. Destination Lindbergh was a year-long, comprehensive analysis that considered ground transportation, an intermodal transit center (ITC), passenger terminals, a consolidated rental car facility (CONRAC), airfield/airspace, environment, financial feasibility and regional development issues to ultimately produce a Draft Concept for the long-term development of Lindbergh Field. On March 23, 2009 the Airport Authority Board accepted the Destination Lindbergh Draft Concept for public distribution and directed that an invitation be sent to all stakeholders for future planning, and that the Concept establish benchmarks for operations, social and economic benefits, and transit ridership.
The plan outlines three basic models of future development: north-centric (bordering the Pacific Highway and Interstate 5), south-centric (where it is currently) and a hybrid version, with terminals on the south side, passenger processing, rental cars and parking on the north side, and an automated people mover connecting the two underneath the runway. The north-centric concept is hampered by the fact that the taxiway on the north side of the Runway does not extend for the full runway length. For this plan to be developed, land would need to be acquired from the Marine Corps Recruit Depot to build the taxiway. Without this taxiway, all aircraft would have to land, exit the runway to the south, then cross the runway to get to the gates on the north side. This is the same reason that the Terminal (now Terminal 1) was constructed on the South side of the airfield in 1967.
Plans also outline dedicated I-5 on and off-ramps, and an 'intermodal transit hub' including a Coaster/Amtrak station, a stop for the San Diego Trolley system, and eventually a center for the southern terminus of the California High Speed Rail line. The approximate target date for completion of the project is 2035. In January 2013, former San Diego mayor Bob Filner stated that he had a plan to fast track efforts to make the plans a reality for San Diego. However, the airport is an independent agency and its planning is not controlled by the City.
Landing at the airport from the east offers closeup views of skyscrapers, Petco Park (home of the San Diego Padres), and the Coronado Bridge from the left side of the aircraft. On the right, Balboa Park, site of the 1915–1916 Panama-California Exposition, can be seen, along with the San Diego Zoo.
The approach from the east is steeper than most due to terrain which drops from 266 ft (81 m) to sea level in less than one nautical mile. San Diego's only runway is west of a hill with several obstructions, including Interstate 5 and trees in Balboa Park. Contrary to local lore, the parking structure off the end of the runway was built in the 1980s long after previous obstructions were built up east of I-5.
Aircraft do not land at the end of the runway as at most airports, but at a displaced threshold. Runway 27 has a displaced threshold of 1,810' and Runway 9 has a displaced threshold of 700'.
Runway 27 (landing east to west), is a localizer-only approach and is unusable for landing when visibility drops below about 2 miles. This forces arriving aircraft to use Runway 9 (landing west to east). Due to the terrain east of the airport, weight limits are imposed on many departing aircraft depending on their required takeoff weights. As a result, some aircraft must take off to the west. While safe, these "head to head" operations slows the flow of aircraft due to sequencing which creates delays in the air and on the ground.
Terrain east and west of the airport greatly impacts the available runway length. Runway 27 (heading west) has a climb gradient of 353 ft/nmi (58.1 m/km) feet per nautical mile. Taking off to the east requires a 610 ft/nmi (100 m/km) climb rate.
Lindbergh Field does not have standard 1,000 ft (300 m) runway safety areas at the end of each runway. An engineered materials arrestor system (EMAS) has been installed at the west end of the runway to halt any aircraft overruns. The east end of the runway does not have such a system as its use would reduce the runway length by at least 400 ft (120 m), further impacting the runway's capability for departures to the west. Instead, the use of declared distances reduces the mathematical length of Runway 9 (west to east operations) by declaring that the easternmost end of Runway 9 is 1,121 feet shorter than it actually is (a net length of 8,280-feet).
SAN is in a populated area. To appease the concerns of the airport's neighbors regarding noise and possible ensuing lawsuits, a curfew was put in place in 1979. Departures are allowed between 6:30 a.m. and 11:30 p.m. Departures outside those hours are subject to a large fine. Arrivals are permitted 24 hours per day. While several flights have scheduled departure times before 6:15 a.m., these times are pushback times; the first takeoff roll is at 6:30 a.m.
As of December 2012, San Diego International Airport is served by 22 passenger airlines and five cargo airlines which fly nonstop to 54 destinations in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Great Britain, and Japan.
