Sandefjord Airport, Torp

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Sandefjord Airport, Torp
Sandefjord lufthavn, Torp
Sandefjord Airport, Torp from the air cropped.jpg
IATA: TRFICAO: ENTO
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Sandefjord Lufthavn AS
Serves Sandefjord, Norway
Location Sandefjord and Stokke, Vestfold
Hub for Widerøe
Elevation AMSL 285 ft / 87 m
Coordinates 59°11′12″N 010°15′31″E / 59.18667°N 10.25861°E / 59.18667; 10.25861Coordinates: 59°11′12″N 010°15′31″E / 59.18667°N 10.25861°E / 59.18667; 10.25861
Website www.torp.no
Map
TRF is located in Vestfold
TRF
TRF
Location in Vestfold county
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
18/36 2,989 9,216 Asphalt
Statistics (2011)
Passengers 1,345,732
Aircraft movements 35,784
Cargo (tonnes) 467
Source: Norwegian AIP at Avinor[1]
Statistics from Avinor[2][3][4]

Sandefjord Airport, Torp (Norwegian: Sandefjord lufthavn, Torp; IATA: TRFICAO: ENTO) is an international airport located 4 nautical miles (7.4 km; 4.6 mi) northeast of Sandefjord, Norway and 118 km south of Oslo, Norway. Torp is owned and operated by Sandefjord Lufthavn AS, which in turn is owned by the municipalities of Sandefjord and Stokke, the Vestfold County Municipality, and a private investment group. It serves both as regional airport for the counties of Vestfold and Telemark, and as a low-cost airport for Eastern Norway. Domestic services are provided by Widerøe and Norwegian Air Shuttle, while international services are provided by KLM Cityhopper, Widerøe, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Ryanair and Wizz Air.

Even though it is more than twice as far, 118 km, from Oslo as Gardermoen, Oslo's principal airport, and it lacks high-speed rail transport to Oslo, the low-cost airlines market Sandefjord as Oslo-Torp or Oslo-Sandefjord.

History[edit]

Establishment[edit]

Following World War II and Norway's membership in NATO, it became strategically important to build several new air stations in the country. This was based on a United States analysis in 1951, led by General Robert K. Taylor, that wanted to station three wings, each of 75 aircraft, in Denmark and Norway. Each wing would have about 3,000 American personnel permanently stationed. Norwegian policy prohibited permanent stationing of foreign military personnel on Norwegian soil, but allowed the United States to build air stations that would be suitable for refueling before attacking targets within Eastern Europe. There were two main strategies that NATO intended to use that would require a new military air station in Southern Norway. The first was the "polar strategy", that involved NATO aircraft flying nuclear weapons into the Soviet Union. This would require refueling stations in Norway, but only about twenty permanently stationed personnel. The second was to station aircraft to allow a flanking maneuver if Soviet troops were to attack Central Europe.[5]

Negotiations between NATO, the United States and Norway were initiated on 27 March 1951. The United States wanted to own and operate the air stations themselves, and use the stations for preemptive strikes towards the Soviet Union. At the time, air stations were available for use at Sola, Gardermoen, Lista and Ørland, but more capacity would be needed. On 24 November, the United States proposed converting Tønsberg Airport, Jarlsberg into an air force station. NATO dedicated NOK 48 million to rebuild the airport. The issue was discussed in parliament on 4 March 1952 along with several other proposals to build air stations or expand airports to meet NATO's needs, namely Gardermoen, Jarlsberg, Lista, Ørland, Bardufoss and Rygge. Parliament voted to fund the program with NOK 92 million of a NOK 277.6 million budget. In May 1952, Prime Minister Oscar Torp informed United States General Dwight D. Eisenhower that he intended to try to convince parliament to change the Norwegian base policies to allow permanent stationing of foreign troops. This was not successful, and parliament would not change the policy. Instead, the politicians hoped the American fighters based in Denmark would defend Norway.[6]

Closer investigations of Jarlsberg showed that the airport was not suitable for expansion. The airport was expanded in 1950, and has received a 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) runway. An air station for Republic F-84 Thunderjet fighter jets would require a 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) runway, and due to surrounding hills this was not possible. Instead, the military looked at Langåker and Torp as possible locations. However, the military did note that Jarlsberg would be easier to defend, but that the defensibility was correlated to the rugged terrain that made expansion difficult. Torp was also preferred due to its close proximity to the European Route E18 and the Vestfold Line and Råstad Station. The choice of location approved by NATO on 6 September 1952, and by the government on 12 September. It was passed in unanimously by parliament on 18 October, with only Torgeir Andreas Berge speaking up against the location. Berge, who lived within the approach area of the airport, was concerned about noise pollution affecting the local population.[7]

