San Miguel de Gualdape

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Part of a series of articles on...
North american slave revolts.png

1526 San Miguel de Gualdape
(Sapelo Island, Georgia, Victorious)
c. 1570 Gaspar Yanga's Revolt
(Veracruz, Victorious)
1712 New York Slave Revolt
(New York City, Suppressed)
1733 St. John Slave Revolt
(Saint John, Suppressed)
1739 Stono Rebellion
(South Carolina, Suppressed)
1741 New York Conspiracy
(New York City, Suppressed)
1760 Tacky's War
(Jamaica, Suppressed)
1791–1804 Haitian Revolution
(Saint-Domingue, Victorious)
1800 Gabriel Prosser
(Virginia, Suppressed)
1803 Igbo Landing
(St. Simons Island, Georgia, Suppressed)
1805 Chatham Manor
(Virginia, Suppressed)
1811 German Coast Uprising
(Territory of Orleans, Suppressed)
1815 George Boxley
(Virginia, Suppressed)
1822 Denmark Vesey
(South Carolina, Suppressed)
1831 Nat Turner's rebellion
(Virginia, Suppressed)
1831–1832 Baptist War
(Jamaica, Suppressed)
1839 Amistad, ship rebellion
(Off the Cuban coast, Victorious)
1841 Creole, ship rebellion
(Off the Southern U.S. coast, Victorious)
1842 Slave Revolt in the Cherokee Nation
(Southern U.S., Suppressed)
1859 John Brown's Raid
(Virginia, Suppressed)

San Miguel de Gualdape was the first European settlement in the North American continent founded by Spaniard Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526.[1][2] It was to last only three months of winter before being abandoned in early 1527.


Records show that in 1521, de Ayllón, a wealthy sugar planter of Santo Domingo, had sent Francisco Gordillo northward to explore the continent. Upon reaching the Bahamas, he ran into his cousin, slave trader Pedro de Quexos (Pedro de Quejo), and the two of them set out together. They landed at the "River of St. John the Baptist", possibly the Pee Dee River, where they kidnapped 70 natives to sell in Hispaniola, including one, given the name Francisco de Chicora, who provided some ethnological information about his province, Chicora, and the neighboring provinces. Chicora was evidently one of several Carolina Siouan territories subject to their king, Datha of Duahe (Duarhe). The Siouan captives were described as white, dressed in skins, and larger than the average Spaniard.

Ayllón obtained a patent from Charles V in 1523, and in 1525 again sent Quexos, who made peace with the natives, explored the coastline from as far north as the Delaware Bay,[3] and even obtained two men from each district to come home with him to learn Spanish, and act as interpreters.

By mid-July 1526, Ayllón was ready to establish a colony with 600 settlers and 100 horses. He lost one of his three ships at a river he named the Jordan, probably the Santee. They landed in Winyah Bay, near present day Georgetown, South Carolina, on September 29 (the Feast of Archangels), and Francisco de Chicora abandoned him here. They then proceeded '40 or 45 leagues', partly overland and partly by boat, visiting the king of Duahe en route as related by Peter Martyr, and finally arrived at another river, the Gualdape, where they built San Miguel de Gualdape on October 8.

The location of this colony has been disputed over a wide area, since it is never related in which direction from the Jordan (Santee) they travelled. Some have asserted that he went north to the Chesapeake; Francisco Fernández de Écija, chief pilot of Spaniards searching the Chesapeake Bay for English activities in 1609,[4] claimed that Ayllón in 1526 had landed on the James somewhere near Jamestown.[5] Ecija also claimed the natives at the Santee had told him Daxe (Duahe) was a town 4 days to the north. Swanton, on the other hand, suggested Ayllón may have gone '45 leagues' to the southwest, that the Gualdape was in fact the Savannah River in Georgia, and that his interactions there had been with the Guale tribe.[6] More recent scholars concur that it was probably at or near present-day Georgia's Sapelo Island and consider attempts to locate the San Miguel settlement (Tierra de Ayllón) any farther to the north to be unsubstantiated conjecture.[7]

This colony was a failure and Ayllón himself died, purportedly in the arms of a Dominican friar. Ayllón's rough-hewn town withstood only about a total of three months, enduring a severe winter, scarcity of supplies, hunger, disease, and troubles with the local natives. In the spring of 1527, Francis Gomez returned the 150 survivors to Hispaniola on two of the vessels, one of which sank, leaving only one of the three to return.[8]

Slavery and rebellion[edit]

The first group of African's were brought by Ayllón to erect the settlement. The employment of African slaves in the 1526 colony is the first instance of African slave labor used by Spaniards on the North American continent. Upon political disputes within the settlers, there was an uprising among the slaves, who fled to the interior and presumably settled with the native people of North America.[9] This incident is the first documented slave rebellion in North America.

First Catholic Mass in the United States[edit]

Dominican friars Fr. Antonio de Montesinos and Fr. Anthony de Cervantes were among the San Miguel de Gualdape colonists. Given that at the time priests were obliged to say mass each day, mass was celebrated in what is today the United States for the first time in San Miguel de Gualdape, even though the specific location and date of the event remains unclear.[10]


  1. ^ Ponce de Leon in early 1522 had made a poorly-documented, disastrous attempt to plant a colony in the area of Florida he had explored in 1513, probably near Charlotte Harbor, but was unable owing to the hostility of natives. Around 80 of his men, and twice as many natives were killed in a skirmish, after which he returned to Havana. See Ponce de Leon Source Records.
  2. ^ Douglas T. Peck (Summer 2001). "Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón's Doomed Colony of San Miguel de Gualdape". The Georgia Historical Quarterly 85 (2): 183–198. doi:10.2307/40584407 (inactive 2014-02-06). JSTOR 40584407.  edit
  3. ^ "Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quejo". Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  4. ^ Peter Cooper Mancall (2007). The Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550-1624. UNC Press Books. pp. 534–540. ISBN 978-0-8078-3159-5. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  5. ^ Magri, Francis Joseph. Diocese of Richmond. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 23 Nov. 2013
  6. ^ Swanton, 1922, Early History of the Creek Indians and their Neighbors p. 32-48
  7. ^ Weber, David (1994). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 37. 
  8. ^ "The Spanish in the Chesapeake Bay", Charles A. Grymes
  9. ^ Margaret F. Pickett; Dwayne W. Pickett (15 February 2011). The European Struggle to Settle North America: Colonizing Attempts by England, France and Spain, 1521-1608. McFarland. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7864-5932-2. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  10. ^ Schroeder, Henry Joseph. Antonio Montesino. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 23 Nov. 2013

External links[edit]