San Diego Zoo

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San Diego Zoo
San Diego Zoo sign and logo
Entrance to the zoo with an elephant topiary
Date opened 1916, (Precursor Panama-California International Exposition in 1915)
Location Balboa Park, San Diego, California, US
Coordinates 32°44′8.508″N 117°9′5.66″W / 32.73569667°N 117.1515722°W / 32.73569667; -117.1515722
Land area 100 acres (40 ha)[1]
Number of animals 3,700+[1]
Number of species 650+ (incl. subspecies)[1]
Memberships AZA,[2] AAM,[3] ZAA,[4] WAZA[5]
Major exhibits Absolutely Apes, Children's Zoo, Elephant Odyssey, Panda Trek, Ituri Forest, Monkey Trails, Polar Bear Plunge
Website www.sandiegozoo.org

The San Diego Zoo is a zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California housing over 3,700 animals of more than 650 species and subspecies.[1] Its parent organization, San Diego Zoo Global, is the largest zoological membership association in the world, with more than 250,000 member households and 130,000 child memberships, representing more than a half million people.[6] San Diego Zoo pioneered the concept of open-air, cageless exhibits that re-create natural animal habitats.[7] It is one of the few zoos in the world that houses the giant panda.[8] In 2013 the Zoo added a new Koalafornia Adventure, providing an Australian experience. [9]

It is privately operated by the nonprofit Zoological Society of San Diego on 100 acres (40 ha) of parkland leased from the City of San Diego, and ownership of all animals, equipment and other assets rests with the City of San Diego. The San Diego Zoo is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) and the American Alliance of Museums (AAM), and a member of the Zoological Association of America (ZAA) and the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA). San Diego Zoo Global also operates the San Diego Zoo Safari Park and the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research.

History[edit]

"Wouldn't it be wonderful to have a zoo in San Diego? I believe I'll build one."

Harry M. Wegeforth, after hearing a lion roar at the 1915 Panama-California Exposition[10]

The San Diego Zoo grew out of exotic animal exhibitions abandoned after the 1915 Panama-California Exposition.[10] Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth founded the Zoological Society of San Diego, meeting October 2, 1916, which initially followed precedents set by the New York Zoological Society at the Bronx Zoo. He served as president of the society until 1941.[10] A permanent tract of land in Balboa Park was set aside in August 1921; on the advice of the city attorney, it was agreed that the city would own all the animals and the zoo would manage them.[11] The zoo began to move in the following year. In addition to the animals from the Exposition, the zoo acquired a menagerie from the defunct Wonderland Amusement Park.[11] Ellen Browning Scripps financed a fence around the zoo so that it could begin charging an entrance fee to offset costs.[12] The publication ZooNooz commenced in early 1925.

Animal collector Frank Buck went to work as director for the San Diego Zoo on June 13, 1923, signed to a three-year contract by Wegeforth. William T. Hornaday, director of the Bronx Zoo, had recommended Buck for the job. But Buck quickly clashed with the strong-willed Wegeforth and left the zoo after three months to return to animal collecting.[13]

After several other equally short-lived zoo directors, Wegeforth appointed the zoo's bookkeeper, Belle Benchley, to the position of executive secretary, in effect zoo director; she was given the actual title of zoo director a few years later. She served as zoo director from 1925 until 1953.[14] For most of that time she was the only female zoo director in the world.[14] She was succeeded as director by Dr. Charles Schroeder.

The San Diego Zoo was a pioneer in building "cageless" exhibits.[12] Wegeforth was determined to create moated exhibits from the start, and the first lion area at the San Diego Zoo without enclosing wires opened in 1922.[15]

Until the 1960s, admission for children under 16 was free regardless of whether they were accompanied by a paying adult.

The zoo's Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES) was founded in 1975 at the urging of Kurt Benirschke, who became its first director. CRES was renamed the division of Conservation and Research for Endangered Species in 2005 to better reflect its mission. In 2009 CRES was significantly expanded to become the Institute for Conservation Research.[16]

An orangutan named Ken Allen was reported in several newspapers in the summer of 1985 for repeatedly escaping from the supposedly escape-proof orangutan enclosure.[17]

The world's only albino koala in a zoological facility was born September 1, 1997, at the San Diego Zoo and was named Onya-Birri, which means "ghost boy" in an Australian Aboriginal language.[18] The San Diego Zoo has the largest number of koalas outside of Australia.

