Sandovsky District

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Sandovsky District
Сандовский район (Russian)
Tver-oblast-Sandovo.png
Location of Sandovsky District in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: 58°27′N 36°24′E / 58.450°N 36.400°E / 58.450; 36.400Coordinates: 58°27′N 36°24′E / 58.450°N 36.400°E / 58.450; 36.400
Coat of Arms of Sandovo rayon (Tver oblast).png
Flag of Sandovsky rayon (Tver oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of 2013)
Administrative center urban-type settlement of Sandovo[1]
Administrative divisions:[2]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 4
Inhabited localities:[2]
Urban-type settlements 1
Rural localities 215
Municipal structure (as of March 2013)
Municipally incorporated as Sandovsky Municipal District[3]
Municipal divisions:[4]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 4
Statistics
Area 1,608 km2 (621 sq mi)[5]
Population (2010 Census) 6,811 inhabitants[6]
- Urban 51.5%
- Rural 48.5%
Density 4.24 /km2 (11.0 /sq mi)[7]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[8]
Official website
Sandovsky District on WikiCommons

Sandovsky District (Russian: Са́ндовский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[3] district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Ustyuzhensky District of Vologda Oblast in the north, Vesyegonsky District in the northeast, Molokovsky District in the southeast, Maksatikhinsky District in the south, Lesnoy District in the west, and with Pestovsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the northwest. The area of the district is 1,608 square kilometers (621 sq mi).[5] Its administrative center is the urban locality (an urban-type settlement) of Sandovo.[1] Population: 6,811 (2010 Census);[6] 9,385 (2002 Census);[9] 12,495 (1989 Census).[10] The population of Sandovo accounts for 51.5% of the district's total population.[6]

Geography[edit]

The district lies fully in the basin of the Mologa River. The Mologa itself flows at the western border of the district, separating it from Lesnoy District. Rivers in the north and the west of the district drain directly into the Mologa, whereas rivers in the south and in the center of the district drain into the Melecha, which together with the Mogocha forms the Osen, a right tributary of the Mologa. The source of the Melecha lies within the district. Most of the district is covered by forests.

History[edit]

In the Medieval times, the territory of the modern district was populated with the Finnish peoples and later it was dependent on the Novgorod Republic. In the end of the 15th century, together with Novgorod, it was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and was a part of Bezhetsk pyatina, one of five pyatinas Novgorod was administratively divided into. Under Vasily II, some of the lands were given to Stanislaw Melecki, a Polish noble converted to Russian Orthodox church.[5]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate), but in 1727 it was transferred to Moscow Governorate. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and in 1776, Vesyegonsky Uyezd was established as a part of Tver Viceroyalty. Vesyegonsk was granted town rights. In 1796, the viceroyalty was transformed into Tver Governorate and Vesyegonsky Uyezd was abolished; the territory was transferred to Bezhetsky Uyezd. In 1803, it was re-established. On April 25, 1921, Vesyegonsky Uyezd was transferred to newly established Rybinsk Governorate. On February 15, 1923, Rybinsk Governorate was abolished and the uyezd was transferred back to Tver Governorate.[11]

On July 12, 1929, the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Sandovsky District, with the administrative center in the selo of Sandovo, was established within Bezhetsk Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast.[11] In 1932, the administrative center of the district was transferred to the village of Orudovo near Sandovo railway station, which eventually grew up into the settlement of Sandovo.[5] On January 29, 1935, Kalinin Oblast was established and Sandovsky District was transferred to it. In February 1963, during the abortive administrative reform by Nikita Khrushchev, Sandovsky District was merged into Vesyegonsky District, but in January 1965 it was re-established.[11] In 1967, Sandovo was granted urban-type settlement status.[5] In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

The district has enterprises of timber and food industries.[12]

Agriculture[edit]

The main agricultural specializations in the district are cattle breeding with meat and milk production, as well as flax, vegetables, and potato growing. The agriculture is in deep crisis, with only one mid-size farm being profitable.[13]

Transportation[edit]

A railway connecting Moscow and Mga via Sonkovo and Pestovo crosses the district from southeast to northwest. The major railway station is Sandovo.

Sandovo is connected by road with Krasny Kholm via Molokovo. Gravel roads run to Vesyegonsk and Ustyuzhna. There are also local roads, with bus traffic originating from Sandovo.

Culture and recreation[edit]

The district contains nineteen cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally eighteen objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.[14] The federal monuments include three estates, in the villages of Ladozhskoye, Tukhani, and Yuryevo.

In Sandovo, there is a Bee Museum, which shows materials related to beekeeping, a traditional occupation of local peasants. The museum was opened in 2007.[15]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 249», в ред. изменения №243/2014 от 18 апреля 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 249, as amended by the Amendment #243/2014 of April 18, 2014. ).
  2. ^ Law #34-ZO stipulates that the borders of the administrative divisions of the district match those of the municipal formations the corresponding municipal district is subdivided into. Law #44-ZO contains the list of the municipal formations of Sandovsky Municipal District. The counts of inhabited localities are per OKATO.
  3. ^ a b Law #4-ZO
  4. ^ Law #44-ZO
  5. ^ a b c d e "Краткий очерк" (in Russian). Администрация Сандовского района. Retrieved August 1, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  7. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c "Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области" (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved August 1, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Предприятия" (in Russian). Администрация Сандовского района. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  13. ^ Бабич, Алексей. "Губернатор Андрей Шевелев совершил рабочую поездку в Сандовский район". tverlife.ru (in Russian) (Tver). Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved July 15, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Музей Пчелы" (in Russian). Россия 10. Retrieved July 15, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №111-ЗО от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #111-ZO of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №44-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Сандовский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №18-ЗО от 28 марта 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований Топоровское сельское поселение Сандовского района Тверской области и Старосандовское сельское поселение Сандовского района Тверской области и внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Сандовский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #44-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Sandovsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #18-ZO of March 28, 2013 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of Toporovskoye Rural Settlement of Sandovsky District of Tver Oblast and Starosandovskoye Rural Settlement of Sandovsky District of Tver Oblast and on Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Which the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Sandovsky District" Comprises and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).