British Airways resumed nonstop service to London Heathrow Airport on June 1, 2011 with Boeing 777-200ERs. The airline had dropped the route in October 2003, after the worldwide downturn in aviation after 9/11. The airline had been flying nonstop to London Heathrow (previously London Gatwick on their 777-200's); however, previously the route had been flown from Gatwick via Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport on a Boeing 747-400. After 9/11, the route was dropped to six days a week, then five, and then cancelled altogether. In June 2010 the European Union approved the new joint-venture between British Airways, American Airlines, and Iberia Airlines, which dropped many of the provisions of the Bermuda II treaty and its restrictions on airlines flying to Heathrow. Oneworld members now can earn mileage on any American, British, or Japan Airlines flight.
Japan Airlines began service to Tokyo-Narita on December 2, 2012, using the Boeing 787 aircraft. This is the airport's first nonstop flight to Asia. The flights used the 787 until its grounding when service was temporarily replaced with a 777-200ER. The last 777 flight was May 31, 2013. On June 1, 2013, 787 service resumed, this time daily. This is a joint business service with fellow Oneworld airline member and joint business partner American Airlines.
The busiest route by flight count is to Los Angeles with 27 daily round trips on United Express, American Eagle, and Delta Connection. The busiest route by available seats per day is to San Francisco with just over 3,100 seats on 22 daily round trips on United Airlines, Southwest Airlines, and Virgin America.
In January 2008, San Diego International Airport entered the blogosphere with the launch of the first employee blog – the Ambassablog – for a major U.S. airport. Written by front-line employees, the blog features regular posts on airport activities, events, and initiatives; reader comments; and several multimedia and interactive features. It has been presented as a case study in employee blogging to several public agencies at the federal, state, and local levels.
In February 2008, San Diego International Airport was one of the first major airports in the U.S. to adopt a formal sustainability policy, which expresses the airport's commitment to a four-layer approach to sustainability known as EONS. As promulgated by Airports Council International – North America, EONS represents an integrated "quadruple bottom line" of (E)conomic viability, (O)perational excellence, (N)atural resource conservation and preservation and (S)ocial responsibility.
In May 2008, California Attorney General Jerry Brown announced an agreement with San Diego International Airport on reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the airport's proposed master plan improvements. In announcing the agreement, the Attorney General's office said "San Diego airport will play a key leadership role in helping California meet its aggressive greenhouse gas reduction targets."
Public transport is on Metropolitan Transit System bus No. 992, which connects the airport to downtown San Diego, where connections can be made to other bus routes and the San Diego Trolley, COASTER, and Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner.
San Diego International Airport is testing a new system of airfield lights called Runway Status Lights (RWSL) for the FAA. It completed the rehabilitation of the north taxiway in 2010. A project that included replacing its airfield lighting and signage with energy efficient LED lights where possible (LEDs are only permissible for use on Taxiway Lights, Obstruction Lights, Signage, and Medium Intensity Runway Lights at this time – the runway at San Diego uses High Intensity Runway Lights) and is in the process of constructing 10 new gates for Terminal 2 West.
The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) air station is in the southeast corner of the airfield. The installation originally supported fixed-wing seaplane operations, with seaplane ramps into the bay, and land-based fixed-wing aircraft and rotary-wing operations.
The air station is separated from the rest of the airfield, so USCG fixed-wing aircraft must cross North Harbor Drive, a busy, 6-lane city street, to reach the runway. Streetlight activation opens the locked gates to the airfield and the air station, and also stops traffic while aircraft are crossing the street. This was a common occurrence during the 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s when CGAS San Diego had both HH-3F Pelican and HH-60J Jayhawk helicopters and HU-25 Guardian jets assigned. Today, this is an extremely rare occurrence, as CGAS San Diego's HU-25As have been reassigned and there are no fixed-wing aircraft currently assigned to Coast Guard Air Station San Diego.
California State Assembly Bill AB 93 created the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority in 2001. The SDCRAA projects that SAN will be constrained due to congestion between 2015–2022. In June 2006, SDCRAA board members selected Marine Corps Air Station Miramar as its preferred site for a replacement airport, despite military objections. On November 7, 2006, San Diego County residents defeated an advisory relocation which included a joint use proposal measure.