Features[edit]

Two Skyfari gondolas

The zoo offers a guided tour bus that traverses 75% of the park. There is an overhead gondola lift called the Skyfari, providing an aerial view of the zoo. The Skyfari was built in 1969 by the Von Roll tramway company of Bern, Switzerland. The San Diego Zoo Skyfari is a Von Roll type 101.

Exhibits are often designed around a particular habitat. The same exhibit features many different animals that can be found side-by-side in the wild, along with native plant life. Exhibits range from an African rain forest (featuring gorillas) to the Arctic taiga and tundra in the summertime (featuring polar bears). Some of the largest free-flight aviaries in existence are here. Many exhibits are "natural" with invisible wires and darkened blinds (to view birds), and pools and open-air moats (for large mammals).

The San Diego Zoo also operates the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, which displays animals in a more expansive setting than at the Zoo. Animals are regularly exchanged between the two locations, as well as between San Diego Zoo and other zoos around the world, usually in accordance with Species Survival Plan recommendations.

The temperate, sunny maritime climate is well suited to many plants and animals. Besides an extensive collection of birds, reptiles, and mammals, it also maintains its grounds as an arboretum, with a rare plant collection. As part of its gardening effort, it raises some rare animal foods. For example, the zoo raises 40 varieties of bamboo for the pandas on long-term loan from China, and it maintains 18 varieties of eucalyptus trees to feed its koalas.

Keepers and most other employees at the San Diego Zoo are members of Teamsters Union Local 481.[19]

Exhibits[edit]

Monkey Trails and Forest Tales[edit]

Monkey Trails showcases monkeys and other animals from the rainforests of Asia and Africa. Opened in 2005,[20] it replaced an older exhibit known as the Monkey Yard. Monkey Trails is home primarily to monkeys such as guenons, mangabeys, and mandrills, but it also showcases many other species of animals, such as yellow-backed duikers. [20] Pygmy hippos, slender-snouted crocodiles, and many species of turtles and fish can be seen in a series of water/land exhibits all with underwater viewing areas. In smaller exhibits are many reptiles and amphibians such as pancake tortoises, and many species of arthropods such as Madagascar hissing cockroaches. Monkey Trails utilizes a new method of displaying arboreal animals—by climbing up an elevated walkway throughout the exhibit. Some of the horticultural highlights in Monkey Trails include a ficus tree, cycads, and a bog garden.[20]

Owens Aviary[edit]

The Owens Rain Forest Aviary contains about 200 tropical birds representing 45 species. Lories, kingfishers, Bali mynahs, jacanas, woodpeckers, and argus pheasants can all be seen here.[21]

Scripps Aviary[edit]

The Scripps Aviary is home to many colorful birds such as the amethyst starling, tinkerbirds, and the sociable weaver.

Panda Trek[edit]

As of July 2011, the San Diego Zoo is one of four zoos in the U.S. which have giant pandas on display, and is the most successful in terms of panda reproduction. The first two giant panda cubs in U.S. history to have been born in the U.S. and survive into adulthood, Hua Mei (female, born to Bai Yun and Shi Shi) and Mei Sheng (male, born to Bai Yun and Gao Gao), were born at the San Diego Zoo, in 1999 and 2003, respectively. Since then, four more giant panda cubs, Su Lin and Zhen Zhen (both females), Yun Zi (male),[22] Xiao Liwu (male),[23] have been born to the resident giant panda parents Bai Yun and Gao Gao. All these American-born cubs except Xiao Liwu have been sent back to China to participate in the breeding program there.[24] These giant pandas are viewable from a web based exhibit called the San Diego Zoo panda cam.[25] A sixth cub, Xiao Liwu (meaning "little gift"), was born on July 29th, 2012 and was first let outside for visitors to see on January 9, 2013.[26] In addition to being able to view this rare animal species, the nearby Giant Panda Discovery Center has interactive exhibits that let the visitor experience first hand what the animals smell and sound like. Since the opening of Panda Trek there are now Sichuan takins, a red panda, Mangshan pitvipers, and an exhibit comparing several types of bamboo.

