San Quentin State Prison
|Location||San Quentin, California|
|Population||3,955 (128.3%) (as of 31 December 2012)|
|Managed by||California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to San Quentin State Prison.|
San Quentin State Prison (SQ) is a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation state prison for men located in unincorporated San Quentin, Marin County, California, United States. Opened in July 1852, it is the oldest prison in the state. California's only death row for male inmates, the largest in the United States, is located at the prison. It has a gas chamber, but since 1996, executions at the prison have been carried out by lethal injection. The prison has been featured on film, video, and television; is the subject of many books; has hosted concerts; and has housed many notorious inmates.
- 1 Facilities
- 2 Programs
- 3 History
- 4 Notable inmates
- 5 In media
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The correctional complex sits on Point San Quentin, which comprises 432 acres (175 ha) of desirable waterfront real estate overlooking the north side of San Francisco Bay. The prison complex itself occupies 275 acres (111 ha), valued in a 2001 study at between $129 million and $664 million.
The prison complex has its own ZIP code for mail sent to inmates, 94974; the ZIP code of the adjacent community of Point San Quentin Village is 94964. It is bordered by San Francisco Bay to the south and west and by Interstate 580 to the north and east, near the northern terminus of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge.
As of October 30, 2013 the prison had a design capacity of 3,082 but a total institution population of 4,223, for an occupancy rate of 137 percent. It has Level I ("Open dormitories without a secure perimeter") housing; Level II ("Open dormitories with secure perimeter fences and armed coverage") housing; a Reception Center (RC) which "provides short term housing to process, classify and evaluate incoming inmates"; and a Condemned unit.
As of Fiscal Year 2006/2007, the prison had 1,718 staff and an annual budget of $210 million. It is one of the largest prisons in the United States with a population of 4,223 inmates as of October 30, 2013.
Men condemned to death (with some exceptions) must be held at San Quentin, while condemned women are held at Central California Women's Facility in Chowchilla, California. As of October 2012, San Quentin held 734 male inmates in its Condemned Unit, or "death row." 517 in San Quentins Adjustment Center. As of 2001, San Quentin's death row was described as "the largest in the Western Hemisphere"; as of 2005, it was called "the most populous execution antechamber in the United States." The states of Florida and Texas had fewer death row inmates in 2008 (397 and 373 respectively) than San Quentin.
The death row at San Quentin is divided into three sections: the quiet "North-Segregation" or "North-Seg," built in 1934, for prisoners who "don't cause trouble"; the "East Block," a "crumbling, leaky maze of a place built in 1927"; and the "Adjustment Center" for the "worst of the worst." Although $395 million was allocated in the 2008–2009 state budget for new death row facilities at San Quentin, in December 2008 two legislators introduced bills to eliminate the funding.
As noted above, all executions for men in California must occur at San Quentin. The methods for execution at San Quentin have changed over time. Prior to 1893, the counties executed convicts. Between 1893 and 1937, 215 people were executed at San Quentin by hanging, after which 196 prisoners died in the gas chamber. In 1995, the use of gas for execution was ruled "cruel and unusual punishment," which led to executions inside the gas chamber by lethal injection. Between 1996 and 2006, 11 people were executed at San Quentin by lethal injection.
In April 2007, staff of the California Legislative Analyst's Office discovered that a new execution chamber was being built at San Quentin; legislators subsequently "accuse[d] the governor of hiding the project from the Legislature and the public." The old lethal injection facility had included an injection room of 43 square feet (4.0 m2) and a single viewing area; the facility that was being built included an injection chamber of 230 square feet (21 m2) and three viewing areas for family, victim, and press. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger stopped construction of the facility the next week. The Legislature later approved $180,000 to finish the project, and the facility was completed.
In addition to State executions, three Federal executions have been carried out at San Quentin. Samuel Richard Shockley and Miran Edgar Thompson had been incarcerated at Alcatraz Island federal penitentiary and were executed on December 3, 1948, for the murder of two prison guards during the Battle of Alcatraz. Carlos Romero Ochoa had murdered a federal immigration officer after he was caught smuggling Mexican aliens across the border near El Centro, California. He was executed at San Quentin's gas chamber on December 10, 1948.