Torp was in part chosen due to its proximity to Raastad Station on the Vestfold Line

In February 1953, the government expropriated the necessary land, 4.0 square kilometres (1.5 sq mi), of which 3.5 square kilometres (1.4 sq mi) was forest and 0.25 square kilometres (0.097 sq mi) was fields and 0.25 square kilometres (0.097 sq mi) was pasture. About half the area was in the municipality of Stokke, the rest in the former municipality of Sandar. Thirty-seven land-owners were affected, and they were compensated NOK 3.75 million. The builder was the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency and the main contractor was Astrup & Aubert. Other major contractors was Lo-Wi-Co that did most of the explosives, and Byggmester Thor Kandal jr. that built the buildings. A pumping station for fuel was built at the shore at Bogen, and a pipeline built to the air station. The fuel was transported to Bogen with small tank ships from Vølle and later Slagentangen. This system was built by the United States, and was in use until 1993. The runway and taxiway were built in concrete. Up to twenty people worked on the construction at any time.[8] The official opening occurred on 2 July 1956, when two F-84s landed at 11:00.[9]

First civilian operation[edit]

During the 1950s, the interest to use Torp as an air station dwindled. Norway did not need the station for regular stationing of aircraft, and the United States did not need it as long as Norway did not allow permanent stationing of foreign troops. In October 1956, the military stated that they did not mind if Torp also had a civilian sector. The municipalities established committee, and on 2 October 1957 the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications granted permission to establish a municipal civilian sector at Torp. At the time, Jarlsberg was still being used for scheduled services to Vestfold, and the plans to open Torp as a civilian airport met political resistance from Tønsberg. The civilian sector would cost NOK 900,000, including a terminal building, a control tower, small maintenance facilities and a tarmac. A limited company, Andelslaget Torp flyplass, was established on 24 October 1958. In addition to the municipalities of Stokke and Sandar, seval local companies and private individuals bought shares. The company changed its name to AS Torp Flyplass in 1959.[10]

The first civilian aircraft to land was a Douglas DC-3 from Fred Olsen Air Transport in 1958. The first scheduled flight was a Braathens SAFE Fokker F27 on 13 October, a route that flew daily from Oslo along the South Coast to Stavanger. The construction was completed on 15 September 1959 and the airport was officially opened on 5 October. On 16 October, both Oslo Airport, Fornebu and Oslo Airport, Gardermoen were closed due to fog, and eight scheduled aircraft were rerouted to Sandefjord. In 1960, the name of the company was changed to AS Sandefjord Lufthavn, and the airport named Sandefjord Airport, Torp.[11] Local patriots had expected Braathens SAFE to relocate their route from Jarlsberg to Torp after the opening of the airport, but this was not done. In 1960, Braathens SAFE received concession to fly from Oslo via Sandefjord and Kristiansand to Aalborg in Denmark twice a week. The service was terminated after a single season due to Scandinavian Airlines taking over the route, and removing Sandefjord from the route.[12]

Military activity[edit]

In 1957, NATO decided to build arsenals for nuclear weapons in all member countries, including Norway. Because the weapons were to be operated only by American personnel, this was in violation with Norwegian base policy. However, foreign personnel was allowed to be based in Norway during war, and therefore infrastructure would be allowed to be built in Norway to allow nuclear weapons to operate from Norway during war. Norway approved that seven air stations, including Torp, would have conventional ammunition storages that could be converted to nuclear weapons storage facilities in war, and allow the weapons to be transported into Norway following the declaration of war. The arsenals were built underground in bedrock with reinforced concrete.[13] The arsenal caused massive local protests, and the municipal council made a declaration where it supported the concerns raised about the danger of an explosion. The protests were not taken consideration to, following a report from another division of the military that stated that the risk of an explosion was close to zero. Construction started in May 1961.[14] The hangar that was built at Torp was used by Horten Flyfabrikk from 1956 to 1965. It had up to 270 employees and had previously been based at Jarlsberg. In 1967, Marinens Hovedverft performed maintenance of a single aircraft, but terminated operations at Torp after this.[15]

Slow growth[edit]

In 1968, the municipalities of Sandefjord and Sandar merged, giving the Sandefjord a 93.11% ownership in the airport. During the entire 1960s, the airport company lost money.[16] In 1974, Nor-Fly started operating from Sandefjord. The airline at first had a Douglas DC-3, and later four Convair 440. The company had been established in 1952, and started flights from Sandefjord to serve commuters and business travelers to Western Norway and the oil industry. The airline applied, but was not granted concessions for scheduled services. In 1985, the airline was sold to Partnair.[17] By the 1970s, the airport company was still losing money, and in 1978 the airport had 3,000 passengers. The following year, the airport had 7,800 passengers, but this fell to 5,400 in 1982.[18]

On 26 March 1984, Busy Bee, Braathens SAFE's regional airline, started flights from Torp. It operated a single daily round trip from Sandefjord via Stavanger and Haugesund to Bergen. The company never made a profit on the service, and terminated it in 1991, following an agreement that one Fokker 50 aircraft was to be sold to Widerøe Norsk Air.[19] In 1985, Sandefjordbanken established a branch at the airport.[20]

Expansion[edit]

In 1985, the airport made a NOK 2.1 million profit.[21] During the mid-1980s, local commercial interests stated that they wanted more activity at Torp. This led to a public debate about the structure and need for investments in the airport. Three main strategies were proposed: the municipality sold the airport to private investors; the municipality, Vestfold County Municipality and private investors took over operation of the airport; or the airport was taken over, fully or in part, by the state-owned Civil Aviation Administration. In February 1986, Vestfold Industrial Association established the company I/S Vestfold Næringsliv for Torp (VNFT, renamed Vestfold Flyplassinvest in 1997). This company, along with the county municipality and Stokke Municipality, bought part of AS Sandefjord Lufthavn on 28 April 1987 through a private placement of NOK 18 million. This gave Sandefjord 42.0%, Vestold 35.5%, VNFT 13.5% and Stokke 9.0% ownership.[22]

The new owners concluded that the airport needed a new control tower and a new terminal building. Construction was sent as a public tender in 1987, but the military decided to stop the plans. At this time, a debate about a new location for Oslo Airport had started, with one of the proposals to use Gardermoen, that was one of the two permanently used air stations in Eastern Norway. The air force was afraid that they would have to abandon Gardermoen and relocate to Torp.[23] It would be likely that this would give twenty or forty fighter jets stationed at Torp.[24] The military expansion plans were not in line with the civilian ones. At the same time, the military felt that the existing terminal building was located too close to the arsenal, and a new terminal was needed further away. The airport operators needed additional space. The old terminal had a capacity of 10,000 passengers; in 1984, it served 42,486, and in 1987, 100,907 passengers. By 1990, the issues related to Gardermoen had been resolved, and the military no longer had objections to expanding Torp.[25]

The private placement in 1987 allowed sufficient financing of a new terminal building. It was a 3,000 square metres (32,000 sq ft) pointed building that was planned to have the largest possible surface facing the tarmac, to allow the most possible aircraft to park. It was constructed in such a way that it could be easily expanded in both directions. The new terminal was completed in 1991 and cost NOK 47 million.[25] This also included 29,700 square kilometres (11,500 sq mi) tarmac, and expansion of the taxiway and parking for 300 cars.[26] There was also a need to upgrade the runway, that had had no major maintenance since construction. The end of the Cold War had reduced the threat level and the military no longer saw a need to keep Torp at as high a level. However, the civilian airport operator needed the upgrades. They proposed that the airport operator advance the money, but this was rejected by the Defence Estates Agency. NATO decided that they had too many air stations, and was not willing to pay either. The airport operator still took the chance that the military would repay the advance, since it had done so in similar situation earlier. The runway was upgraded for NOK 10 million in 1989, but only NOK 1 million was refunded in 1993.[27] The first charter flights from Torp were conducted in 1989. In 1992, Saga started flights to Mallorca, as did Vingreiser. These are today part of MyTravel.[28] In 1991, Torp Café and Catering started a restaurant in the terminal building and at the same time offered catering to the airlines. The catering was taken over by Select Service Partner in 1998.[29]

Following the Oslo Airport localization controversy in the 1980s and early 1990s, parliament decided to locate the new main airport for Eastern Norway at Gardermoen, north of Oslo. This made the main airport for Buskerud, Vestfold and Telemark further from the main airport, and proved to strengthen the regional position of Torp.[30] By 1990, the airport was again losing money, with a loss of NOK 2.1 million, but the passenger numbers were up to 137,279.[31] In 1992, the debate about ownership woke again, this time with the Civil Aviation Administration considering if it should purchase part of all of the airport. In 1992 the airport had 142,983 passengers, and the Civil Aviation Administration estimated that the airport would have 280,000 passengers following the closing of Fornebu in 1998. Local politicians did not want to sell the whole airport to the state, and the Civil Aviation Administration was not interested in purchasing part of the airport, so a sale did not go through.[32]

The air traffic employees in the control tower worked for the Civil Aviation Administration. In October 1991, they went on strike demanding that they receive better working conditions. However, the airport owner and the Civil Aviation Administration could not agree on who had the responsibility to build a new tower. Since 1987, the airport operator kept all landing fees, while the Civil Aviation Administration collects the navigation fees. The air force stated that it had no need for an upgrade to the airport, and was not willing to pay for further investments. The Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications stated that the Civil Aviation Administration had previously decided that the state would not give subsidies to Sandefjord Airport, and that such investments must be carried by the operating company. Plans were made, but construction was stopped by the military in 1991. The next plan was launched in 1996, and parliament decided that the state would finance the new tower. However, when construction was to commence in 1998, the ministry decided that the tower instead should be financed by the airport operator. The ministry stated that this was because they did not want to use the limited state funds, that were entirely generated from user fees, to invest in airports that the state had chosen to not operate. It also stated that investments should be concentrated on security rather than increased capacity, and that the airport operating company had sufficient capital to finance the investments. Construction started in 1999 and was finished in 2001. The tower is identical tho the one at Tromsø Airport and cost NOK 40 million.[33]

Low-cost airport[edit]

Passport stamp

On 1 April 1997, the European aviation market was fully deregulated, and concession was no longer needed to fly internationally between countries within the European Economic Area. The Irish airline Ryanair wanted to use this to establish several routes from London Stansted Airport, including Oslo. They intended to market Sandefjord Airport as Oslo South (later Oslo Torp). Ryanair and Torp had meetings to discuss the matter, but the airport instead wanted SAS and Braathens SAFE to establish routes. However, neither of these were interested in this. To create pressure against Ryanair in the negotiations, the airport operator contacted EasyJet, who also considered flying from London to Torp. In the end, Ryanair was the only airline that established itself following the deregulation. The first Ryanair flight, with a Boeing 737-200, departed on 3 November 1997. The branding of Torp as Oslo caused a heated discussion between the Civil Aviation Administration, after the International Air Transport Association in 1998 placed Sandefjord Airport under the area code for Oslo.[34]

In 1996, Torp had 158,972 passengers and the company lost NOK 1.3 million. In addition, a new private placement was made for NOK 3.5 million by the existing owners.[35] In 1998, the airport had 410,944 passengers and a profit of NOK 349,000. Sandefjord became the country's tenth-largest airport.[36] In 1999, the airport had 684,431 passengers and a profit of NOK 23.4 million. The terminal was expanded to fit 1 million passengers annually, and a new parking house was built.[37] From 1998, Sandefjord Airport strengthened itself in two directions. The commercial interests of Telemark declared that they would focus on using the larger Sandefjord Airport than Skien Airport, Geiteryggen. At the same time, the moving of Oslo Airport from Fornebu to Gardermoen made Torp a more viable regional airport.[38] By 2000, the airport had 758,951 passengers.[39] The duty-free store was operated by Norsk Air, later by Widerøe, until 1998, when it was taken over by SAS Catering. From 2006, it was taken over by Jotunfjell Partners.[40] Until 1999, the sheriff's office in Sandefjord was responsible for border control at Torp. From 1999, the airport has been a separate border control office, and by 2004 it had 23 employees.[41] Since 2003, the custom's office for Vestfold is located at Torp, and the Norwegian Customs and Excise Authorities has about fifty employees stationed.[42]

On 3 November 1996, ConTigo started chater flights using Boeing 727, but terminated services after 22 December. Coast Air started flights from Sandefjord to Haugesund Airport, Karmøy on 26 October 1998 twice daily. SAS started two daily flights to Copenhagen from 29 March 1999; these were taken over by Widerøe from 1 January 2002. Braathens, along with its partner KLM, started operating from Sandefjord. KLM offered Fokker 70 services to its hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol three times daily from 1 May 1999 through their subsidiary KLM Cityhopper. Braathens started operating services with Boeing 737s to Stavanger and Bergen on 9 May, but terminated the services from 1 November due to low yield. Sun Air of Scandinavia, a franchise of British Airways, started flights from Torp to Billund Airport on 1 November 1999, but this was terminated in March 2000. GuardAir started flights from Torp to Ålesund Airport, Vigra, Kristiansand and Gothenburg in 1998, as well as moving the company's head offices to Torp, but the airline went bankrupt in 2001. Goodjet started flights from Torp to Beauvais-Tillé Airport of Paris on 15 July 2002 using Airbus A320. The airline terminated all services on 6 December.[43]

On 4 April 2002, Ryanair started flights to Glasgow Prestwick Airport. The same year, the airport expanded the international arrival section, and the airport passed one million annual passengers, and the airport is the seventh largest in the country. The profit had sunk to NOK 9.3 million. In 2003, a new international terminal was opened. On 4 April, Ryanair started a service to Stockholm-Skavsta Airport (Now moved to Moss Airport, Rygge).[44] In 2004, the airport had 1,084,244 passengers,[45] and a revenue of NOK 163.2 million.[46] A survey conducted in 2004 showed that 64% of the passengers at Torp were tourist rather than business travelers, about twice the level of other airports. The same year, both Widerøe and Ryanair had 450,000 passengers, while KLM had 80,000. The largest destination was London with 250,000 passengers, followed by Copenhagen and Frankfurt with 120,000.[47]

Plans[edit]

In June 2006 the airport decided to invest NOK 24 million to expand the terminal.[citation needed] The check-in has been a bottle neck, and the expansion will give the airport a capacity of 2.5 million passengers per year. The airport is also working on expanding the taxiway.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Wizz Air Airbus A320-200 landing at Torp

Widerøe is the only airline to have an operative base at Torp. The regional airline focuses on serving Torp as a premium airline with services to the largest domestic cities, plus an international service to their owner's main hub in Copenhagen. KLM Cityhopper operates two daily feeder services from Torp to KLM's main hub in Amsterdam. The remaining services are provided by the low-cost airlines Ryanair, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Wizz Air, that provide a range of international services throughout Europe.

Airlines Destinations
Freebird Airlines Seasonal charter: Antalya
Gotlandsflyg
operated by Golden Air
Seasonal: Visby
KLM
operated by KLM Cityhopper
Amsterdam
Malmö Aviation Seasonal charter: Split
Nextjet Stockholm-Arlanda
Norwegian Air Shuttle Alicante, Antalya, Bergen, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, London-Gatwick, Malaga, Tenerife-South, Trondheim
Seasonal: Dubrovnik, Harstad/Narvik, Nice
Ryanair Alicante, Liverpool, London-Stansted, Palma de Mallorca
Seasonal: Alghero, Malaga, Pescara, Pisa, Zadar
Orbest Seasonal charter: Palma de Mallorca
SunExpress Antalya
Thomas Cook Airlines Scandinavia Rhodes
TUIfly Nordic Rhodes
Widerøe Bergen-Flesland, Copenhagen, Stavanger, Tromsø, Trondheim
Seasonal: Bodø
Wizz Air Bucharest-Henri Coandă, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Poznań, Riga, Szczecin, Vilnius, Warsaw-Chopin, Wrocław

Torp is also the home of Norway's only flying Douglas DC-3. It is operated by Dakota Norway, a non-profit organization, and tours around the area are available at selected days during the summer season.

Facilities[edit]

The runway runs due north–south (18/36). It is 2,989 by 45 metres (9,806 by 148 ft) and in asphalt, except both 500 metres (1,600 ft) ends that are in concrete. There is a taxiway on the far side of the terminal building. The airport is equipped with instrument landing system category 1 from both ends. The control tower services are operated by Avinor. The tarmac has eleven aircraft stands. Deicing is available. Widerøe Handling Services is the only handling agent at the airport.[48]

Maintenance[edit]

Widerøe has the largest maintenance facility at Torp, providing full maintenance for the airlines own fleet of Dash 8 series 100, 300, and 400 aircraft. Helifly provides maintenance for both aircraft and helicopters. Flyvedlikehold provides maintenance for both aircraft and helicopters, engines, and is a retailer of pilot accessories like headsets, helmets, and so on.

Ground transport[edit]

The shuttle bus to the train station at the airport

Rail[edit]

Sandefjord Airport Station is located on the Vestfold Line, about 3 kilometres (2 mi) from the airport. It is served by regional trains that operate between Lillehammer -- via Oslo Airport and Oslo Central Station -- and Skien. There are hourly trains in each direction, supplemented by rush-hour trains. Travel time to Oslo is 1 hour 48 minutes, and to Oslo Airport it is 2 hours 23 minutes.[49] A shuttle bus meets all trains during the opening hours of the airport, and a bus trip takes four minutes to the airport terminal. The shuttle bus leaves the airport ten minutes before each train's scheduled departure. The bus is operated by NSB and is included in the price of the train ticket. There are 42 bus departures each day.[50]

Coach[edit]

Torp Expressen is a coach service operated by UniBuss to Oslo connecting with all Ryanair's and Wizz Air's flights. Travel time is 1 hour and 50 minutes.[51][52] Telemarkekspressen, a Norway Bussekspress service operated by Nettbuss and Telemark Bilruter, offers coach services to Telemark, including Skien, Porsgrunn, Ulefoss, and Seljord.[53] The Norway Bussekpress service Sørlandsekspressen operates from a halt on the E18 (not from the airport terminal) to several cities along the South Coast to Kristiansand.[54] From Østfold, the service Flybåten Express Østfold–Vestfold operates a coach on the Moss–Horten Ferry to Torp. This involves a change of coach in Tønsberg.[55] During winter, there are occasional buses that connect to ski resorts in Gol, Geilo and Hemsedal.[56]

Car[edit]

Sandefjord Airport is located 3 kilometres (2 mi) off the European Route E18. Travel to distance to Sandefjord is 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and to Oslo is 110 kilometres (68 mi).[57] The distance to Oslo Airport, Gardermoen is 167 kilometres (104 mi),[58] and to Moss Airport, Rygge is 63 kilometres (39 mi) (via the Moss–Horten Ferry).[59] The airport has 460 parking spaces in a garage, 1,720 parking spaces outdoors and 150 short-term places. Parking is operated by EuroPark.[60] Car rental and taxis are available.[61][62]

Incidents[edit]

  • Sandefjord was the site of a 1979 Learjet crash, reportedly the result of a pilot distracted by a rowdy party being celebrated by passengers. The cost of the crash was the life of the pilot and five passengers.
  • The Torp hostage crisis occurred on 28 September 1994. Two Swedish robbers took two police officers and two pensioners as hostages. The police freed the hostages and killed one of the hostage takers. It was the only incident in peace time that a Norwegian police chief has given the orders to shoot to kill.[clarification needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Airport information for ENTO". Avinor. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  2. ^ "Passenger statistics from Avinor" (xls). Avinor. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  3. ^ "Aircraft Movement statistics from Avinor" (xls). Avinor. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "Cargo statistics from Avinor" (xls). Avinor. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  5. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 11–21
  6. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 21–26
  7. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 27–32
  8. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 43–45
  9. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 51
  10. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 65–72
  11. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 77–78
  12. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 83–85
  13. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 53–56
  14. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 79–80
  15. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 57–58
  16. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 92
  17. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 100
  18. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 96–102
  19. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 104
  20. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 165
  21. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 106
  22. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 118–121
  23. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 122
  24. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 134
  25. ^ a b Wilsberg, 2005: 122–123
  26. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 168
  27. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 123–126
  28. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 238–239
  29. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 269
  30. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 138–139
  31. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 164
  32. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 173–174
  33. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 183–191
  34. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 197–205
  35. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 186
  36. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 213
  37. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 217
  38. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 209–213
  39. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 218
  40. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 251–252
  41. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 254
  42. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 257–258
  43. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 210–220
  44. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 222–224
  45. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 224
  46. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 232
  47. ^ Wilsberg, 2005: 235–236
  48. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Airport Fact File". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  49. ^ Norges Statsbaner (2009). "Skien - Oslo - Gardermoen - Lillehammer". Retrieved 11 January 2009. 
  50. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Train". Retrieved 11 January 2009. 
  51. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Torp-Ekspressen-from Oslo". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  52. ^ Aftenposten (2007-11-06). "Ta toget til Torp" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  53. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Telemarkekspressen og TIMEkspressen". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  54. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Sørlandsekspressen". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  55. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Ferry and bus between Vestfold and Østfold". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  56. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Transfer info Sandefjord Airport Torp". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  57. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "How do I get to Sandefjord Airport Torp?". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  58. ^ Google Maps. "Driving directions to Oslo Airport, 2060 Ullensaker, Norway". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  59. ^ Google Maps. "Driving directions to Moss Airport, Norway". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  60. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Parking". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  61. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Taxis". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  62. ^ Sandefjord Lufthavn. "Car rental". Retrieved 24 October 2009. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Tjomsland, Audun (2005). Høyt spill om Torp (in Norwegian). Sandefjord: Tjomsland Media. ISBN 82-997212-0-2. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Sandefjord Airport, Torp at Wikimedia Commons