Polar Bear Plunge[edit]

Polar Bear Plunge, which opened in 1996[27] and was renovated in March 2010, houses over 30 species representing the Arctic. The main animals in the area are the three polar bears, named Kalluk, Chinook, and Tatqiq. More animals that make their home in Polar Bear Plunge which are reindeer or caribou, Arctic foxes, Maned wolves, Mountain Lions, and Grevy's zebra[citation needed]. An underwater viewing area is available to observe the polar bears swimming in their 130,000-US-gallon (490,000 l) pool.[27] Farther down the path lies the arctic aviary, home to the diving ducks including buffleheads, harlequin ducks, the smews, and long-tailed ducks. The aviary houses more than 25 species of duck. Some of the horticultural highlights include giant redwood trees, many different pine trees, and manzanita.[27]

Ituri Forest[edit]

Based upon the real Ituri Forest in Africa, this exhibit opened in 1999 and houses different animal species from the forests of Africa. Animals such as Allen's swamp monkeys, lesser spot-nosed guenons, spotted-necked otters, a red river hog, and an African forest buffalo can be found coexisting within the exhibit. One of the prominent species of the African exhibit is the okapis grazing from the trees. These relatives of the giraffe are rarely seen in zoos and are scarcely witnessed in the wild. Some of Ituri Forest's most prominent inhabitants exist within the hippo exhibit, which includes an underwater viewing area and several species of exotic fish, such as tilapia. One can also see the colorful turacos. In the forest, over 30 species of birds reside, including the Congo peafowl. Some of the horticultural highlights include banana trees, sausage trees, yellow trumpet trees, and bamboo.

Elephant Odyssey[edit]

This exhibit opened on May 23, 2009 on the site of the former Hoof and Horn Mesa area. The main feature of the exhibit is the 2.5-acre (10,000 m2) elephant habitat — more than three times the size of the Zoo's former elephant exhibit, in what used to be Elephant Mesa (now the "Urban Jungle"). The herd includes one male (Ranchipur) and six females (Tembo, Mila, Devi, Sumithi, Mary and Shaba) and consists of a blended herd of three African and 4 Asian elephants. Elephant Odyssey also features a glimpse of the past with the Fossil Portal and life-size statues of ancient creatures of Southern California next to the exhibits of their modern-day counterparts. The ancient life represented include the Columbian mammoth, the saber-tooth cat, the American lion, the Daggett's eagle, and the Jefferson's ground sloth. Elephant Odyssey's other animal exhibits include African lions, jaguars, Baird's Tapirs, guanacos, capybaras, Kirk's dik-diks, secretary birds, dung beetles, water beetles, desert tarantulas, toads, newts, turtles, frogs, dromedary camels, pronghorn, horses, burros, llamas, rattlesnakes, and the California condor.

Gorilla Tropics[edit]

Simulating the rainforests of central Africa and opened in 1991,[28] Gorilla Tropics has an 8,000-square-foot (740 m2) enclosure for the eponymous species.[29] The exhibit has waterfalls, a meadow, and tropical plants such as allspice, coral trees, and African tulip trees, as well as several species of bamboo.[30] Guests can view the Western Gorillas from a viewing window, across a waterfall, and across a creek.

Absolutely Apes[edit]

This exhibit opened in 2003 and houses Sumatran orangutans with one Bornean orangutan and siamangs in an 8,400-square-foot (780 m2) exhibit,[31] which is flanked by a 110-foot (34 m) glass viewing window.[32] The exhibit provides sway poles and artificial trees for the primates to swing on and a fake termite mound for them to fish condiments out of.[33] The viewing area is designed to resemble the mulch-lined exhibit side of the viewing window by having rubber mulch and miniature sway poles for kids.[33] Some plant species in the exhibit are toog trees, carrotwood trees, and markhamia trees.[34]

Bonobos[edit]

The zoo has bred and maintained bonobos (pygmy chimps) since 1960.[35]

Sun Bear Forest[edit]

This $3.5 million exhibit opened in 1989 and exhibits Bornean Sun Bears and silvery lutung monkeys.[36] One end of the 1.5-acre (0.61 ha) complex houses lion-tailed macaques in a grassy exhibit with a stream and climbing ropes. The oblong sun bear exhibit straddles the path along the rest of the complex, and a couple of small aviaries house fifteen species of birds,[36] including fairy bluebird and fruit doves.[37] A large glass-covered exhibit with artificial vines is designed for crested gibbons.[37]

Tiger River[edit]

Tiger River, located in a sloping canyon, opened in 1988 and houses Malayan tigers.[38] From the top of the canyon, the path first goes through a pavilion with underwater viewing of crocodilians and other aquatic reptiles. It proceeds to another pavilion, this time flanked by the Marsh Aviary, with white-collared kingfishers and storks, and a fishing cat exhibit. Farther down the canyon are a Malayan tapir exhibit and the 14-acre (0.10 ha) tiger habitat, which has a hillside stream, waterfall, and glass viewing window.[38]

Outback[edit]

A new Australian Outback area, nicknamed "Koalafornia", opened in May 2013. It has twice as much exhibit space for koalas, including more outdoor enclosures based on a realization that koalas need sun exposure for their health. The new area includes other Australian marsupials such as wombats and wallabies and Australian birds such as kookaburras.[39] It also houses Tasmanian devils, which are only kept in two zoos in the Americas (the other is Albuquerque's Rio Grande Zoo).[40]

Clouded Leopard[edit]

Two 14-week-old Clouded Leopard brothers arrived at the zoo in December 2012.[41]

Cougar[edit]

The Zoo has finished building a new cougar exhibit in 2014.

