San Miguel de Tucumán
|San Miguel de Tucumán
(From top to bottom; from left to right) Aerial view of the city; Nacional University of Tucumán; Independence House; Tucumán Government House and the Tucumán Cathedral.
|• Intendant||Domingo Amaya|
|• City||90 km2 (34.88 sq mi)|
|• Metro||480 km2 (209.3 sq mi)|
|Elevation||431 m (1,300 ft)|
|Population (2009 est.)|
|Time zone||ART (UTC−3)|
San Miguel de Tucumán (usually referred to as simply Tucumán) is the capital of the Tucumán Province, located in northern Argentina at 1,311 kilometres (815 mi) from Buenos Aires. The fifth-largest city of Argentina after Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario and Mendoza, it is the most important city of Northern Argentina. The European city was founded in 1565 by Spanish Conquistador Diego de Villarroel during an expedition from present-day Peru, and was moved to its present site in 1685.
The city is located on the slopes of the Aconquija mountains, the easternmost mountain range before the large Chaco-Pampean flats. It is the commercial center of an irrigated area that produces large quantities of sugarcane, rice, tobacco, and fruit, giving the province its nickname, the Garden of the Republic. The National University of Tucumán (1914) and the Saint Thomas Aquinas University of the North (1965) are in the city.
On July 9, 1816, a congress gathered in Tucumán declared independence from Spain, which did not officially recognize it until 1862. The meeting place of the congress, the House of Tucumán, has been reconstructed as a national monument. After the national government broke down in 1820, the town was capital of the short-lived Republic of Tucumán.
Its telephone code is 0381, and its postal codes are T4000 (Center), T4001 (North), T4002 (South) and T4003 (East).
San Miguel de Tucuman lies in a transition zone between temperate climates to the south, and subtropical climates to the north. It has a humid subtropical climate (Cwa) under the Köppen climate classification. Summers are hot and long, falls arrive relatively late, winters are extremely dry and pleasant, and springs tend to be hot and dry, becoming more humid later. The precipitation pattern is monsoonal: out of the 966 millimetres (38 in) that fall annually, most of it falls in the summer months, while the winter months tend to be dry.
In the summer, one can expect daytime highs ranging from 30 to 35 °C (86.0 to 95.0 °F) with very high humidity; at night, 18 to 23 °C (64.4 to 73.4 °F) are the norm. Heat waves are frequent, and bring temperatures up to 40 °C (104.0 °F); however, some relief is possible after cold fronts, which are less usual than further south, or during intense precipitation.
April marks the beginning of the fall, but temperatures remain warm: 21 to 27 °C (69.8 to 80.6 °F) during the day, and 12 to 18 °C (53.6 to 64.4 °F) during the night, with less rainfall. Winter is short and relatively mild; days usually average 15 to 21 °C (59.0 to 69.8 °F) and nights go from 4 to 10 °C (39.2 to 50.0 °F). Warm spells in winters can make days above 30 °C (86.0 °F) are common, as well as cold waves that keep afternoon temperatures around 10 °C (50.0 °F). Frosts can occur in the winter but is usually light, with temperatures rarely falling below −2 °C (28.4 °F). Snow is extremely rare, but in 2007, it reached the city centre. There have been other episodes of sleet and snow in the mountains around the city, and in 2010, sleet was reported downtown again, a very rare event.
Springs are very short, and by October, summer weather settles in the city, with highs beyond 30 °C (86.0 °F) very common. This is due to the dryness of the season: daytime highs are close to those in the summer, when rainfall and clouds are persistent, whereas spring is often sunny and arid.
|Climate data for San Miguel de Tucumán|
|Record high °C (°F)||40.6
|Average high °C (°F)||31.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||25.3
|Average low °C (°F)||20.2
|Record low °C (°F)||12.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||196.2
|Avg. precipitation days||15||12||14||10||6||5||4||3||4||6||12||12||103|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||229.4||183.6||186.0||162.0||167.4||156.0||195.3||235.6||192.0||201.5||216.0||232.5||2,357.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||54||50||49||47||50||50||60||67||54||51||53||55||53|
|Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional|
|Source #2: UNLP (sun and extremes)|
- Independence House
- Tucumán Government Palace
- Ninth of July Park
- Timoteo Navarro Museum of Art
- Cementerio del Oeste
- President Avellaneda's House
- Independence Square
- Museum of Northern Folklore
- Federación Económica Building
- Padilla House
- San Francisco Basilica
- Museum of Sacred Art
- La Merced Church
Cultural life and education
For decades, San Miguel de Tucumán has been one of the most outstanding cultural spots in the country, in part due to the influence of the prestigious National University of Tucumán. It has been the birthplace and/or the home of well-known personalities such as folk singer Mercedes Sosa, noted author Tomas Eloy Martínez, a professor at Rutgers University in the United States; musician Miguel Ángel Estrella, artist/architect Tomás Saraceno, botanist Miguel Lillo, painter Luis Lobo de la Vega, and many others.
