San Jose, Occidental Mindoro
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
|skyline, San Jose Municipal Hall, San Jose Municipal Park, Aroma Beach, White Island, St. Joseph Cathedral|
|Region||MIMAROPA (Region IV-B)|
|District||Lone District of Occidental Mindoro|
|• Mayor||Romulo "Muloy" Festin|
|• Total||446.70 km2 (172.47 sq mi)|
|• Density||290/km2 (760/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|Income class||1st class municipality; Partially Urban|
San Jose is a first-class municipality in the province of Occidental Mindoro, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 131,188 people. San Jose is the economic, financial, cultural, and educational center of the province of Occidental Mindoro. It has the largest commercial port and airport in the province. It is named after its patron saint, St. Joseph, the husband of Mary. Most of the people are Visayans, Batangueños and Ilocanos.
Mamburao to the north is the official capital of the province, but most provincial government offices have satellite offices in San Jose, and may be considered the de facto capital. The town has the most number of business and commercial establishments in the province, and is either the major market or transit point for agricultural and commercial products. Major banks include Philippine National Bank (PNB), United Coconut Planters Bank (UCPB), Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), Allied Bank, Metrobank, Landbank, and Philippine Veterans Bank.
Telecommunication services are provided by Digital Telecommunications (Digitel), Smart Communications, and Globe. Cable and satellite television operators provide access to local and international broadcasts. Broadband Internet services are likewise available through the numerous internet cafes located in the poblacion area.
Large public and private elementary and high schools provide basic education in the town proper and smaller barangays. Major educational institutions in the province include Occidental Mindoro State College (OMSC), Divine Word College (DWC), Montessori de San Jose, Philippine Central Islands College (PCIC), I-NET Asia Technological School, Inc., Southwest Philippines Ecumenical School Inc., and Abeleda Technical School.
The population growth currently experienced by San Jose is attributed to a growing number of migrants from Palawan, Southern Luzon, and Visayan provinces.
It is located at the southern part of the province with a total land area of 551.9294 km². Climatic condition is classified under Type A category and slope is generally flat. Soil composition developed from recent alluvial deposits which are silty-loam to clay loam and landforms consist of limestone and sedimentary rocks. All types of erosion are present: slight, moderate and severe erosion. Eleven (11) rivers and creeks serve as natural drainage. Mineral deposits includes copper and limestone.
San Jose is politically subdivided into 38 barangays
- Bagong Sikat
- Barangay 1 (Pob.)
- Barangay 2 (Pob.)
- Barangay 3 (Pob.)
- Barangay 4 (Pob.)
- Barangay 5 (Pob.)
- Barangay 6 (Pob.)
- Barangay 7 (Pob.)
- Barangay 8 (Pob.)
- Ilin Proper
- La Curva
- Labangan Iling
- Labangan Poblacion
- Monte Claro
- San Agustin
- San Isidro
- San Roque
Historical records show that in 14th century, Chinese traders anchored to trade at the shores of Mangarin, the oldest settlement in the southern portion of Occidental Mindoro. Its name was derived from the word “Mandarin”, an official Chinese Palace, the remains of which can still be found in the old barrio of Mangarin. When the Spanish took possession of the Island in the 18th century, the first site of the Presidencia was built in sitio of Sinaoga, on the western side of Barrio Sta. Teresa, now part of the municipality of Magsaysay. A year later, it was again transferred to Caminawit. On May 1, 1910, Pandurucan, which was renamed San Jose, became the seat of the Civil Government with Don German Ramirez as its first appointed leader up to 1915. When the Japanese Imperial Forces occupied the town, Bonifacio Gomez was appointed as Mayor from 1941-1942 followed by Pedro Cuden, 1942–1943 and finally Isabelo Abeleda in 1944 until 1946. During the American reoccupation Bibiano Gaudiel replaced Isabelo Abeleda who regained his position in 1955.
San Jose figures prominently in Philippine history for its role during World War II. American forces led by General Douglas MacArthur with the Filipino soldiers staged a so-called "Second Landing" in the beaches of San Jose (the "First" being the famous Leyte Landing) on December 15, 1944, to retake the Philippine islands from the Japanese (the Battle of Mindoro). Securing San Jose and the whole Mindoro island proved decisive in the goal to recapture Manila and Luzon, and the eventual defeat of the Japanese Imperial forces by Filipino and American troops.
The Philippine government split Mindoro into two provinces, Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro in 1950. San Jose became the temporary capitol but was transferred to Mamburao on January 1950. Migration to Mindoro in the years after the war boosted population growth and spurred development. The Philippine Sugar Mill plantation in the northern Barangay Central helped San Jose become the center of commerce in those years. The economic base has since widened to include rice, corn, tobacco, salt, and aquaculture production.
Conversion to Cityhood
The following is the Explanatory Note for the Proposed Municipal Resolution/Petition by Hon. Emiliano R. Villanada dated July 10, 2007, "Requesting The Congress of the Republic of the Philippines for the Enactment into Law the Creation Of The Municipality of San Jose, Province of Occidental Mindoro as A New Component City."