Multiple studies have been conducted on where to place an airport dating back to 1923. The first study developed the site location plan for Lindbergh field. Eighteen studies were conducted by private groups, most in the early days by those who were opposed to Lindbergh being built instead of on land set aside at what is now Montgomery Field. One was a revisiting of a study done in the 1980s by the City in 1994 when NAS Miramar closed as a naval air station and was then immediately transferred to the Marine Corps as a marine corps air station, MCAS Miramar. Another was by the City of San Diego in 1984 and another that started in 1996 and sat dormant with SANDAG until the Airport Authority was formed. This study is the first study ever done to look for a new site by an agency that actually had jurisdiction over the issue, and the first non-site specific comprehensive study of the entire region.
Lindbergh has three terminals:
- Terminal 1
- Terminal 1 is composed of two parts: East and West, and has 19 gates, numbered 1–19.
- Terminal 2
- Terminal 2 is composed of two parts: East and West, and has 32 gates, numbered 20–51.
- All international arrivals at Lindbergh are handled in Terminal 2 East at gates 20, 21 and 22.
- Commuter Terminal
- The Commuter Terminal has 4 gates, numbered 1–4. All San Diego Airport flights that fly to or from Los Angeles operate out of the commuter terminal.
Airlines and destinations
operated by ABX Air
|Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Phoenix|
|FedEx Express||Memphis, Indianapolis, Oakland, Ontario, Los Angeles|
|UPS Airlines||Honolulu, Louisville|
|1||London (Heathrow), United Kingdom||256,453||British Airways|
|2||Mexico City, Mexico||192,843||Volaris|
|3||Toronto (Pearson), Canada||143,876||Air Canada|
|6||San Jose del Cabo, Mexico||75,876||Alaska Airlines, Spirit Airlines|
|1||San Francisco, CA||737,000||Southwest Airlines, United Airlines, Virgin America|
|2||Phoenix, AZ||650,000||Southwest Airlines, US Airways|
|3||Denver, CO||561,000||Frontier Airlines, Southwest Airlines, United Airlines|
|4||Las Vegas, NV||473,000||Southwest Airlines, Spirit Airlines|
|5||Dallas/Fort Worth, TX||427,000||American Airlines, Spirit Airlines|
|6||Oakland, CA||359,000||Southwest Airlines|
|7||Chicago, IL||357,000||American Airlines, United Airlines|
|8||Los Angeles, CA||357,000||American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines|
|9||Atlanta, GA||348,000||Delta Air Lines|
|10||Seattle, WA||346,000||Alaska Airlines|
Landmark Aviation is the FBO (fixed base operator) at San Diego International Airport. Landmark services all aircraft ranging from the single-engine Cessna aircraft to the four-engine Boeing 747. Generally, they service corporate traffic to the airport. The FBO ramp is located at the northeast end of the airfield. Landmark Aviation was formerly known as Jimsair Aviation Services. Jimsair was the FBO at the airport for 55 years, until July 2008, when they were purchased by Landmark Aviation.
Other nearby commercial airports
Tijuana International Airport is directly adjacent to the Mexico – United States border. The Tijuana airport offers intercontinental nonstop flights to Shanghai, China twice per week as well as to many destinations within Mexico. Tijuana used to have flights to Tokyo-Narita, however this flight now only operates as a westbound fuel stop to Narita. The eastbound operation operates nonstop between Tokyo and Mexico City. When Aeroméxico began to offer flights from Tijuana to Asia, it hoped to attract passengers from both sides of the border, including those from as far away as Orange County. The airline offers complimentary shuttle service from San Diego. Various proposals for cross border terminals have been discussed over the years and a Presidential permit for the border crossing was issued in the summer of 2010.
McClellan-Palomar Airport is located approximately 35 miles north in the city of Carlsbad. The airport is served by United Express with daily service to Los Angeles International Airport. It is planned to be the main base for a new startup airline, California Pacific Airlines.
Nearby military airfields
Naval Air Station North Island is located directly across San Diego Bay from Lindbergh Field, approximately 1.5 mi (2.4 km) to the south. MCAS Miramar is located 13 miles northeast of Lindbergh Field.