- The Last Mile started in 2011 under Chris Redlitz (entrepreneur and venture capital) initiative. The program aims to give resources and mentorship to inmates to help them find their way into tech startup entrepreneurship and reduce the rate of recidivism.
- The San Quentin Drama Workshop began at the prison in 1958 after a performance of Waiting for Godot the previous year.
- The San Quentin SQUIRES ("San Quentin Utilization of Inmate Resources, Experiences, and Studies") program, which began in 1964, is reported to be the "oldest juvenile awareness program in the United States." It involves inmates at the prison interacting with troubled youths for the purpose of deterring them from crime, and was the subject of a 1978 documentary film Squires of San Quentin. In 1983, a randomized controlled study was published that found that the program produced no overall reduction in delinquency. The program was still functional as of 2008.
- Since the 1920s, San Quentin inmates have been allowed to play baseball. Starting in 1994 inmates have played against players from outside the prison. The games occur twice a week through the summer. The team of prisoners is called the "Giants" in honor of the San Francisco Giants, who donated uniforms to the team, and the team of outside players is called the "Willing".The umpires and fans are inmates, but the coaches on the field are volunteers. Although some people question the appropriateness of baseball games being held at the prison, officials believe "organized sports is a way to keep inmates occupied and perhaps teach a few lessons on getting along with others." These games were detailed in a Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel episode on June 20, 2006.
- San Quentin has the only on-site college degree-granting program in California's entire prison system, which began in 1996 and which is currently run by the Prison University Project.
- No More Tears Program, co-founded by incarcerated men at San Quentin. This program is committed to stopping the violence in the community and changing the mindset. This program stays alive through donations, volunteers, and CDCR who come into the prison and become involved in the workshops with the incarcerated men: Changing the mindset, Response to Violence, Employability, Fixin' da Hood. All inmates and volunteers are working toward achieving the programs mission: stopping the tears of loved ones and family by being committed to stopping the youth from committing acts of violence.
- The California Reentry Program at San Quentin, begun in 2003, "helps inmates re-enter society after they serve their sentences."
- Centerforce (www.centerforce.org), a non-profit that for 40 years has been dedicated to educating, advocating, and supporting people who are incarcerated, their families, and communities impacted by incarceration, has a number of programs operating at the prison: the Peer Health Education Program, begun in the early 1990s, provides effective and culturally appropriate health information to men currently living behind the walls; the Back to Family Program provides education and support for men to effectively reunite with and support their families; a number of case management programs to assist men in re-entering their communities. These programs allow men the opportunity to not only change their own lives, but to become positive contributors to the lives of their families and the communities to which they return.
- The San Quentin News is the only inmate-produced newspaper in California and one of the few in the world.
Though numerous towns and localities in the area are named after Roman Catholic saints, and "San Quintín" is Spanish for "Saint Quentin", the prison was not named after the saint. The land on which it is situated, Point Quentin, is named after a Coast Miwok warrior named Quentín, fighting under Chief Marin, who was taken prisoner at that place.
In 1851, California's first prison opened; it was a 268-ton wooden ship named The Waban, anchored in San Francisco Bay and outfitted to hold 30 inmates. After a series of speculative land transactions and a legislative scandal, inmates who were housed on the Waban constructed San Quentin which "opened in 1852 with 68 inmates." A dungeon built at San Quentin in 1854 is thought to be California's oldest surviving public work.
The prison held both male and female inmates until 1932 when the original California Institution for Women prison at Tehachapi was built. In 1941 the first prison meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous took place at San Quentin; in commemoration of this, the 25-millionth copy of the AA Big Book was presented to Jill Brown, of San Quentin, at the International Convention of Alcoholics Anonymous in Toronto, Canada.
Alfredo Santos, one-time convicted heroin dealer and successful artist, painted six 20 ft (6.1 m) sepia toned murals during his 1953–1955 incarceration that have hung in the dining hall of the prison.
Lawrence Singleton, who raped a teenaged girl and cut off her forearms, spent a year on parole in a trailer on the grounds of San Quentin between 1987 and 1988 because towns in California would not accept him as a parolee. Between 1992 and 1997, a "boot camp" was held at the prison that was intended to "rehabilitat[e] first-time, nonviolent offenders"; the program was discontinued because it did not reduce recidivism or save money.
A 2005 court-ordered report found that the prison was "old, antiquated, dirty, poorly staffed, poorly maintained with inadequate medical space and equipment and overcrowded." Later that year, the warden was fired for "threaten[ing] disciplinary action against a doctor who spoke with attorneys about problems with health care delivery at the prison." By 2007, a new trauma center had opened at the prison and a new $175 million medical complex was planned.
- Rodney Alcala: the "Dating Game Killer". Sentenced to death in 2010.
- Alejandro Avila: rapist and murderer of five-year-old Samantha Runnion. Sentenced to death in 2005.
- Lawrence Bittaker: serial killer convicted of torturing and murdering five young women. Sentenced to death in 1981.
- Vincent Brothers: convicted and sentenced to death in the shooting and stabbing of five members of his family, including three children. Sentenced to death in 2007.
- Albert Greenwood Brown: sentenced to death in 1982 for the 1980 murder of 15-year-old Susan Louise Jordan.
- David Carpenter: the "Trailside Killer." Sentenced to death in 1984 and 1988.
- Dean Carter: serial killer convicted of murdering 4 women. Sentenced to death in 1985.
- Douglas Clark: the "Sunset Strip" killer. Convicted with Carol Bundy of multiple murders in Los Angeles. Sentenced to death in 1983.
- Kevin Cooper: convicted for the hatchet and knife massacre of the Ryen family. Sentenced to death in 1985.
- Tiequon Aundray Cox: sentenced to death in 1986 for the 1984 murders of four relatives of the former defensive back NFL player Kermit Alexander. He was involved in an escape attempt in 2000.
- Richard Allen Davis: convicted of kidnapping and murdering Polly Klaas. Sentenced to death in 1996.
- Skylar Deleon: convicted of the murder of Thomas and Jackie Hawks. Sentenced to death in 2009.
- Scott Erskine: convicted of killing Jonathan Sellers, 10, and Charlie Keever, 13. Sentenced to death in 2004.
- John Famalaro: sentenced to death on September 6, 1997 for the kidnap, rape, and murder of 23-year-old Denise Anette Huber, from Newport Beach, California, in 1991. Famalaro abducted and murdered Denise on June 3, 1991. He was caught in July 1994 when police found her body in an icebox where he had kept her for 3 years.
- Richard Farley: convicted of killing seven of his co-workers and nearly killing another, a female co-worker whom he stalked after she rejected him. Sentenced to death in 1992.
- Wayne Adam Ford: convicted of killing four women in 1997 and 1998. Sentenced to death in 2006.
- Eric Houston: convicted and sentenced to death for a shooting spree that left three students and a teacher dead and having 80 teens held hostage. The subject of the made-for-television movie Detention: The Siege at Johnson High.
- Ryan Hoyt: associate of Jesse James Hollywood, convicted of the murder of Nicholas Markowitz. Sentenced to death in 2003.
- Randy Kraft: serial killer who was convicted of 16 murders and suspected of 51 others. Sentenced to death in 1989.
- Jarvis Jay Masters: convicted and sentenced to death for participating in the murder of Corrections Officer Hal Burchfield. Sentenced to death in 1990.
- Timothy Joseph McGhee: convicted for murdering 3 people and 9 counts of attempted murder. Sentenced to death in 2009
- Michael Morales: convicted for the brutal murder of Terri Winchell. Sentenced to death in 1983.
- Charles Ng: serial killer who tortured and murdered 11 people. Sentenced to death in 1999.
- Raymond Lee Oyler: convicted of setting the Esperanza Fire that claimed the lives of five firemen. Sentenced to death in 2009.
- Scott Peterson: convicted of murdering his pregnant wife, Laci and their unborn child, Conner, in a much-publicized trial. Sentenced to death in 2005.
- Cleophus Prince Jr.: Known as the Clairemont Killer. Convicted and sentenced to death in 1993 for killing six women.
- David Allen Raley: convicted of the murder of Jeanine Grinsell in 1985, he is the next in line to be executed once lethal injection executions resume.
- Ramon Salcido: convicted in 1989 of seven murders, including six relatives and his boss. Sentenced to death in 1990.
- Mitchell Sims: convicted May 20, 1987, of the hotel-room murder of Domino's Pizza deliveryman John Harrington in Glendale; also sentenced to death in South Carolina for the murders of two Domino's employees in that state. Sentenced to death in California on September 11, 1987.
- Morris Solomon, Jr.: serial killer convicted of murdering six prostitutes in Sacramento. Sentenced to death in 1992.
- Cary Stayner: convicted murderer who killed four women in Yosemite. Sentenced to death in 2002.
- William Suff: serial killer convicted of murdering 12 prostitutes in Riverside County. Sentenced to death in 1995.
- Chester Turner: serial killer convicted of murdering 10 women in Los Angeles between 1987 and 1998.
- Marcus Wesson: convicted of killing nine of his family members. Sentenced to death in 2005.
- David Westerfield: convicted of kidnapping and killing seven-year-old Danielle Van Dam. Sentenced to death in 2003.
- Charles Bolles: alias Black Bart, an American Old West outlaw.
- William Richard Bradford: convicted of two murders in the 1980s, the Los Angeles Police Department revealed in July 2006 that there is cause to believe he was a serial killer responsible for several murders in the 1970s and 1980s. He died of natural causes on March 10, 2008 while awaiting execution.
- Edward Bunker: FBI most wanted fugitive who reformed and became an author (he wrote a novel set in San Quentin) and actor. Was sentenced at age 17, the youngest inmate at the time.
- Neal Cassady: Convicted of marijuana possession in 1958. Protagonist "Dean Moriarty" from Jack Kerouac's novel On the Road based on Cassady. A member of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters.
- Richard Chase: "vampire killer," in 1979 sentenced to death in gas chamber for murdering six people, committed suicide in 1980.
- Eldridge Cleaver: member of the Black Panther Party, was an inmate between 1958 and 1963.
- Juan Corona: convicted of killing 25 people and sentenced to life without parole. He is currently at Corcoran State Prison.
- Joseph Cosey: convicted of various crimes; known for document forgery from 1913 to 1940 from historical United States figures.
- Henry Cowell: American composer convicted on a "morals" charge in 1936.
- Mack Ray Edwards: convicted child killer who committed suicide while on death row.
- Alex Garcia: boxing contender of the 1990s
- Leo Gordon: American character actor (TV and film) and screenplay writer. Sentenced to four years for armed robbery. Later part of a movie cast which filmed scenes inside San Quentin.
- Merle Haggard: noted country singer, sentenced to 15 years time (he served three years) starting at age 19 for grand theft auto and armed robbery.
- Michael Wayne Hunter: sentenced to death after the murders of his father and stepmother in 1981. Retried in 2002, sentenced to Life. Transferred to Salinas Valley State Prison.
- George Jackson: member of the Black Panther Party, killed in San Quentin in 1971.
- Bruce Lisker: wrongly convicted in the 1983 murder of his mother, Dorka, when he was 17. Exonerated and released from prison in 2009, at age 44.
- Jang In-hwan: Korean independence activist who assassinated former American diplomat Durham Stevens in 1908.
- Charles Manson: leader of the Manson family. Transferred to Corcoran State Prison in 1989.
- S. S. Millard: exploitation filmmaker.
- Jim Mitchell, prominent in the strip club and pornography businesses in San Francisco, spent 1994–1997 in San Quentin for murdering his brother Artie.
- James Mitose: Japanese American martial artist who brought the art of Kenpo to the United States starting in the late 1930s.
- Ed Morrell, accomplice to the Evans-Sontag rail robbery gang; spent five years in solitary confinement; known as the Dungeon Man of San Quentin; pardoned in 1908 and became well-known advocate of prison reform.
- Wallace Fard Muhammad: founder of the Nation of Islam.
- Art Pepper: jazz alto saxophone player; served two sentences at San Quentin in the 1960s.
- Richard Ramirez: serial killer known as "The Night Stalker"; convicted of killing 13 people. Sentenced to death in 1989. Died of liver failure on June 7, 2013, after being taken to Marin General Hospital.
- Hans Reiser: developer of the ReiserFS filesystem and convicted murderer of his wife. Sentenced to 15 years to life in 2008. He is currently at Mule Creek State Prison.
- Abe Ruef: San Francisco political boss, for bribery.
- Wilber Power Sewell Later known as Bill Sands. He wrote a best-selling auto-biography entitled My Shadow Ran Fast.
- Sirhan Sirhan: assassin of Robert F. Kennedy. Was sent to death row at San Quentin in May 1969. After the California Supreme Court struck down the death penalty as cruel and unusual punishment, Sirhan was transferred to Correctional Training Facility. He is currently at Pleasant Valley State Prison.
- Danny Trejo: actor—inmate between 1965 and 1968.
- John Pence Wagner: prison evangelist-inmate between 1966 and 1972. writer of the poem featured on the rear cover of the 1971 album "Guilty!" by Jimmy Witherspoon and Eric Burdon. Died in 1999 of cancer.
- Brandon Wilson: convicted in the 1998 slashing death of nine-year-old Matthew Cecchi. Sentenced to death in 1999. Committed suicide on 11/17/2011.
- Burton Abbott: convicted of the rape and murder of a teenage girl; executed in the gas chamber on March 15, 1957.
- Clarence Ray Allen: convicted for ordering the killing of three people. At age 76, was the oldest person ever executed in California (by lethal injection on January 17, 2006).
- Stephen Wayne Anderson: convicted murderer, executed by lethal injection on January 29, 2002.
- Manny Babbitt: convicted murderer who died by lethal injection on May 4, 1999.
- Donald Beardslee: convicted of two murders, executed by lethal injection on January 19, 2005.
- William Bonin: convicted of 14 murders, the "Freeway Killer" (one of three men to have the same nickname) became the first person in California history to be executed by lethal injection on February 23, 1996.
- Caryl Chessman: convicted rapist, was given the death penalty in 1948 and executed on May 2, 1960. The last man executed in California for a sexual offense that did not also involve murder.
- Billy Cook: murderer of Carl Mosser, his wife Thelma, their three small children and motorist Robert Dewey. He died in the gas chamber on December 12, 1952.
- Theodore Durrant: convicted of murdering two women in San Francisco. Executed by hanging on January 7, 1898.
- Harvey Glatman: convicted of raping and strangling two women, he died in the gas chamber on September 18, 1959.
- Barbara Graham: convicted murderer, executed in the gas chamber on June 3, 1955. Subject of the film I Want to Live! starring Susan Hayward.
- Robert Alton Harris: convicted of murdering two boys, died in the gas chamber on April 21, 1992.
- Edward Hickman: convicted of kidnapping, mutilating, and murdering 12-year-old Marion Parker, died by hanging on October 19, 1928.
- Raymond "Rattlesnake James" Lisenba: convicted of killing his wife, he was the last man to be executed by hanging in California on May 1, 1942.
- David Mason: convicted of murdering five people, he was executed in the gas chamber on August 24, 1993.
- Gordon Stewart Northcott: convicted of killing three boys in the Wineville Chicken Coop Murders, was hanged on October 2, 1930.
- Louise Peete: convicted murderer, executed in the gas chamber on April 11, 1947.
- Sam Shockley and Miran Edgar Thompson: convicted of killing a guard in the 1946 Battle of Alcatraz escape attempt, executed together in the gas chamber on December 3, 1948.
- Stanley Tookie Williams: convicted murderer and early leader of the Crips street gang. Author (several children's books about his experience at San Quentin) and cause celebre. Executed by lethal injection on December 13, 2005.
Biopics, documentaries, and educational films
(Alphabetical by title)
- San Quentin was featured in an episode of Beyond Scared Straight, wherein inmates in the SQUIRES program educated troubled teens about the dangers of prison.
- The 1954 film Duffy of San Quentin tells the story of Clinton Duffy, who was warden of San Quentin between 1940 and 1952.
- 1958's I Want To Live! depicted the story of Barbara Graham, who was executed in San Quentin's gas chamber. It was directed by Robert Wise and starred Susan Hayward.
- San Quentin is on the rotation of prisons featured on MSNBC's show Lockup, a TV documentary series on life in prison.
- The British documentary maker, Louis Theroux, filmed a documentary, Louis Theroux: Behind Bars, exploring the relationships between prisoners and officers.
Concerts and music videos
- On February 24, 1969, country music singer Johnny Cash played a live concert for the prison inmates. The concert was released as an album At San Quentin and as a television documentary Johnny Cash in San Quentin (filmed by Granada Television). During the concert, the song "San Quentin", about an inmate's loathing for the prison, received such an enthusiastic response that Cash immediately played an encore.
- In 1990, B. B. King recorded Live at San Quentin in the prison; it won a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album in 1991.
- In 1995, Paul Rodriguez shot a standup comedy special from the prison, with much of the act geared toward the auditorium of convicts.
- Metallica filmed the St. Anger music video in front of the inmates in 2003. They used various locations of the prisons except for the death chambers, and also held a free concert site for all prisoners.
(Alphabetical by title)
- The 1999 movie, 10 Things I Hate About You, indicates that the main male protagonist, Patrick Verona, spent a year in San Quentin. This is used to sustain the idea that he is a horrible person with a dark history and criminal record.
- A few episodes of the 1960s ABC Western series, The Big Valley, mention San Quentin. In one notable episode, Jarrod Barkley hires an ex-prisoner to work on his family's ranch after he was wrongly convicted of murder when Jarrod prosecuted him. The ranch hands figure he is from San Quentin because of a gray jacket he is wearing, which one states is what you receive upon being released from San Quentin.
- San Quentin is depicted in the 2008 exploitation film Black Devil Doll. The villain, black revolutionary and convicted murderer Mubia Abul-Jama, is electrocuted.
- In the film Blood In Blood Out, the main character Miklo is sent to San Quentin, where much of the film's plot takes place.
- Humphrey Bogart played a character who escapes from San Quentin in the 1947 film, Dark Passage.
- In the 1996 film Freeway, Vanessa Lutz insists that when she turns serial killer Bob Wolverton over to the authorities, he will be sentenced to death in the San Quentin gas chamber.
- The 2013 film Fruitvale Station used the prison, in which real life character Oscar Grant did time, as a filming location for a flashback scene. Actual prisoners served as extras.
- The 1989 film Heathers, after the accidental death of her best friend, the film's main character, Veronica, tells her accomplice that she will "have to send my S.A.T. scores to San Quentin instead of Stanford."
- The 1957 film, House of Numbers, told the story of an older brother's efforts to help his younger brother escape from San Quentin.
- William Beaudine directed the film, Men of San Quentin (1942).
- The 2010 film Predators included a character called Stans from San Quentin who had been sentenced to execution for 38 murders.
- San Quentin (1937) was directed by Lloyd Bacon; starred Pat O'Brien, Humphrey Bogart, and Ann Sheridan; and was filmed at the prison. The second (made in 1946) starred Lawrence Tierney. It is one of two films titled San Quentin.
- San Quentin (1946), was directed by Gordon Douglas.
- In 1968, the prison scenes in Woody Allen's film Take the Money and Run were shot in San Quentin.
- In the 2011 film The Lincoln Lawyer, criminal defense lawyer Mickey Haller (played by Matthew McConaughey), leaves Los Angeles for San Quentin to see his former client Jesus Martinez (played by Michael Peña), who was wrongly convicted of murder.
Fiction, literature and publications
(Alphabetical by author)
- Gang-pulp author Margie Harris wrote a San Quentin story for the short-lived pulp magazine Prison Stories. The story, "Big House Boomerang", appeared in the March 1931 issue. It used San Quentin's brutal jute mill as its setting. Harris' knowledge of the prison came from her days as a newspaper reporter in the Bay Area, and her acquaintance with famous San Quentin prisoner Ed Morrell.
- In David Kessler's novel, Mercy, the character of Clayton Burrow is on Death Row in San Quentin after being convicted of killing his high school enemy.
In John Steinbeck's novel Of Mice and Men George says to Lennie that their childhood friend Andy Cushman is in San Quentin "On account of a tart"
- San Quentin is an often mentioned and occasionally appears in Cause of Death
- San Quentin is mentioned various times in L.A. Noire; the threat of a gas chamber is also referenced by the main characters during interrogations.
- Offender Information Services Branch (3 January 2013). Monthly Report of Population. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. p. 2. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
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- Fimrite, Peter (20 November 2005). "Inside death row. At San Quentin, 647 condemned killers wait to die in the most populous execution antechamber in the United States". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- Gould, Pam (November 2, 2009). "Does San Quentin need a new Death Row?". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- "Sell San Quentin". Los Angeles Times. June 1, 2009.
- [dead link]
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- Egelko, Bob. 2 lawmakers team up to oppose new Death Row. San Francisco Chronicle, December 17, 2008. Accessed January 13, 2009.
- Nieves, Evelyn. Rash of violence disrupts San Quentin's death row. New York Times, May 22, 2001. Accessed January 13, 2009.
- The death penalty in 2008: year end report. Washington, DC: Death Penalty Information Center, December 2008. Accessed January 13, 2009.
- Riley, Charles. "California cancels new San Quentin death row." CNN. April 28, 2011. Retrieved on May 9, 2012.
- Zimmers, Teresa A., et al. Lethal injection for execution: chemical asphyxiation? PLoS Medicine, April 24, 2007. Accessed January 16, 2009.
- Martin, Mark. New execution chamber infuriates lawmakers. Facility at San Quentin was built quietly. San Francisco Chronicle, April 14, 2007. Accessed January 12, 2009.
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- Chorneau, Tom. Death chamber delayed by budget standoff, may miss Oct. 1 deadline. San Francisco Chronicle, August 7, 2007. Accessed January 16, 2009.
- Mintz, Howard. State decides to seek public input on execution plan. San Jose Mercury News, January 6, 2009. Accessed January 16, 2009.
- "Executions of Federal Prisoners (since 1927)." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
- "Third Federal Felon will be executed in state gas chamber". The Modesto Bee. Dec. 6, 1948.
- 'San Quentin Prison Demo Day Gives Entrepreneurs Behind Bars A Second Chance'. Techcrunch, Feb, 22, 2013.
- Berton, Justin. When 'Waiting for Godot' played San Quentin. San Francisco Chronicle, December 23, 2008. Accessed January 10, 2009.
- City Youth Now. Programs. SQUIRES. Accessed January 10, 2009.
- Lewis, Roy V. Scared Straight – California style: evaluation of the San Quentin Squires Program. Criminal Justice and Behavior, vol. 10, no. 2, June 1983, pages 209-226.
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- Hindery, Robin. Lessons through life. Daily Democrat (Woodland, CA), February 24, 2008.
- Kosa, Frank. Prison baseball team gives inmates a focus beyond their cells. Christian Science Monitor, July 2, 2008.
- Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel. Episode 111. Story 2: A Game of Years. June 20, 2006. Accessed January 2, 2009.
- Souders, Travis. San Quentin baseball offers local team, inmates perspective. Chico Enterprise-Record, August 10, 2008. Accessed January 2, 2009.
- MacLaren, Becca. "San Quentin inmates get diplomas, set goals." Marin Independent Journal, June 29, 2007. Accessed January 10, 2009.
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- No More Tears. No More Tears Program Accessed November 15, 2009.
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- Taylor, Michael (28 March 2009). "San Quentin inmate newspaper fills need to know". SF Gate. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
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- Sliney, Edgar M. (Ted). "A History of Mission San Rafael, Archangel." Marin County Historical Society Magazine. vol. XV, no. 1, 1989, pp. 4-13.
- Gudde, Erwin G. California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. ISBN 0-520-24217-3.
- California Department of Justice. "California Criminal Justice Time Line 1822-2000." Accessed January 8, 2008.
- Ewell, Miranda. "San Quentin Sets Its History Free. Famed Prison To Detail Its Past In New Museum." San Jose Mercury News. May 27, 1991.
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- http://www.aa.org/lang/en/press.cfm?thisyear=2012-01-01&PressID=1 25 Millionth Alcoholics Anonymous 'Big Book' To be Given in Gratitude to Warden of San Quentin
- Russell, Ron. "Hidden Treasure: Half a century ago, ex-heroin dealer Alfredo Santos created an epic work of art inside San Quentin." SF Weekly. July 23, 2003.
- Hall, Christopher. A prisoner with a paintbrush, a legacy at risk. New York Times, August 19, 2007. Accessed January 3, 2009.
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