Conservation[edit]

The zoo is active in conservation and species-preservation efforts. Its Institute for Conservation Research (formerly the Center for the Reproduction for Endangered Species) raises California Condors, giant pandas, tigers, African Black Rhinos, and a 145 other endangered species. As a result they reintroduced more than 30 endangered species back into the wild, and has conserved habitat at 50 field sites. They also have over 200 conservation scientist working in 35 countries around the world. It employs numerous professional geneticists, cytologists, and veterinarians and maintains a cryopreservation facility for rare sperm and eggs called the frozen zoo.

The San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research is the largest zoo-based multidisciplinary research effort in the world. Based at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center for Conservation Research adjacent to the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, more than 200 dedicated scientists carry out research vital to the conservation of animals, plants, and habitats, locally and internationally.[42]

Zoo Corps[edit]

Zoo Corps is a volunteer program at the San Diego Zoo that enlists high school students to teach guests at the zoo about the animals they are seeing and their place in the ecosystem. It enrolls students between 13 and 17 years of age. The goals are to promote public education about animals and conservation, and to help the students develop their ability to speak in public. The program runs year round in two sessions, one from May through November and one from January through May. Members of the Zoo Corps are expected to volunteer at least once a month.[43]

The program utilizes a series of "Kits", which are set on tables throughout the Zoo. The kits contain objects that can be used to explain why an animal is endangered or to shed light on the animal's lifestyle.Some of the kits are: Conservation Kit, Endangered Species Kit, Behavioral Enrichment Kit, and Animal Diet Kit.

Architecture[edit]

Local architect Louis John Gill designed the original buildings, cages and animal grottos and later in 1926, the Spanish Revival-style research hospital, for which Gill received an Honor Award from the San Diego Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. Gill also designed a bird cage at the zoo in 1937, then the largest bird cage in the world.[44]