Accidents and incidents
World War II-era
- On June 2, 1942, the first British Consolidated LB-30 Liberator II, AL503, on its acceptance flight for delivery from the Consolidated Aircraft Company plant at San Diego, California, crashed into San Diego Bay when the flight controls froze, killing all five civilian crew, CAC Chief Test Pilot William Wheatley, co-pilot Alan Austen, flight engineer Bruce Kilpatrick Craig, and two chief mechanics, Lewis McCannon and William Reiser. Craig, who had been commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the U.S. Army Reserve in 1935 following Infantry ROTC training at the Georgia Institute of Technology where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering, had applied for a commission in the Army Air Corps before his death. This was granted posthumously, with the rank of 2nd Lieutenant, and on August 25, 1941, the airfield in his hometown of Selma, Alabama was renamed Craig Field, later Craig Air Force Base. Investigation into the cause of the accident caused a two-month delay in deliveries, so the RAF did not begin receiving Liberator IIs until August 1941.
- On May 10, 1943, the first Consolidated XB-32 Dominator, 41-141, crashed on take-off at Lindbergh Field, probably from flap failure. Although the bomber did not burn when it piled up at end of runway, Consolidated's senior test pilot Dick McMakin was killed. Six others on board were injured. This was one of only two twin-finned B-32s (41-142 was the other) - all subsequent had a PB4Y-style single tail.
- On November 22, 1944, Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59544, on a pre-delivery test flight by company crew out of Lindbergh Field, took off at 1223 hrs., lost its port outer wing on climb-out, and crashed one quarter mile further on in a ravine in an undeveloped area of Loma Portal near the Navy Training Center, less than two miles (3 km) from point of lift-off. All crew were killed, including pilot Marvin R. Weller, co-pilot Conrad C. Cappe, flight engineers Frank D. Sands and Clifford P. Bengston, radio operator Robert B. Skala, and Consolidated Vultee field operations employee Ray Estes. A wing panel came down on home at 3121 Kingsley Street in Loma Portal. Cause was found to be 98 missing bolts; the wing was only attached with four spar bolts. Four employees who either were responsible for installation, or who had been inspectors who signed off on the undone work, were fired two days later. A San Diego coroner's jury found Consolidated Vultee guilty of "gross negligence" by vote of 11-1 on January 5, 1945, and the Bureau of Aeronautics reduced its contract by one at a cost to firm of $155,000. Consolidated Vultee paid out $130,484 to the families of the six dead crew.
- On April 5, 1945, the prototype Ryan XFR-1 Fireball, BuNo 48234, piloted by Ryan test pilot Dean Lake, on a test flight over Lindbergh Field, lost skin between the front and rear spars of the starboard wing, interrupting airflow over the wing and causing it to disintegrate. The pilot bailed out and the airframe broke up. Wreckage struck brand new Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59836, just accepted by the Navy and preparing to depart for the modification center at Litchfield Park, Arizona. The bomber burns and the Navy crew of pilot Lt. D. W. Rietz, Lt. J. E. Creed, and Aviation Machinists Mates G. R. Brown and J. H. Randall, evacuated the burning PB4Y, with only Randall suffering injuries of first, second, and third degree burns and minor lacerations.
- April 30, 1945: Just before midnight this date, first production Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59359, was being prepared on the ramp at Lindbergh Field for a flight to NAS Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota. A mechanic attempted to remove the port battery solenoid, located 14 inches below the cockpit floor, but did so without disconnecting the battery. Ratchet wrench accidentally punctured a hydraulic line three inches above the battery and fluid ignited, setting entire aircraft alight. The mechanic suffered severe burns. Only the number four (starboard outer) engine was deemed salvageable. Cause was an unqualified mechanic attempting a task that only a qualified electrician should undertake.
