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A sanction (plural form: sanctions) is a permission. Depending on context, the word's contronym may apply.

Examples of sanctions include:

Involving countries:

  • economic sanctions, typically a ban on trade, possibly limited to certain sectors such as armaments, or with certain exceptions (such as food and medicine)
  • trade sanctions, a type of economic sanction applied for non-political reasons, typically as part of a trade dispute, or for purely economic reasons, and typically involving tariffs or similar measures, rather than bans
  • international sanctions, coercive measures adopted by a country or group of countries against another state or individual(s) in order to elicit a change in their behavior
  • pragmatic sanction, historically, a sovereign's solemn decree which addresses a matter of primary importance and which has the force of fundamental law

In other uses: