San Juan, Metro Manila
|City of San Juan|
|Nickname(s): Heart of Metro Manila
Home of Philippine Presidents
Tiangge Capital of the Philippines
|Motto: Todo Asenso, San Juan!
("All Progress, San Juan!")
|Region||National Capital Region|
|Districts||Lone District of San Juan|
|Incorporated||17 June 2007 (cityhood)|
|• Mayor||Guia G.Gómez (Partido Magdiwang-UNA)|
|• Vice Mayor||Francisco Javier M. Zamora (Partido Magdiwang-UNA)|
|• Representative||Ronaldo Zamora (Partido Magdiwang-UNA)|
|• Sangguniang Panlungsod|
|• Total||5.95 km2 (2.30 sq mi)|
|Elevation||17.0 m (55.8 ft)|
|• Density||20,000/km2 (53,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|Zip code||1500 - 1504|
San Juan is one of the cities that comprises the National Capital Region of the Philippines. It is the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of land area. The city is known for being the site of the first battle of the Katipunan (the Filipino Revolutionary organisation) against troops of the Spanish Empire in 1897.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Places of interest
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Education
- 8 Culture
- 9 Sister cities
- 10 References
- 11 External links
"San Juan City" is a contraction of the city's longer, ceremonial name of San Juan del Monte (English: "Saint John of the Mountain"). As with numerous other places in the Philippines, the city is christened after John the Baptist, the city's patron saint, and the hilly terrain it is situated on.
The territory of San Juan was once much larger than it is presently, stretching all the way to Caloocan City. Parts of what are now Districts 1, 2 and 4 of Quezon City as well as parts of Mandaluyong were originally within San Juan's territorial boundaries. This explains why San Juan Reservoir is in nearby Horseshoe Village, a subdivision currently under the jurisdiction of Quezon City.
San Juan is politically subdivided into 21 barangays:
- Addition Hills
- Corazon De Jesus
- Halo-halo (St. Joseph)
- Little Baguio
- Pedro Cruz
- San Perfecto
- Santa Lucia
- West Crame
During the pre-Hispanic period, the area of what is now San Juan was a part of the Kingdom of Namayan, whose last recorded rulers were King Lacantagean and his consort[disambiguation needed], Bouan. When the Spanish first took over the kingdom which they re-christened as Sta. Ana de Sapa, the village remained a part of it, re-classified as a barrio and later becoming a small encomienda by 1590. In 1602, the Dominican friars built a retreat house for their immediate use, where aging or convalescing friars stayed. Later, the Dominicans constructed a convent and a stone church dedicated to the Holy Cross. To this day, the thrice-rebuilt Santuario del Santo Cristo stands on the same site, adjacent to the Aquinas School and the Dominican College.
In 1783, San Juan became independent of Santa Ana but it was still then a barrio within the Province of Manila. The opening salvo of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, began in San Juan in 1897 with an attack by the Katipunan on the alamacen (armoury) or polvorín (gunpowder magazine) of the Spanish East Indies government. The town was later incorporated into the Province of Rizal in 1901 during the American Occupation.
On 7 November 1975, President Ferdinand Marcos signed Presidential Decree № 824 that established the National Capital Region. San Juan was among the towns that were excised from Rizal Province. Voters in San Juan ratified the conversion of the municipality into a highly urbanised city on 16 June 2008, pursuant to Republic Act No. 9388 ("An Act Converting the Municipality of San Juan into a Highly Urbanized City to be known as the City of San Juan"). Then Congressman Ronaldo B. Zamora sponsored the Cityhood Bill in the House of Representatives and worked for its approval.
Although not officially designated as such, San Juan is noted to be the "Town of Philippine Presidents." Four presidents since the Third Republic were official residents of San Juan when they assumed office. They were the Macapagal père et fille, Diosdado Sr. (1961–1965) and Gloria Arroyo (2001–2010); Ferdinand Marcos (1965–1986); and Joseph Estrada (1998–2001), who also served as Mayor when San Juan was still a municipality.
|Population census of San Juan|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Places of interest
Among the many interesting places in San Juan are the Pinaglabanan Shrine, which marks the 1897 battle of the Philippine Revolution, and the Greenhills Shopping Center, a popular bargain mall for consumer electronics, clothing and other merchandise.
The city also has several notable places of worship. Saint John the Baptist Parish, more commonly known as "Pinaglabanan Church", is where the city's patron saint, John the Baptist, is enshrined. The Santuario del Cristo Church is the settlement's oldest existing church, while Mary the Queen Parish in West Greenhills serves the local Filipino-Chinese community, and is a popular venue for weddings.
From 1925-1971, the Iglesia ni Cristo once headquartered in the town at its former Central Office Complex, now known as the Locale of F. Manalo. It features Art-Deco designed ensembles, crafted by National Artist for Architecture Juan Nakpil. The Chapel is the centerpiece of the Complex, which also contains the old Central Office and Pastoral House which was the home of the church's first Executive Minister, Ka Felix Manalo, along with other Ministers and Evangelical Workers. When Manalo died in 1963, a Mausoleum was constructed on the grounds of the Complex by Architect Carlos Santos-Viola.
Radial Road 6 (R-6) passes through San Juan as Aurora Boulevard, as does the C-3 (Araneta Avenue). Less major routes include Nicanor Domingo (more known as N. Domingo), which heads towards Cubao in Quezon City, and Pinaglabanan/Santolan, which leads towards Ortigas Avenue and eventually Quezon City.
Numerous jeepney routes operate throughout the city, heading towards Cubao, Divisoria, Crame (via Santolan), Taytay and other destinations. A bus route from Quiapo heading towards Cainta and Taytay passes through San Juan.
Here is a list of some notable scholastic institutions in the city that cater to primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of education.
- Kabayanan Elementary School
- Nicanor Ibuna Elementary School
- Pedro Cruz Elementary School
- Pinaglabanan Elementary School
- Salapan Elementary School
- San Perfecto Elementary School
- San Juan Elementary School
- Sta. Lucia Elementary School
- San Juan National High School — Established in 1969 under Mayor Joseph Estrada. It is the sole public high school in the city.
- Polytechnic University of the Philippines, San Juan Campus —The city's only community college
- Academia Del Señor Nazareno
- Aquinas School - a Catholic school established by the Dominicans
- Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication - a school for graduate studies in Communication Management and Journalism
- Community of Learners
- Dominican College - a Catholic, private, high standard and an all-girls school established by the Dominicans and run by Dominican Sisters in which students are taught to follow the ideals of St. Dominic
- Fountain International School
- God's Little Wonders Learning Center
- Immaculate Conception Academy-Greenhills (ICAgh) - a private, all-girls Catholic school for Chinese Filipinos
- Kids World Integrated School - an inclusive educational institution
- Montessori De San Juan
- OB Montessori Center
- Philippine Chen Kuang High School - a private school with a bilingual (English and Chinese) curriculum
- St. John's Academy - an affordable private school, offers quality education (Primary, Elementary, Secondary)
- St. John the Baptist Catholic School - formerly called Holy Child Parochial School, it is adjacent to Pinaglabanan Church
- Tabernacle of Faith Christian Academy (TFCA) - a private Christian school located in Barangay Salapan
- Xavier School - an all-boys school run by the Jesuits for Chinese Filipinos
Given their city's role in the 1896 Revolution, San Juaneños are known for their fierce patriotism and localism. They for the most part choose to stay within city limits for work, education, and residence. Popular perception is that locals prefer to introduce new businesses and franchises to San Juan instead of patronising similar establishments located just outside the city boundaries. An effect of this is that San Juan is known for its increasing number of small- to medium-sized restaurants that are often independent of larger, more established chains. These restaurants vary in their offerings, ranging from non-mainstream international cuisine to vegetarian food, as well as several cake shops and dessert cafés.
Saint John's Day
San Juan is renowned for its celebration of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist every 24 June. In a nod to the saint's characteristic act, San Juaneños engage in Basaan ("wetting"), where revellers splash people with water. Devotees and residents believe that getting wet during the Basaan brings blessings, and that it is antisocial to be irate when doused. Pedestrians and vehicles with open windows are favourite targets, and in recent years an ordinance curtailing the Basaan at noon was enacted after complaints from non-residents and commuters.
Basaan is similar in form to the merrymaking during Songkran[disambiguation needed] and Holi. The custom is also practised in other Filipino towns that honour John the Baptist as patron, such as San Juan, Batangas, and Calumpit, Bulacan. The festival was officially named Wattah-Wattah Festival (a corruption of "water-water") by former Mayor (now Senator) JV Ejército.
The old city hall of San Juan is located at Nicanor Domingo corner Antonio Luna streets. It is preserved for historical purposes, and stands in front the San Juan Hospital. The new city hall is located at Pinaglabanan corner Doctor P.A. Narciso streets, fronting the Pinaglabanan Shrine and near Saint John the Baptist Parish. It began operation in February 2013.
"San Juan Hymn"
|Awit ng San Juan||Literal English translation|
Sa dilím ng gabi nitong Bayang Hinirang
In the dark of this Chosen Nation's night
- Davao City
- San Juan, Puerto Rico
- Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
- Santa Barbara, California, United States
- Date of changing San Juan from a municipality to a city.
- Councilors of San Juan, Metro Manila.
- "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "List of Cities". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- Republic Act No. 9388 - Charter of the City of San Juan
- The old city hall of San Juan.
- The new city hall of San Juan.
- Translation note: "Bayan" in Tagalog originally meant only "town" but may also mean "nation", "city", or "people". "Bansà" is the proper translation for "country".
- Both "pag-ibig" and "mahál" translate to love; the former implies continued action and is more poetic (thus "devotion") while the latter carries the notion of "highly valuing" the subject (from a possible Sanskrit root, māha, "great").
- sunstar.com.ph, Davao, San Juan cities ink sisterhood pact
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