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b c d "About the San Diego Zoo". sandiegozoo.org. San Diego Zoo. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  2. ^ "List of Accredited Zoos and Aquariums". aza.org. AZA. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
  3. ^ "American Association of Museums". aam-us.org. AAM. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Member Location Map". zooaquarium.org.au. ZAA. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Zoos and Aquariums of the World". waza.org. WAZA. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
  6. ^ http://www.sandiegozoo.org/disclaimers/aboutus.html
  7. ^ USA Today. July 17, 2008 http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/printedition/life/20080718/dd_great18.art.htm |url= missing title (help). 
  8. ^ San Diego Zoo: World-famous zoo is a must-see attraction for SD visitors
  9. ^ http://www.queenbeehousewife.com/2013/06/time-to-commence-another-zoo-trip.html
  10. ^ a b c Christman (1985), p. 67
  11. ^ a b Shaw, Marjorie Betts (Summer 1978). "The San Diego Zoological Garden: A Foundation to Build on". The Journal of San Diego History 24 (3). 
  12. ^ a b Christman (1985), p. 68
  13. ^ San Diego Historical Society History News, Vol. 23, No. 5. (May 1987), p. 3. Past Comes Alive, Fascinating facts from the Archives, Frank Buck in San Diego.
  14. ^ a b Engstrand, Iris (2005). San Diego: California's Cornerstone. Sunbelt Publications. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-932653-72-7. 
  15. ^ "Animal Attractions: Amazing Tales from the San Diego Zoo:Modern Zoos". Nature. PBS. Retrieved June 20, 2010. 
  16. ^ San Diego Zoo announcement
  17. ^ Counterpunch, December 16, 2008
  18. ^ "An albino koala adds color to San Diego Zoo" CNN.com. June 5, 1998.
  19. ^ Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1986
  20. ^ a b c http://web.archive.org/web/20061016012913/http://www.sandiegozoo.org/zoo/ex_monkey_trails.html
  21. ^ http://www.sandiegozoo.org/zoo/animal_zones/lost_forest/owens_aviary/
  22. ^ (AP) – August 5, 2009 (August 5, 2009). "The Associated Press: San Diego Zoo super panda gives birth to 5th cub". Google. Retrieved August 25, 2009. 
  23. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/news/its-a-boy-san-diego-zoos-newest-panda-cub/
  24. ^ http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2014/01/13/22286706-eats-shoots-and-leaves-us-born-panda-yun-zi-starts-new-life-in-china?lite
  25. ^ http://www.inthecitysandiego.com/san-diego-zoo-coupons.html
  26. ^ "Giant Panda Cub Makes Debut at San Diego Zoo". ABC News. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  27. ^ a b c http://web.archive.org/web/20061016014258/http://www.sandiegozoo.org/zoo/ex_polar_bear_plunge.html
  28. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20061016014056/http://www.sandiegozoo.org/zoo/ex_gorilla_tropics.html
  29. ^ http://www.entersandiego.com/san_diego_zoo.cfm
  30. ^ http://www.sandiegozoo.org/CF/plants/gardendetail38.html
  31. ^ "In San Diego". The New York Times (the New York Times Company). October 17, 2004. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. 
  32. ^ "The San Diego Zoo’s Absolutely Apes? Absolutely!". about.com. The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. 
  33. ^ a b "Lost Forest Orangutan and Siamang". sandiegozoo.org. Zoological Society of San Diego. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Absolutely Apes". sandiegozoo.org. Zoological Society of San Diego. Archived from the original on October 10, 2006. 
  35. ^ "Mammals: Bonobo (Pygmy Chimp)". San Diego Zoo. Retrieved June 9, 2013. 
  36. ^ a b Greenwald, Igor (June 28, 1989). "Sun Bear Forest: A Natural Evolution". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. 
  37. ^ a b "Sun Bear Forest". sandiegozoo.org. Zoological Society of San Diego. Archived from the original on October 10, 2006. 
  38. ^ a b "Tiger River". sandiegozoo.org. Zoological Society of San Diego. Archived from the original on October 10, 2006. 
  39. ^ Peterson, Karla (May 25, 2013). "Koalas bring the cute to new zoo site". San Diego Union Tribune. 
  40. ^ Glaetzer, S. (5 January 2014). Denmark's Copenhagen Zoo plans to lead way in Tasmanian devil care. The Mercury. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  41. ^ "Baby leopards come to San Diego zoo". Fox News. December 10, 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  42. ^ http://www.sandiegozooglobal.org/campuses
  43. ^ "Zoo Corps: Kids Teaching Kids". San Diego Zoo. Retrieved September 10, 2011. 
  44. ^ The Journal of San Diego History "LOUIS JOHN GILL: Famous but Forgotten Architect", Rev. C. Douglas Kroll, SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Summer 1984, Volume 30, Number 3
  45. ^ "Balboa Park makes list of "coolest city parks"". San Diego Union-Tribune. April 11, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  46. ^ Catherine E. Bell (2001). Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos, Volume 3. Routledge. p. 1141. ISBN 1-57958-174-9. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Joan Embry". imdb.com. Interned Movie Database. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Filming Locations of Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy". seeing-stars.com. Seeing Stars. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Ostrich Keepers Nix Movie Offer", Ocala Star-Banner, July 21, 1979
  50. ^ "The Beach Boys Pet Sounds Liner Notes". beachboysfanclub.com. Capitol Records, Inc. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  51. ^ "The Lost World: Jurassic Park film locations". movielocations.com. The Worldwide Guide To Movie Locations. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  52. ^ "Wasps' Nests". houseoftomorrow.com. The Magnetic Fields. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  53. ^ Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008). "YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  54. ^ "Me at the zoo". YouTube. April 23, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
Bibliography
  • Abrams, H., 1983. A World of Animals. (California: The Zoological Society of San Diego)
  • Christman, Florence (1985). The Romance of Balboa Park (4th ed.). San Diego: San Diego Historical Society. ISBN 0-918740-03-7. 
  • Ernst & Young LLP, 2005. "Zoological Society of San Diego Financial Statements 2004"
  • Greeley, M.,et al. 1997. The San Diego Zoo. (California: Craftsman Press)
  • Myers, Douglas (1999). Mister Zoo: The Life and Legacy of Dr. Charles Schroeder: The World-Famous San Diego Zoo and Wild Animal Park's Legendary Director. The Zoological Society of San Diego. ISBN 0-911461-15-9. 
  • Showley, Roger M. (1999). Balboa Park: A Millennium History. Heritage Media Corp. ISBN 1-886483-40-X. 
  • Wegeforth, H.M. & Morgan, N. 1953. It Began with a Roar: the Beginning of the World-Famous San Diego Zoo (revised edition). (California: Crest Offset Printing Company)

External links[edit]