There had been in the past an initiative for the creation of the Municipality of San Jose of this province as a city. The fact is that, Resolution No. 0023, s. 2001 was already passed by the municipal council for this purpose and objective. However, for some reasons, the said resolution had not been pursued forward for its realization. One of the reasons, maybe, is that contents of the resolution need to be updated along the line of the present socio-economic situation of our municipality (income and population of the municipality). Motivating factors that encourage this presentation to sponsor, and be one among those taking the initiative of making the Municipality of San Jose to become a city, is that several sectors now in our society are clamoring for these developmental change -- the change from the municipal way of administration to a city governance. While the province of Oriental Mindoro has a Calapan City to boast, Occidental Mindoro still wants to have one. It is also interesting to note, that the municipality of Sablayan was seriously working to make their municipality to become a city. Once the Municipality of Sablayan is enacted by the Congress as a city, then San Jose has to wait for a hundred years to be proclaimed or enacted as such! A delay caused primarily will be attributed to local legislative inaction! Pray, it may not be allowed to happen by this honorable august body. It is also the honest and sincere belief of this presentation that San Jose is now qualified to become a city, since it had already established its capability in compliance with the requisites for a component city, having an annual income of P116,803,109.26 for the year 2006; with a total land area of 446.7 square kilometer; and with a projected population of 121,936 for the year 2005; and will be more than 150,000 projected by the year 2010 (The municipality of Sablayan has a projected population of only 72,099 for the year 2005!). these requisites are for cityhood provided in RA 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991. The conversion of the municipality of San Jose as a component city will promote socio-economic development and effective management of its component barangays and are beneficial to the general interest and welfare of the public. City government power will be enjoyed such as: police power, eminent domain, and taxation. It can exercise effectively and efficiently its corporate powers. Unique with the taxing and revenue raising powers of cities is that all the collected revenue shall exclusively for the benefit of the city. The city however shall abide and be guided with the fundamental principles of taxation. There are many advantages and opportunities for development and beneficial to our constituency, if San Jose will be made and become a city. Numerous, to be enumerated in this Explanatory Note. Praying that this Resolution for the cityhood of San Jose will be given consideration for deliberation and approval by this honorable august body.
|Population census of San Jose, Occidental Mindoro|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
It is the most densely populated area in the province which continuously grows at 2.38% annually. Out of the total population of 131,188, about 42% resides in urban area while 58% are situated in rural barangays. Some 2% of its population to belong to the indigenous Mangyan peoples. Mangyans are further divided into tribes like Ratagnon, Hanunuo, Gubatnon, and others.
Average household size is recorded at 5 with an urban density of 6500 persons per km². About 69% are dependents, resulting to a dependency ratio of 1:2. On the other hand, male-female ratio is computed at 108:100.
Tagalog is the most outspoken dialect and 83.97% are practicing Roman Catholicism.
The municipality has diverse economic activities. However, the majority of the working force which is estimated at 76%, are still engaged in agriculture. Like the rest of the province, other industries in San Jose are tied to the town's agricultural base. A substantial majority of palay and rice of Occidental Mindoro, a major supplier of rice for Manila and elsewhere, are delivered, milled, traded and sold in San Jose.
Other major agricultural products include corn, garlic, onions, and root crops. Aquaculture is well-developed in San Jose which is known for its export quality lapu-lapu, bangus (milkfish), and sugpo (prawn). The town has abundant coastal and marine resources which provide an ample supply of fish and marine products for local consumption and exports.
Commercial livestock and poultry farms producing layers, broilers and meat products also exist. San Jose has a large number of agricultural support facilities such as rice mills, warehouses, solar dryers, and the like.
Registered commercial establishments number around 1,030 and the public market, the center of commercial activities, is the largest in the province. Other industries include hollow blocks making, handicrafts, furniture, sweet goods, and other small-scale processing and manufacturing plants.
Challenges and Difficulties
Of the many reasons that hinder San Jose's growth, the unending political turmoil serves as the greatest factor why this town fails to achieve the eventual realization of its progress. Corrupt political clans have monopolized the town's government and it so happen that these clans are rivals since time immemorial. The effects of such governance branch out to many forms of other challenges that burden the town such as a very unstable power supply, retreat of many could-have-been business investors, problem regarding peace and order and numbers of unfinished government projects.
Known tourism facilities are beach resorts, hotels, bars, and restaurants.
Even with its considerable tourism potential, San Jose has yet to turn into a more popular destination at par with other parts of the Philippines. Among the challenges the town faces are coastal pollution, illegal settlers, and a lack of an effective ecotourism plan. Brownouts caused by a lingering power supply dispute has negatively affected local businesses and tourism.
However, a modest number of visitors continue to explore this quaint town on the southwestern tip of Mindoro. San Jose offers an off-the-beaten-path charm for local and foreign tourists alike who shun the crowded and over-commercialized spots in the country. The major attractions of San Jose are its three offshore islands - Ambulong, Ilin, and White Island (also called Manadi). San Jose is also a favorite jump-off point to the world-class diving site - Apo Reef Marine Park.
- Ambulong Island
- Ambulong Island is a 30 km² island with fine beaches, cliffs and abundant coral formations. It is characterized by white sand beaches, cliffs along pillars jutting out of the water, and underwater caves. Coral gardens and tropical fish are abundant in several coves. An islet called Grace Island is located at a limestone cove at the southern tip of Ambulong. A fisherman's village is located at the sheltered side of the island. Ambulong Island is also a jump-off point to some of the dive spots in the area, such as the Iling Point, Baniaga Reef, Ambulong Bank, Dungan Reef, Sardines Reef, Apo Reef, and Manadi Island. These dive sites are about an hour away by pumpboat from the Caminawit Port.
- Ilin Island
- Ilin Island has a village of shell divers, being abundant in shells and coral reefs. There are ancient burial caves of early Chinese traders, ethnic fishing villages, and numerous dive sites from which to view many tropical fishes. Lush foliage encircle the clear blue waters of the South China Sea. There are scuba diving facilities, a 6.8 CTM compressor, seaport facilities, diveboats, and PADI and NAUI-certified instructors. KWEBA CANSUBONG is a popular destination in the island apart from its white beaches, estuaries, rock formations, etc. Inasakan Beach, located at the far side of Ilin, is a small stretch of powdery white sand. Recently, the island's timberland is being proposed to be declared a conservation area for its natural fauna and flora. The PHILIPPINE TEAK, an endangered Philippine tree is found only in Ilin and Batangas. Meanwhile, an endangered fauna called the CLOUD RAT (or cloud runner/Ilin Island Cloud Runner) is found only in San Jose, Occidental Mindoro particularly in the island of Ilin. Cloud rat is the biggest and one of the most beautiful rat in the world.
- White Island (Manadi, Barrio Ilin, San Jose; 15 minutes by pumpboat from Caminawit Port)
- White Island has a long powdery beach where buried turtle eggs are occasionally found. It has an almost mile-long beach with smooth and powdery white sand. The tranquil and peaceful island is an ideal place for swimming, scuba diving and fishing. Turtle eggs are occasionally found buried in the sand, and visitors are cautioned to keep them undisturbed.
- Mt. Iglit National Park
- Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park is located in an area shared by the municipalities of Sablayan, Calintaan, Rizal and San Jose. The latter is also the main gateway there. It is a sanctuary for the 'tamaraw' (Bubalus mindorensis), an endemic species of buffalo found only in Mindoro. It provides a nice eco-tourism, trekking, or mountaineering alternative to beach/dive resorts. However, recent developments has cited that a part the TAMARAW GENEPOOL which is also a part of the aforesaid national park is situated at the boundaries of Rizal and San Jose, more or less 50 hectares are in the territorial jurisdiction of the Municipality.
- Other Destinations
- There are other destinations in the area like the extraordinary landscape and rugged peaks of the Chocolate Mountains (more popularly known as the Devil's Mountain), the Linaw Baboy Falls in Brgy. Murtha, Mangarin Ruins, and the Second Landing Marker of the troops of Gen. MacArthur during the World War II near Aroma Beach (about 2 km from Poblacion), which is itself a favorite spot for local residents. St. Joseph Cathedral and San Jose Municipal Park, just across the municipal hall, are also hubs of religious and recreational activities.
Cultural events in San Jose include Indak Pandurukan, a street-dancing festival, and other activities during the town fiesta which is celebrated on May 1.
Most roads in the poblacion area and nearby barangays are concrete and/or asphalted. The major thoroughfares are Rizal Street, Liboro Street, Bonifacio Street, Mabini Street, and the streets in and around the public market. Tricycles are the common mode of transportation around town. Jeepneys provide the main mode of public transportation between San Jose and other towns of the province. Vans and sports utility vehicles (SUVs) are likewise numerous. The number of land vehicles in San Jose has grown because of the population boom starting in the early 2000s. Pump boats can be chartered to provide access to nearby island resorts and diving spots.
Dimple Star, RORO Transport, and Philtranco has a direct bus route from Cubao (in Quezon City), Sampaloc (in Manila) and Alabang (in Muntinlupa City) to San Jose that includes a roll-on/roll-off ferry that operates between Abra de Ilog and Batangas City (a three-hour trip across the Verde Island Passage).
San Jose is linked to all towns of Occidental Mindoro via a mostly-dusty provincial highway that runs from north to south. Roads in and around San Jose are well-paved on mostly flat terrain. Local bus and jeepney operators ply the route from the northernmost town of Abra de Ilog all the way south to San Jose. From the San Jose Bus Terminal, travelers can ride a jeepney to Magsaysay, the last town of the province of Occidental Mindoro, and further across the mountains to Bulalacao, Oriental Mindoro via the newly constructed Roxas-Bulalacao-San Jose Road.
- "Province: OCCIDENTAL MINDORO". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- By virtue of Excutive Order 31, signed by Governor General Cameroon Forbes on April 18, 1910.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code
- 2000 Philippine Census Information
- 2007 Philippine Census Information
- Local Governance Performance Management System
|Mansalay, Oriental Mindoro|
|Magsaysay||Bulalacao, Oriental Mindoro|