Post-World War II era
- Boeing 727–200 operating flight PSA Flight 182 on the Sacramento-Los Angeles-San Diego Route collided in mid-air with a Cessna 172 while attempting to land at San Diego Airport. The two aircraft collided over San Diego's North Park, killing all 135 people on Flight 182 and the two people on the Cessna, along with 7 people on the ground. On the morning of September 25, 1978, a
- October 21, 2009Northwest Airlines Flight 188, an Airbus A320, flying from San Diego International Airport to Minneapolis-St Paul International Airport flew over the Minneapolis airport and continued to fly off course by 150 miles, leaving air traffic control to think the flight had been hijacked. The pilots originally stated they were in an argument regarding airline policy and did not notice that they had flown off course, but later admitted to having been using their personal laptop computers at the time. The pilots contacted air traffic control after they realized their mistake and arrived in safely Minneapolis about one hour late. The pilots' commercial flying licenses were subsequently revoked by the FAA. –
On May 29, 2012, a security breach occurred when parolee Marc Duncan walked through an emergency door that led from the baggage claim area of the commuter terminal out to the tarmac. He then boarded a United Express Embraer 120 bound for Los Angeles, but was subsequently removed and arrested after a flight attendant headcount was off. Passengers and baggage on the affected plane were re-screened, and the flight departed two hours later without incident. The airport remained open during the entire event.
- Airports Council International (ACI) ranked San Diego-Lindbergh Field the No. 4 best airport in North America in 2007. ACI also ranked SAN the No. 2 best airport in the world with 15–25 million passengers in 2007. ACI also ranked SAN the No. 3 best airport in the world with 15–25 million passengers in 2008.
Endangered species habitat
A portion of the southeast infield at San Diego International Airport is set aside as a nesting site for the endangered California Least Tern. The least tern nests on three ovals from March through September. The birds lay their eggs in the sand and gravel surface at the southwest end of the airfield. The San Diego Zoological Society monitors the birds from May through September. The terns nest on the airfield because they do not have to compete with beach goers and the airport fence keeps dogs and other animals out, while the airplane activity helps keep predatory hawks away from the nests. Approximately 135 nests were established there in 2007.
The airport currently has only limited food options available. These include Starbucks, Peet's Coffee & Tea, and California Pizza Kitchen. This is the result of the expiration of the contract between the airport and previous food providers. It will change once the Terminal 2 Expansion is complete. American Airlines, United and Delta all have lounges available, and there is also a USO center.
There are several well-known pieces of artwork on display at the airport. Inside terminal 2 is a recreation of The Spirit of St. Louis. A popular piece with tourists is At The Gate which depicts comical characters patiently waiting for their planes.
- FAA Airport Master Record for SAN ( PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Effective October 25, 2007.
- "San Diego International Airport". San.org. February 15, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- San Diego County Regional Airport Authority[dead link]
- Gatwick has two runways, but is said to use one at a time.
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- "San Diego Air and Space Museum". http://www.sandiegoairandspace.org. 2013-09-15. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
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- SDCRAA Endorses Miramar For New Airport Site, Despite Military Protest (San Diego Tribune: June 5, 2006)
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- Johnsen, Frederick A., "Dominator: Last and Unluckiest of the Hemisphere Bombers", Wings, Granada Hills, California, February 1974, Volume 4, Number 1, p. 10.
- Veronico, Nicholas A., " 'Failure At The Factory", Air Enthusiast, Stamford, Lincs, UK, Number 124, July–August 2006, pp.31-33.
- Veronico, Nicholas A., " 'Failure At The Factory", Air Enthusiast, Stamford, Lincs, UK, Number 124, July–August 2006, p. 33.
- Veronico, Nicholas A., " 'Failure At The Factory", Air Enthusiast, Stamford, Lincs, UK, Number 124, July–August 2006, p. 35.
- NWA188 overshoots MSP by 150 miles – WCCO[dead link]
- "ATC fears NWA188 hijacked – CNN". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
- Pilots in heated argument causing 150 mile off course – NTSB Advisory Archived December 6, 2009.
- Maynard, Micheline (October 26, 2009). "Off-Course Pilots Cite Computer Distraction". The New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- Wald, Matthew (October 27, 2009). "F.A.A. Revokes Licenses of Pilots Who Missed Airport". The New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
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- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to San Diego International Airport.|
- Official website
- the Flight Planner section of the airport's web site.
- The Ambassablog – official Airport Authority employee blog
- Airliners.net – Search for San Diego under Photo Search and see the colorful past of San Diego airport through the years
- San Diego Airport Parking
- IMDB movie: Billy Wilder's "The Spirit of St. Louis", starring James Stewart, 1957
- (PDF), effective March 6, 2014
- FAA Terminal Procedures for SAN, effective March 6, 2014
- Resources for this airport: