Sandakan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sandakan
(Formerly, Elopura)
山打根
Sandakan town centre.
Sandakan town centre.
Official seal of Sandakan(Formerly, Elopura)山打根
Seal
Nickname(s): The Nature City, Little Hong Kong
Location of Sandakan in Sabah
Location of Sandakan in Sabah
Sandakan(Formerly, Elopura)山打根 is located in Malaysia
Sandakan(Formerly, Elopura)山打根
Sandakan
(Formerly, Elopura)
山打根
Sandakan is located in Malaysia
Coordinates: 5°50′0″N 118°07′0″E / 5.83333°N 118.11667°E / 5.83333; 118.11667Coordinates: 5°50′0″N 118°07′0″E / 5.83333°N 118.11667°E / 5.83333; 118.11667
Country  Malaysia
State  Sabah
Division Sandakan
Settled by BNBC 21 June 1879
Declared capital of North Borneo 1883
Discontinuation as capital 1946
Government
 • Council President Ir. James Wong
Area
 • Total 2,266 km2 (875 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 396,290
 • Density 170/km2 (450/sq mi)
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC)
Postcode 90000 to 90999
Area code(s) 089
Website www.mps.sabah.gov.my

Sandakan (Malaysian pronunciation: [ˈsan daˈkan], Chinese: 山打根; pinyin: Shān Dǎ Gēn) formerly known as Elopura, is the second-largest town in Sabah after the Kota Kinabalu City, on the north-eastern coast of Borneo in Malaysia. It is located on the east coast of the island in the administrative centre of Sandakan Division and was the former capital of British North Borneo. The town has an estimated population of 157,330,[1] while the whole municipalities area has a total population of 396,290.[1]

History[edit]

William B. Pryer, the founder of Sandakan.[2]

Since early 1870s, the east coast of Sabah was under the control of the Sultanate of Sulu.[3] The first European settlement was made by a Scottish arms smugglers, William Clarke Cowie, who gave the name of the settlement "Sandakan", which in Suluk language means "of seized place".[3] However, soon the place was called "Kampung German", as several German bases erected there.[3] The settlement came in 1878 along with the entire territory of North Borneo sold to the Austro-Hungarian consul Baron von Overbeck, who had signed with the Sultan of Sulu a corresponding concession contract.[3]

On 15 June 1879, the settlement was burnt down and was never rebuilt.[4] The British Resident, William B. Pryer moves the settlement on 21 June 1879 at a place at the output of the Sandakan Bay, as today known as Buli Sim Sim, he gave the new settlement name as Elopura which means Beautiful City, and after some years it was renamed again as Sandakan.[5] However, the name of Elopura are still used as a constituency for elections on the N45 Sabah State Legislative Assembly.[6]

Bomb damage at the town after Sandakan been bombed by the Allied forces to flush out the Japanese during World War II in 1945. The high damage on this town made the British move the capital to Jesselton.

During the Japanese occupation, the Japanese had restored the Elopura name for the town and operated a labor camp which known as Sandakan Death Marches where many Allied forces mainly the British and Australians including Javanese labours from Dutch East Indies were killed or died because of disease and malnutrition.[7][8] They were forced to marches from Sandakan to Ranau and some prisoners who did not die during the route were crammed into unsanitary huts; other survivors either died from dysentery or were killed by the Japanese prison guards.[9][10]

By the end of the war, only six Australians survived, all of whom had escaped and the town was totally destroyed, due to high bombing from the Allied and partly by the Japanese.[10][11][12] In 1881, North Borneo came under the administration of the North Borneo Chartered Company with Sandakan becomes the capital administration in 1883 until 1946 when North Borneo became part of the British Crown Colony with the administration capital moved to Jesselton (now Kota Kinabalu) as Sandakan suffered a huge destruction during the war.[13][14][15]

Original names[edit]

After the settlement been moved, the first name for the new town were Elopura which means "Beautiful City".[16] The name was given by the British Chartered Company but the locals persisted to use the old name which later it was changed back to Sandakan.[12][15][16] Beside Elopura, the town also called as Little Hong Kong due to a strong presence of ethnic Chinese from Hakka majority in the town.[17][18][19]

Administration[edit]

Sandakan Municipal Council building.

There are three Members of Parliament (MPs) representing the three parliamentary constituencies in the town: Libaran (P.184), Batu Sapi (P.185), and Sandakan (P.186).

Local authority[edit]

The town is administrated by the Sandakan Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Sandakan). The current President of Sandakan Municipal Council is Datuk Ir. James Wong, who took over from Mr. Yeo Boon Hai on 2009.[20] The area under the jurisdiction of the Sandakan District covers the town area (46 square miles), half-town area (56 square miles), rural areas and islands (773 square miles) with all the total area are 875 square miles.[21]

Geography[edit]

Sandakan is located on the east coast of Sabah confront with the Sulu Sea and the town were known as one of Malaysia port town.[22] The town is located approximately 1,900 kilometres from the Malaysia's capital, Kuala Lumpur while only 28 kilometres from the international border with the Philippines and 319 kilometres from the capital of Sabah.[21][23] The district itself surrounded by Beluran (known as Labuk-Sugut District before) and Kinabatangan district.[24] Not far from the town, there are three islands which are part of the Malaysian Turtle Islands namely the Selingaan, Gulisaan and Bakkungan Kechil.[25] While the most nearest islands to the town were the Berhala, Duyong, Nunuyan Darat, Nunuyan Laut, and the Bai island.[24]

Climate[edit]

Sandakan has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification. The climate is relatively hot and wet with average shade temperature about 32°C, with 22°C at noon and falling to around 27°C at night. The town sees precipitation throughout the year, with a tendency for October to February to be the wettest months, while April becomes the driest months. Sandakan mean rainfall varies from 2184 mm to 3988 mm.[26][27]

Climate data for Sandakan (2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
31
(88)
31
(88)
30
(86)
29
(85)
31
(87)
Average low °C (°F) 24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(76)
24
(76)
24
(76)
Precipitation mm (inches) 410
(16.14)
250
(9.84)
200
(7.87)
110
(4.33)
150
(5.91)
190
(7.48)
180
(7.09)
200
(7.87)
240
(9.45)
260
(10.24)
350
(13.78)
450
(17.72)
3,060
(120.47)
Source: Weatherbase[28]

Demography[edit]

Ethnicity and religion[edit]

Sandakan District Mosque, the main mosque for the town as well for the district.
Puu Jih Shih Temple, built in 1987 is the main Chinese temple in Sandakan.
Parish of St. Michael's and All Angels, the oldest granite church in Sandakan.

According to the Malaysian Census in 2010, the whole town municipalities area has a total population of 396,290.[1] The population now is a mixture of many different races and ethnicities. Non-Malaysian citizens form the majority of the town population with 144,840 people followed by other Bumiputras (100,245), Chinese (63,201), Bajau (38,897), Malay (22,244), Kadazandusun (16,616), Indian (974), Murut (519) and others (8,754).[1]

The non-Malaysian citizens are mostly coming from the southern Philippines.[29][30] While the Chinese like other places in Sabah, are mostly Hakkas who has arrived since the British period and has their original settlements before in the town which now known as the Chinese Farm River Village.[18] The Bajau and Malays are majority Muslims, Kadazandusuns and Muruts are mainly practice Christianity with some of them had become Muslim while the Chinese are mainly Buddhists and some Christians. A small number of Hindus, Sikhs, Animists, and other small number of secularists also exist.

The large group of non-citizens has been identified as a majority Muslims and there is also a small numbers of Christian Filipinos especially women who later converted to Islam to married with a Muslim Filipinos here.[29] Like in Kota Kinabalu, the first wave of this immigrants arrived in the late 15th century during the Spanish colonisation, while the others arriving in the early 1970s because of the troubles in southern Philippines.[29] They consist of migrant workers with many of them have been naturalised as Malaysian citizens, however there are still many who living without proper documentation as illegal immigrants in the town with their own illegal settlement.[29]

Languages[edit]

Like the national language, the people of Sandakan are mainly speak Malay, with a distinct Sabahan creole.[31] The Malay language here are different from the Malay language in the west coast which resembles Brunei Malay.[32] In Sandakan, this language has been influenced with many words from the Suluk language.[33] As Sandakan also been dominated by the Hakka Chinese, Hakka language were also been widely spoken. While for the east coast Bajau, their language has a similarities with the Sama language in the Philippines and also borrowed many words from the Suluk language which different from the west coast Bajau who had been influence by the Malayic languages of Brunei Malay.[34][35]

Economy[edit]

Part of Sandakan port, port has become one of the economic source since the British period.

During the British period, Sandakan grew quickly as one of the largest British settlements in the east coast of North Borneo including has ever become the former capital for the territory.[13] It grew rapidly due to the export activities as a port town. The port is important for palm oil, tobacco, cocoa, coffee, manila hemp and sago exports.[16][36] In the mid-1930s, the export of tropical timber from Sandakan has record a level of 180,000 cubic meters which made the town as the world's largest exporter of hardwood.[16] Many Sandakan wood logs are now found in Beijing's Temple of Heaven.[13] Sandakan also enjoyed modern developments such as telegraph service to London and paved streets before Hong Kong and Singapore.[13]

The overseas Chinese has contributes to the development of the town since their immigration in the late 19th century.[37] Their original role in Sandakan including becoming farmers and labours with some of them work as a businessmen and entrepreneurs.[18][37] Now, Sandakan are currently poised to become one of Sabah business hub.[38] The town itself are one of Sabah's major port, other than in Kota Kinabalu, Sepanggar Bay, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Kudat, Semporna and Kunak.[22][39] Sandakan district known for its eco-tourism, such as the orangutan rehabilitation station in Sepilok Rehabilitation Centre, the Turtle Islands Park, the Kinabatangan River and the Gomantong Caves which famous for its edible bird's nest.[38] Due to Sandakan geographical proximity with the Southern Philippines, there is also a barter trade connection and Sandakan is considered as a transit point for foods entering into the Southern Philippines. The state government has assisting traders to improve their trading system and providing infrastructure facilities.[40]

Fisheries are also one of the economic source for the town.

Sandakan main industrial zones are basically based on three areas such as the Kamunting area known for its oil depots, edible oil refinery and glue factories. In Batu Sapi, an shipyard, fertilizer oxygen gas and wood-based factories are situated. The proposed Seguntor industrial area consists of 1,950 hectares (4,833 acres) are originally an agricultural area and the area is now in the process to be re-zoning into an industrial area. 2,531 acres will be for wood-base industries while another 2,302 will be used for general industries. At present, 55 wood-based factories have been approved, of which 35 has been into operation. While another total of 340 hectares area for general industries and 30 hectarea for service industries are located in various parts of Sandakan.[41]

But in recent years, many businessmen have shifted their operations away from the town centre to other suburbs due to a large presence of illegal immigrants from Mindanao islands in the Philippines which has causing trouble mostly in crime such as theft and vandalism on public facility and also solid waste pollution in marine and coastal areas.[29][36][42] But later in January 2003, an urban renewal project, was launched to revive the town centre as a commercial hub in Sandakan and since 2013, the Government of Malaysia has launched a major crackdown on illegal immigrants.[36][43]

Transportation[edit]

Land[edit]

Indah Intersection in Indah Jaya Town, the main intersection in Sandakan.

All the internal roads linking different parts of the town are generally state roads constructed and maintained by the state's Public Works Department, while the local authority (Sandakan Municipal Council) oversees the housing estates roads.[44] Currently, most road in Sandakan were undergoing major upgrade due to such issues like the lack of road networks and overloading.[44][45] There is only one federal arterial road which links Sandakan to the west coast of Sabah, the Federal Route 22, while other roads including the internal roads are called state roads.[44] Most major internal roads are dual-carriageways. Highway routes from Sandakan include:[46]

Public transportation[edit]

Regular bus services with minivans and taxis also can be found.[47][48] There are three bus terminals operating in the town such as the Buses to Sepilok, Local Bus Terminal and the Long Distance Bus Terminal.[49] The long-distance bus terminal is located about 4km north of the town while the local bus connects with the centre of the town.[47]

Sandakan Airport, the main domestic airport for the town as well for the district.

Air[edit]

Sandakan Airport (SA) (ICAO Code : WBKS) provides flights linking the town to other domestic destinations. As the town has a twin towns agreement with the Zamboanga City and for the ASEAN spirit in the BIMP-EAGA, there is an international route from Sandakan to Zamboanga International Airport.[50][51] Local destinations for the airport including Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Kuala Lumpur and many others. It is also one of the destinations for MASWings, which serves flights to other smaller towns or rural areas in East Malaysia. The airport is still undergoing upgrade and expansion for the comfort of air travellers.[52]

Sea[edit]

There is one ferry terminal which connects the town with some parts in the Southern Philippines such as Zamboanga City, the Sulu Archipelago and Tawi-Tawi.[53] At before, the state government are proposing to build a new Ferry Terminal in the town to attract more tourist particularly from the Philippines and also from Indonesia.[54] However, soon the ferry service was later terminated due to the trouble in the southern Philippines which could spread to the state and there is also a call from the former Chief Minister of Sabah and the Current President of Sabah Progressive Party Yong Teck Lee to suspend the ferry service to counter the high level of people migration from the Philippines which now has become the major problem to Sabah when they overstaying in the state and becoming an illegal immigrants.[55][56][57]

Other utilities[edit]

Courts of law and legal enforcement[edit]

Sandakan town police station located beside the Wisma Sandakan.

The current court complex is located along Lebuh Empat.[58] It contains the High Court, Sessions Court, and the Magistrate Court.[59]

Along the same road, the town police station located not far from the court beside the Wisma Sandakan,[58] while other police station can be found throughout the district such as in KM52, Ulu Dusun and in Seguntor.[60] Police substations (Pondok Polis) are found in Sg. Manila, Suan Lamba, Sibuga Area and Kim Fong BT4 Area,[60] and the Sandakan District Police Headquarters is located in the town centre together with Sandakan Prison.[60][61]

Healthcare[edit]

Specialist Clinic at the Duchess of Kent Hospital.

There are one public hospital, eight public health clinics, one child and mother health clinic, eight village clinics, three mobile clinics and two 1Malaysia clinics in Sandakan.[62][63] The Duchess of Kent Hospital, which is located along Jalan Utara, is the main and second largest public hospital in Sabah after the Queen Elizabeth Hospital with (400 beds).[64] Build in 1951, it is also become the first modern and one of the important hospital in Sabah.[64]

In 2008, a private hospital also been proposed to be build at the Jalan Utara. The Fook Kuin Medical Centre would be the largest private hospital in Sabah with (276 beds) surpassing the Sabah Medical Centre with (134 beds) in Kota Kinabalu once it finished in 2011.[65][66]

Education[edit]

One of the secondary school in Sandakan, the SMK Sandakan II.

There are many government or state schools in and around the town. Among the secondary schools are Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Elopura, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Elopura II, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Batu Sapi, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Datu Pengiran Galpam, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Gum-Gum, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Muhibbah, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Taman Fajar, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Perempuan, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Paris, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Merpati, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Segaliud, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Libaran, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sandakan, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sandakan II, Sekolah Menengah Tiong Hua, Sekolah Menengah Cecilia Convent, Sekolah Menengah St. Mary, Sekolah Menengah St. Michael, Sekolah Menengah Sung Siew, Sekolah Menengah Teknik Sandakan and Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Sandakan.[67][68] One independent private school also available in the town such as the Yu Yuan Secondary School.[69]

While for tertiary educations, there are Sandakan Polytechnic, ILP Sandakan, GIATMARA Sandakan and Kinabalu Commercial College. All universities such as the University of Malaysia Sabah, Open University Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia has a campus here.

Libraries:

The Sandakan Regional Library is located in the town and is one of three regional libraries in Sabah, the other in Keningau and Tawau. All these libraries are operated by the Sabah State Library department.[70] Other libraries or private libraries can be found in schools, colleges, or universities.[62]

Culture and leisure[edit]

Attractions and recreation spots[edit]

Cultural[edit]

A number of cultural venues has their place in Sandakan. The Sandakan Heritage Museum, situated at the Jalan Lebuh Empat, is the main museum of Sandakan. The museum located in the right-hand side of the ground and in the 1st floors of the Wisma Warisan Building which is next to the municipal building.[71] Beside that, a cultural festival known as Sandakan Festival were celebrated once a year on the town since been introduced in 2000 by the Sandakan Municipal Council.[72][73]

Sandakan Memorial Park, the site where the Sandakan prisoner of war camp located.

Historical[edit]

Another museum in Sandakan is the Agnes Keith House which is located at the top of the hill along Jalan Istana. The house known for the former home to Harry Keith and his wife Agnes Newton Keith.[74] Other historical attractions including the Malaysia Fountain, Chartered Company Memorial, Chong Tain Vun Memorial, North Borneo Scout Movement Memorial, Sandakan Japanese Cemetary, Sandakan Liberation Monument, Sandakan Massacre Memorial, Sandakan Memorial Park, Sandakan War Memorial and the William Pryer Memorial. While for the oldest religious buildings are the Parish of St. Michael's and All Angels, the Sam Sing Kung Temple and the Masjid Jamek who was opened by a Muslim cloth merchant from India, known as Damsah in 1890.[75]

Leisure and conservation areas[edit]

A number of leisure spots and conserved areas available around Sandakan. The Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary is the place where orphaned or injured orangutans been brought to be rehabilitated to return to forest life. Since been established in 1964, it is known as the one of the only tour for orangutan sanctuaries in the world.[76][77] Other conserved area are the Malaysian Turtle Islands where many turtles lay their eggs on the islands. It covers an area of 1,740 hectares which includes the surrounding reefs and seas and the islands were also ideal for swimming, snorkelling and scuba diving.[78]

Another attraction is the Gomantong Caves, which become home to hundreds of thousands of swifts who build their nests high on cave walls and roofs. Other than swifts, the caves are also inhabited by millions of bats.[76] Much more, the Sandakan Orchid House has a collection of rare orchids and along the Labuk Road from Sandakan there is a crocodile farm, which housing about 1,000 crocodiles of various sizes.[79]

Sandakan Harbour Square, the main shopping destination for the citizen of Sandakan.

Shopping[edit]

The main shopping area in Sandakan is the Harbour Mall. Launch in 2003, it is located in Sandakan's new central business district and build on a bay of reclaimed land.[77] It is part of the Sandakan Harbour Square and considered as the first modern shopping mall in the town.[80][81] In 2014, a new mall project with 341 units of store has been launched and will become the second main shopping destination for Sandakan once it finished.[82][83]

Sports[edit]

A signpost shows a different sport venues in Sandakan Sport Complex.

Rugby is very popular in Sandakan. Eddie Butler, a former Welsh Rugby Union captain, described it as the "Limerick of the tropics".[84] In 2008, at the newly built Sandakan Rugby Club, the Borneo Eagles-Sabahans (a team which included a few professional Fijians), hosted at the Borneo 10-a-side tournament for the eight and last time. Next year, the tournament will change to seven-aside.[84]

Other than rugby, a sport complex containing a badminton court, swimming pool, weightlifting room, hockey stadium, football stadium, cricket field, boxing facility and field archery available on the town.

Notable people[edit]

