San Gabriel River (California)
|San Gabriel River|
The San Gabriel River just out of the mountains seen from Interstate 210
|Regions||Los Angeles County, Orange County|
|- left||East Fork San Gabriel River, Walnut Creek (California), Coyote Creek|
|- right||West Fork San Gabriel River|
|Cities||Azusa, Covina, Baldwin Park, El Monte, Whittier, Pico Rivera, Downey, Norwalk, Bellflower, Cerritos, Lakewood, Cypress, Long Beach, Seal Beach|
|Primary source||East Fork San Gabriel River|
|- location||Mount San Antonio, San Gabriel Mountains|
|Secondary source||West Fork San Gabriel River|
|- location||San Gabriel Peak, San Gabriel Mountains|
|Source confluence||San Gabriel Reservoir|
|- location||San Gabriel Mountains|
|- elevation||1,473 ft (449 m)|
|- location||Alamitos Bay|
|- elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
|Length||60.6 mi (98 km) |
|Basin||713 sq mi (1,847 km2)|
|Discharge||for above Whittier Narrows Dam|
|- average||190 cu ft/s (5 m3/s)|
|- max||46,600 cu ft/s (1,320 m3/s)|
|- min||0 cu ft/s (0 m3/s)|
The San Gabriel River flows 60.6 miles (97.5 km) through southern Los Angeles County, California in the United States. Its main stem is about 43 miles (69 km) long, while its farthest tributaries extend almost 18 miles (29 km) altogether. It drains a long, narrow watershed basin extending from high in the San Gabriel Mountains above the eastern Los Angeles Basin, across the San Gabriel Valley, to the Pacific Ocean.
The river derives its name from the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel founded in 1771, now in the present day city of San Gabriel. It was free flowing with natural banks and a riparian zone habitat lined with riparian forests, marshes, and grasslands for much of its length and a large estuary at its mouth until the last century. Today most of the San Gabriel after leaving the foothills is restrained in a broad concrete flood control channel, and impounded in places by debris and stormwater management pond dams.
The East, West and North Forks of the San Gabriel River, rising in the San Gabriel Mountains inside the Angeles National Forest, form the source headwaters of the river. The East Fork, sometimes considered part of the main stem, rises in the shadow of Mount San Antonio has two smaller forks of its own, the Prairie Fork and the Fish Fork. The East Fork officially begins at the confluence of the Prairie Fork and a smaller tributary, Vincent Gulch. The Fish Fork and the main stem combine at the base of Iron Mountain in a canyon nearly 5,000 feet (1,500 m) deep. From there, the East Fork flows south then turns west, flowing into the east arm of San Gabriel Reservoir. The similarly sized West Fork starts near San Gabriel Peak near the Angeles Crest Highway and flows east before being impounded in Cogswell Reservoir, where it receives Devils Canyon Creek. The river continues to flow east and receives Bear Creek from the left before combining with the North Fork, which rises near Mount Islip.
San Gabriel Reservoir and Morris Reservoir, both formed by flood prevention dams built in the 20th Century, submerge most of the upper stretches of the main stem San Gabriel. It is not long after the river leaves the San Gabriel Canyon and exits from the mountains into the San Gabriel Valley near the city of Azusa. The normally dry riverbed proceeds southwest to the Santa Fe Dam, which impounds the river in the Santa Fe Flood Control Basin. After exiting the dam, the river flows south in a flood control channel roughly parallel to Interstate 605, also called the San Gabriel River Freeway, past Covina and El Monte, receives Walnut Creek and San Jose Creek from the left in quick succession, then proceeds into the Whittier Narrows where it is impounded behind Whittier Narrows Dam. Here, the river receives the Rio Hondo from the right, then splits in two immediately after: the main stem continues to flow south, while the Rio Hondo carries a portion of the water southwest to empty into the Los Angeles River near Downey.
The San Gabriel River, however, continues to flow south, past Bellflower and Cerritos. It forms the boundary between Los Angeles and Orange Counties for a brief stretch before merging with Coyote Creek, one of its main tributaries, near Los Alamitos. The river eventually becomes tidal and empties into the outlet of Alamitos Bay between the cities of Long Beach and Seal Beach.
The headwaters of the San Gabriel River host one of the last wild populations of Mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa), which was threatened with extinction by non-native trout, bullfrogs and a chytrid fungus that swept through the San Gabriel Mountains in the 1960s called Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Removal of the trout has led to a recent rebound in the river's headwaters from five individuals two years ago to over 70 today.
The San Gabriel River drains a watershed basin area of 713 square miles (1,850 km2) in eastern Los Angeles County and northwestern Orange County. It is the middle of the three major rivers of the Los Angeles Basin, with its watershed bounded on the west by the Los Angeles River and on the southeast by the Santa Ana River watersheds. To the north is the arid interior endorheic drainage basin of the Mojave Desert and Mojave River. The San Gabriel River mainly flows along the west side of its watershed. There are 37 major cities in the San Gabriel River watershed, 19 of which are actually situated on the river. In total, 26% of the watershed is covered by heavy development. Some tributaries of the river include Bear Creek, Walnut Creek, San Jose Creek, and Coyote Creek. The latter three are all large eastern tributaries that drain areas in excess of 40 square miles (100 km2). San Jose Creek flows nearly 20 miles (32 km) westwards from Pomona into the San Gabriel. Because most of the water from the mountains is stored in reservoirs and diverted for municipal use, the tributaries provide most of the flow below the Santa Fe Dam.
The northern part of the watershed is dominated by the San Gabriel Mountains, one of the Transverse Ranges, which were formed by seismic activity along the San Andreas Fault, a major fault system in turn created by the collision of the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate. Before these two plates collided, the San Gabriel River did not even exist. It was only after the San Gabriel Mountains rose about 75 million years ago, that the river first began to form. Changes in sea level, especially during the Ice Age, deposited thousands of feet of marine sediments in the flood plain south of the San Gabriel Mountains over which the San Gabriel River now flows. The San Rafael Hills, Puente Hills, and Chino Hills that cross the lower part of the watershed were formed by slippage of the Whittier Fault, part of a smaller fault system that formed the Peninsular Ranges.
For geologic epochs the river ran freely across arid grasslands and through riparian zones and extensive marshes to the Pacific Ocean, flooding in the winter and spring then running nearly dry in the summer and fall. Once out of the mountains, the river's course would change frequently with every heavy inundation. Sometimes, the river would change course to run into the Los Angeles River in the west, and sometimes the Santa Ana River's floodwaters would travel westwards into the San Gabriel from Santa Ana Canyon.
The San Gabriel River basin was historically part of the homeland, for over 8,000 years, of the Tongva—Gabrieleño Native American people. Together with the Los Angeles and Santa Ana Rivers, the San Gabriel River provided sustenance for thousands of members of this powerful coastal tribe whose territory extended across the entire Los Angeles basin, San Fernando Valley, and Channel Islands. The Tongva had permanent settlements and temporary hunting and foraging camps in their territory.
In 1771, the Spanish invaded and founded Mission San Gabriel Arcángel which was originally built on the banks of the Rio Hondo, a tributary of the San Gabriel River in the Whittier Narrows, in 1771. After being flooded in 1776 it was relocated to the location, now in the present day City of San Gabriel. The river's Spanish name is from the mission's. The Spanish colonizers also renamed the Tongva people, as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after they were relocated to the mission.
After California was admitted to the United States in 1850, the Pueblo de Los Angeles founded in 1781, grew into the City of Los Angeles. In this period, agriculture and ranching, on the lands of the former Spanish and Mexican land grant Ranchos, were the primary economy of the San Gabriel River basin. When the railroads arrived, and especially after the Los Angeles Aqueduct began service in 1913, the development booms in the basin expanded greatly, creating many of the towns and cities that now line the San Gabriel River. Some were named after their founders and others, such as Azusa, derived from the location's Tongva language settlement placename, although the contemporary motto of that city is "everything from 'A' to 'Z' in the 'USA'."
Devastating floods wreaked havoc along the San Gabriel River in the late 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. The most famous were the Great Flood of 1862 and the Los Angeles Flood of 1938, which produced some of the highest flows ever recorded in the river. The 1938 flood raised the river to some 65,700 cu ft/s (1,860 m3/s) according to a U.S. Geological Survey river gauge near Azusa; although the 1862 flood probably produced an even higher flow, its discharge was not recorded. The flood of 1938 would have been far worse if it were not for the dams already on the San Gabriel River, which knocked nearly 85,000 cu ft/s (2,400 m3/s) off the crest of the flood. As a result, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began an ambitious effort to prevent flooding along the river in the lowlands. Much of the river downstream of Azusa was diked, channeled, lined with riprap or paved over with concrete. A cascade of 10 drop structures was constructed where the river empties out of San Gabriel Canyon to slow flood flows from the mountains. Check dams were constructed in upper canyons and the river itself was impounded in several artificial lakes. (See #River modifications.)
The increased flood protection afforded by the dams, stormwater management ponds, and flood control channels led to a housing boom from the 1950s to the 1980s. Most of the lowlands and agricultural areas in the watershed were built and paved over to construct residential, commercial, and industrial districts. Except for the Angeles National Forest protected San Gabriel Mountains and the Puente Hills between the San Gabriel Valley and the Los Angeles Basin, the remaining former flood plain land in the watershed was filled with urban sprawl developments. The river's reservoirs also provide a small amount of municipal water.
Like most rivers in Southern California, the San Gabriel River today bears little resemblance to the river it was before the arrival of early Spanish colonial settlers and Californios of Alta California. It is dammed five times along its length: once along the West Fork by the Prescott F. Cogswell Dam, then twice more downstream of the forks in the San Gabriel Mountains to create reservoirs at the San Gabriel Dam, and at the former naval test site Morris Dam; at the Santa Fe Dam in the Santa Fe Dam Flood Control Basin in Irwindale; and with the nearby Rio Hondo (to which it is also connected by a short channel) at the Whittier Narrows Dam, between the cities of South El Monte and Pico Rivera. Its channel is lined with concrete for most of its length below the mountains. These alterations were made in response to disastrous flash floods in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During periods of heavy rainfall, the Los Angeles District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers can shift flows between the Rio Hondo (a tributary of the Los Angeles River) and the San Gabriel River.
The San Gabriel River course is also the site for companion highways. In the lowlands it is adjoined by the San Gabriel River Freeway (Interstate 605) which replaced an older Rivergrade Road. Into the San Gabriel Canyon it is followed by State Route 39 to a terminus nearly 30 miles upstream.
As with the similarly modified Los Angeles River, the San Gabriel is a notorious symbol of gross environmental degradation and destruction. Efforts to restore its river ecology and riparian habitats are growing. Historically they have had limited success due to the artificial concrete, water pollution and fertilizer runoff.
From mouth to source (year built in parentheses):
- Marina Drive (1963)
- State Route 1 - Pacific Coast Highway (1931)
- Westminster Avenue - twin bridges (1964)
- State Route 22 - East 7th St - twin bridges (1941, 1959)
- College Park Drive (1964)
- Southbound Interstate 605 ramp to northbound Interstate 405 (1966)
- Interstate 405 - San Diego Freeway (1964)
- Southbound Interstate 405 ramp to northbound Interstate 605 (1966)
- East Willow Street (1962)
- East Spring Street (1952)
- East Wardlow Road (1963)
- San Gabriel River Bicycle Path [bike bridge]
- Carson Street - twin bridges (1971)
- Del Amo Boulevard (1966)
- South Street (1952)
- 183rd Street (1972)
- Artesia Boulevard (1941)
- State Route 91 - Artesia Freeway (1968)
- [Pedestrian Bridge]
- Alondra Boulevard (1952)
- Rosecrans Avenue (1951)
- Foster Road [Pedestrian Bridge]
- Eastbound Interstate 105 ramps to Interstate 605 (1987)
- Interstate 105 - Glenn Anderson Freeway and Metro Green Line (1987)
- Interstate 605 ramps to westbound Interstate 105 (1987)
- Imperial Highway (1952)
- Firestone Boulevard (1934)
- Florence Avenue (1951)
- Interstate 5 - Santa Ana Freeway (1953)
- Telegraph Road (1937)
- Slauson Avenue (1958)
- Washington Boulevard (1953)
- State Route 72 - Whittier Boulevard (1968)
- East Beverly Boulevard (1952)
- San Gabriel River Parkway (1954)
- Whittier Narrows Dam
- Peck Road - twin bridges (1952)
- State Route 60 - Pomona Freeway (1967)
- Valley Boulevard (1916)
- Interstate 10 - San Bernardino Freeway (westbound 1933, eastbound 1956)
- Ramona Boulevard (1961)
- Lower Azusa Road (1960)
- Interstate 605 - San Gabriel River Freeway - twin bridges (1970)
- Live Oak Avenue (1961)
- Arrow Highway (1949)
- Santa Fe Dam
- Interstate 210 - Foothill Freeway (1968)
- Foothill Boulevard/Huntington Drive (1922)
- [Pedestrian Bridge]
- Mountain Laurel Way
- Rock Springs Way
- State Route 39 - San Gabriel Canyon Road (1933)
- Morris Reservoir
- San Gabriel Reservoir
- Forest Route 2N16/Upper Monroe Rd to Fire Camp 19
- East Fork Road (1936)
- East Fork Road (1949)
- West Fork enters
- State Route 39 (1967)
- State Route 39 (1967)
- State Route 39 (1932)
- State Route 39 (1962)
- Los Angeles & San Gabriel Rivers Watershed Council
- List of watershed topics
- List of rivers of California
- Source (river or stream) - aka: watershed and headwaters
- Confluence - aka: "headwaters"
- Drainage basin - aka: "watershed"
- "Study Findings and Alternative Concepts". San Gabriel Watershed and Mountains Special Resource Study. National Park Service. 2009-08-03. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- Main stem, including "East Fork"
- U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map, accessed March 16, 2011
- "San Gabriel River". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 1981-01-19. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- Anthony J. Clemento, Eric C. Anderson, David Boughton, Derek Girman, John Carlos Garza (2009). "Population genetic structure and ancestry of Oncorhynchus mykiss populations above and below dams in south-central California". Conservation Genetics: 1321–1336. Retrieved 2011-06-11.
- Louis Sahagun (2012-09-16). "Endangered mountain yellow-legged frogs might get a hoppy ending". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
- National Park Service (2006-03). San Gabriel Watershed and Mountains Special Resources Study: Topography (Map). Cartography by National Park Service, Department of the Interior. http://www.nps.gov/pwro/sangabriel/sangabriel_topography.jpg. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- National Park Service (2006-03). San Gabriel Watershed and Mountains Special Resources Study: Watersheds (Map). Cartography by National Park Service, Department of the Interior. http://www.nps.gov/pwro/sangabriel/sangabriel_watersheds.jpg. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- "San Gabriel River Watershed". Los Angeles County Watershed Management. Los Angeles Department of Power and Water. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- USA Today 'Science discoveries article.' Accessed 5/22/2010
- "National Bridge Inventory Database". Retrieved 2009-11-02.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to San Gabriel River (California).|
- San Gabriel Mountains Regional Conservancy
- State of California San Gabriel & Lower Los Angeles Rivers and Mountains Conservancy
- Amigos de los Rios (an organization whose goal is to create a necklace of parks connecting the San Gabriel River, the Rio Hondo, and Whittier Narrows)
- Public Law 108–42 (San Gabriel River Watershed Study Act) (an act proposed as H.R. 519 by Hilda Solis and S. 630 by Barbara Boxer)
- San Gabriel Watershed and Mountains Special Resource Study (the study authorized by Public Law 108-42)
- Documentary on the San Gabriel River, Ya Don't Miss the Water (a five-part video that documents the major ecological, political, and social problems of the community - approximately 2 million people surround and use the river's water)
- Online Computer Library Center - WorldCat search result: San Gabriel River Watershed