In 1939 the Sandbostel camp, meanwhile usurped by the Nazi trade union Reichsarbeitsdienst, was converted into the Prisoner-of-war campStalag X-B and a camp of internment for civilian enemy aliens. Until 1945 about a million inmates passed through the camp, with about 46,000 perished. A couple of the original camp buildings still exist in the commercial estate Immenheim. The cemetery in which several thousand prisoners are buried in mass graves is just outside the town. There is a memorial to them.