Political
Entertainment

International relations[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

Sandakan currently has two twin towns:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Total population by ethnic group, Local Authority area and state, Malaysia, 2010". Department of Statistics Malaysia. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  2. ^ "Founding of Sandakan". Sabah State Government. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d James Francis Warren (1981). The Sulu Zone, 1768-1898: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. NUS Press. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-9971-69-004-5. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Albert C. K. Teo; Junaidi Payne (1992). A Guide to Sandakan Sabah, Malaysia. the author. ISBN 978-983-99612-2-5. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  5. ^ Ranjit Singh (2000). The Making of Sabah, 1865-1941: The Dynamics of Indigenous Society. University of Malaya Press. ISBN 978-983-100-095-3. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "AHLI DEWAN UNDANGAN NEGERI". Sabah State Government. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  7. ^ Paul Ham (2012). Sandakan: The Untold Story of the Sandakan Death Marches. Random House Australia. ISBN 978-1-86471-140-0. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  8. ^ Michele Cunningham (30 July 2013). Hell on Earth: Sandakan - Australia's greatest war tragedy. Hachette Australia. pp. 193–. ISBN 978-0-7336-2930-3. 
  9. ^ Ellen Fanning (24 February 2012). "Belated Medals Tarnish The True Valour Of The Sandakan Diggers". The Global Mail. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Tash Impey (1 June 2011). "Tracing Sandakan's deadly footsteps". ABC News. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  11. ^ Charles de Ledesma; Mark Lewis; Pauline Savage (2003). Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei. Rough Guides. pp. 548–. ISBN 978-1-84353-094-7. 
  12. ^ a b Wendy Hutton (November 2000). Adventure Guides: East Malaysia. C. E. Tuttle. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-962-593-180-7. 
  13. ^ a b c d Borneo. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. 2008. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-1-74059-105-8. 
  14. ^ Damian Harper (2007). Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. pp. 462–. ISBN 978-1-74059-708-1. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  15. ^ a b James Alexander (2006). Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore. New Holland Publishers. pp. 378–. ISBN 978-1-86011-309-3. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c d Vern Bouwman (2004). Navy Super Tankers. Trafford Publishing. pp. 270–. ISBN 978-1-4120-3206-3. 
  17. ^ Tamara Thiessen (2008). Borneo. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 199–. ISBN 978-1-84162-252-1. 
  18. ^ a b c Danny T.K. Wong. "KEBUN CINA : AN EARLY CHINESE SUBURBAN SETTLEMENT IN SANDAKAN". Sandakan Rainforest Park. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  19. ^ Wendy Hutton (1 January 2004). Sandakan: History, Culture, Wildlife, and Resorts of the Sandakan Peninsula. Natural History Publications (Borneo). ISBN 978-983-812-084-5. 
  20. ^ "List of Chairman, Commissioner and President". Sandakan Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "Sandakan Profile". Sandakan Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  22. ^ a b "Sabah Sea Port". Borneo Trade. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  23. ^ "Sandakan to Kota Kinabalu Distance". Google Maps. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  24. ^ a b "Physical Plan Area Sandakan District". Town and Regional Planning Department, Sabah. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  25. ^ Vu Hai Dang (9 January 2014). Marine Protected Areas Network in the South China Sea: Charting a Course for Future Cooperation. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-90-04-26635-3. 
  26. ^ P. Thomas; F. K. C. Lo; A. J. Hepburn (1976). The land capability classification of Sabah. Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development. 
  27. ^ P. Thomas; F. K. C. Lo; A. J. Hepburn (1976). "The land capability classification of Sabah (Volume 2) – The Sandakan Residency (Climate)" (PDF). Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development. p. 7/22. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  28. ^ "Weatherbase: Weather for Sandakan, Malaysia". Weatherbase. 2010. 
  29. ^ a b c d e Kamal Sadiq (2 December 2008). Paper Citizens: How Illegal Immigrants Acquire Citizenship in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-19-970780-5. 
  30. ^ Cyril Lim (11 July 2013). "How Sandakan became Little Philippines". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  31. ^ "PEOPLE OF SABAH". Discovery Tours Sabah. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  32. ^ Stephen Adolphe Wurm; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tyron (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1615–. ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9. 
  33. ^ Jurnal bahasa moden. Pusat Bahasa, Universiti Malaya. 1991. 
  34. ^ Mark T. Miller (2007). A Grammar of West Coast Bajau. ProQuest. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-0-549-14521-9. 
  35. ^ Julie K. King; John Wayne King (1984). Languages of Sabah: Survey Report. Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 978-0-85883-297-8. 
  36. ^ a b c "Introduction and History of Sandakan". Sabah Education.net. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  37. ^ a b Danny Wong Tze-Ken (1999). "Chinese Migration to Sabah Before the Second World War". Archipel. pp. 135–136. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  38. ^ a b "Sandakan poised to become business hub". The Borneo Post. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  39. ^ Europa Publications (September 2002). Europa World Year Book. Europa Publications. ISBN 978-1-85743-129-2. 
  40. ^ "Barter Trading in Sandakan". Sabah State Government. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  41. ^ "Industrial Zones in Sandakan". Sabah State Government. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  42. ^ Dr. B. Beth Baikan. "Summary Of Issues From The Sandakan District Coastal Zone Profile". Sabah ICZM Local Consultant. Town and Regional Planning Department, Sabah. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  43. ^ "Sabah to launch massive operation against illegal immigrants". The Sun. 19 August 2013. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  44. ^ a b c "Transport (Road Networks)". Town and Regional Planning Department, Sabah. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  45. ^ "RM367 mln road upgrade projects in Sandakan". The Borneo Post. 2 December 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  46. ^ "INFRASTRUCTURE & SUPERSTRUCTURE (Road)". Borneo Trade (Source from Public Works Department, Sabah). Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  47. ^ a b "The Long Distance Bus Service in Sabah (Sandakan)" (PDF). MySabah.com. p. 12. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  48. ^ Lonely Planet; Simon Richmond; Cristian Bonetto; Celeste Brash, Joshua Samuel Brown, Austin Bush, Adam Karlin, Shawn Low, Daniel Robinson (1 April 2013). Lonely Planet Malaysia Singapore & Brunei. Lonely Planet. pp. 777–. ISBN 978-1-74321-633-0. 
  49. ^ "Sandakan Town Map" (PDF). SabahExpress.com. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  50. ^ "Philippines: Asian Spirit set to revive Zambo-Sandakan route". Davao Today. 25 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  51. ^ Paolo G. Montecillo (21 January 2013). "AirPhil Express eyes flights to Sabah". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  52. ^ "RM70mil allocation to upgrade Sandakan airport". Bernama. The Star. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  53. ^ MobileReference. Travel Philippines. MobileReference. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-1-61198-276-3. 
  54. ^ "Ferry Terminal (Sandakan)". Sabah State Government. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  55. ^ "Fighting puts stop to ferry service". New Straits Times. 13 September 2013. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  56. ^ "Closure of Filipino refugee camps in Malaysia sought". GMA Network. 19 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  57. ^ Yong Teck Lee (2 February 2002). "SCRAP FERRY SERVICES: YONG". Sabah.org.my. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  58. ^ a b "Sandakan Town Map". Wonderful Malaysia. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  59. ^ "Court Addresses (THE HIGH COURT IN SABAH & SARAWAK)". The High Court in Sabah and Sarawak. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  60. ^ a b c "Direktori: Alamat dan telefon PDRM". Royal Malaysian Police. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  61. ^ "Penjara Sandakan (Alamat & Telefon Penjara)". Prison Department of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  62. ^ a b "16 Social Facilities". Town and Regional Planning Department, Sabah. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  63. ^ "Clinics in Sandakan". Sabah State Health Department. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  64. ^ a b "Sejarah Hospital" (in Malay). Duchess of Kent Hospital. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. "At present, the hospital possesses 400 beds, inclusing of 18 beds for intensive care." 
  65. ^ "Non-profit hospital for Sandakan". The Star. 28 June 2008. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  66. ^ "Two applications from Sabah for establishment of private hospitals". New Sabah Times. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  67. ^ "SENARAI SEKOLAH MENENGAH DI NEGERI SABAH (List of Secondary Schools in Sabah) – See Sandakan" (PDF). Educational Management Information System. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  68. ^ "SENARAI SEKOLAH MENENGAH DI SABAH SEPERTI PADA 31 JANUARI 2011 (List of Secondary Schools in Sabah as on 31 January 2011) – See Sandakan" (PDF). Educational Management Information System. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  69. ^ "KTS raises fund for Sandakan school". The Borneo Post. 16 September 2012. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  70. ^ "Sandakan Regional Library". Sabah State Library Online. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  71. ^ "Sandakan Heritage Museum". Sabah Museum. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  72. ^ "Cultural experience at its best at Sandakan Festival". The Brunei Times. 25 April 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  73. ^ "Sandakan Festival (until June 7)". New Straits Times. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  74. ^ "Agnes Keith House, Sandakan". Sabah Museum. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  75. ^ "‘Sandakan Heritage Trails’" (PDF). Borneo Sandakan Tours Sdn. Bhd. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  76. ^ a b "Tourist Spots". Sabah Education. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  77. ^ a b "Sandakan, Sabah: Into the Wild" (PDF) (15). Citizen. July - September 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  78. ^ "Sanctuary for Marine Turtles". Sabah Parks. Turtle Islands Park. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  79. ^ Tan Hee Hui (26 July 2009). "Eclecticism in splendor". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  80. ^ "Harbour Mall opens for business, predicted to be Sabah’s next shopping haven". New Sabah Times. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  81. ^ Lawrence Shim (27 July 2011). "Sandakan Harbour Square a boost to Sandakan tourism". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  82. ^ "Sejati Walk to be Sandakan's latest shopping destination". Daily Express. 17 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  83. ^ "Sejati Walk, Sandakan launched". Daily Express. 19 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  84. ^ a b Eddie Butler (9 November 2008). "Hard-nosed rugby men stick out among the proboscis monkeys". The Observer. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  85. ^ "Yang Di-Pertua Negeri". Sabah State Government. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  86. ^ "Sister and Friendship Cities". Burwood Council. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  87. ^ Raymond Tan Shu Kiah (19 June 2000). "The Seminar On Twin City - Sandakan and Zamboanga". Virtual Office of Datuk Raymond Tan Shu Kiah. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 

External links[edit]