Two large theatres (San Martín and Alberdi) and several smaller and independent theaters offer a wide array of events, including plays, concerts, operas, and ballet, all year round. The Septiembre Musical is by far the most important cultural event during the year. This music festival, generally held at Independence Square, brings together several local and national artists who perform different musical styles ranging from folk music to rock.
Universities in the city include the public National University of Tucumán and the National Technological University, and the private (and Catholic) Saint Thomas Aquinas University of the North and the Saint Paul T University.
Since August 2008, the city has been the location of trials of high-ranking former military officers charged with war crimes from the 1976–83 dictatorship. Luciano Menéndez, a former colonel, was convicted for crimes against humanity, including the kidnapping and disappearance of senator (Guillermo Vargas Aignasse) on the night of the golpe (coup) in 1976. Many Abuelas de la Plaza de Mayo (Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo) have been seen in and around the Tucumán trials. The convictions of Menéndez and Ricardo Bussi were the first of this round of prosecution of military leaders of the Jorge Rafael Videla dictatorship. Their sentencings were seen as symbolic victories for the mothers and grandmothers whose children or husbands were "disappeared" by the military during that dark period of Argentine history.
The city is also a rugby union hotbed and hosts the Unión de Rugby de Tucumán, as well as the province's two best clubs: Tucumán Rugby Club and Universitario Tucumán. The rugby of Tucumán is the second most powerful in the Argentine, behind the rRugby of the Buenos Aires Union. For eight times, the Naranjas (Oranges) won the Argentine Championship of Unions; this is the greatest number won by a hinterland union. Other important rugby clubs of the city are the Cardenales R.C., the Natación y Gimnasia R.C., Los Tarcos R.C., and others. The fans of the Rugby of Tucumán are the most passionate among the Argentines.
The city is served by several bus lines that have routes within the city limits, and some others that connect it to the neighbouring cities of Yerba Buena, El Manantial, Tafí Viejo, Las Talitas, Banda del Río Salí, and Alderetes. San Miguel de Tucumán enjoys one of the largest bus stations in Argentina. The 30,000 m² estación central de ómnibus opened in 1994) is the point from where hundreds of bus services arrive from and depart to almost all of the largest and mid-size cities throughout the country.
The Teniente General Benjamín Matienzo International Airport (TUC/SANT) is the city's airport (though located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) east of the city, in the neighboring department of Cruz Alta) serving over 290,000 passengers a year. There are daily flights to Buenos Aires, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, Campo Arenal, the Minera Alumbrera Gold Mine, as well as international flghts to Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. The Mauricio Gilli Aerodrome is a Private Airport, located 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west from the city, for Private Aviation. It is locally known as Aeroclub.
There are two weekly passenger trains to the Retiro station in Buenos Aires, departing from the Ferrocarril Bartolomé Mitre station located near downtown (in Plaza Alberdi).
San Miguel de Tucumán is home to two free-to-air television stations (Channel 8 and Channel 10), four newspapers (La Gaceta, El Siglo, El Periódico, El Tribuno), three cable television companies (CCC, ATS, and TCC), and several radio stations.
- Lola Mora, sculptor.
- Mercedes Sosa, folk music singer.
- César Pelli, architect.
- Juan Bautista Alberdi, lawyer, writer, political theorist and diplomat.
- Tomás Eloy Martínez, journalist and writer, author of Santa Evita.
- Gregorio Aráoz de Lamadrid
- Julio A. Roca, former President of Argentina.
- Nicolás Avellaneda former President of Argentina.
- Carlos Alvarado-Larroucau, writer.
- Mercedes María Paz, tennis player.
- Omar Hasan, rugby player.
- Richard Maury, American engineer, honorary professor of the National University
- Alejandro Romay, television and theatre producer.
- José María Núñez Piossek, former international/professional rugby player.
- Juan Soler, actor.
- Victor García, theatre director.
- Population projections
- "Datos Estadísticos (Período 1981-1990)" (in Spanish). National Meteorological Service of Argentina. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Datos bioclimáticos de 173 localidades argentinas". Atlas Bioclimáticos (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to San Miguel de Tucumán.|
- Official website
- Tucuman.com Tucumán portal website
- Terminal de Ómnibus Bus Station website
- Tucuman Turismo Tucuman Tourist Office (Official Website)
- La Gaceta The most important local newspaper
- Universidad Nacional de Tucumán Tucuman State University
- Universidad del Norte Santo Tomas Aquino Tucuman Catholic University
- Universidad Tecnologica Nacional (Tucuman Campus)
- Map of Tucuman, Tucuman AR Allows Zoom down to street level