|Born||Sandra Kay Fluke
April 17, 1981
Saxton, Pennsylvania U.S.
|Alma mater||Cornell University
Fluke first came to attention in the United States in February 2012, when Republicans refused to allow her to testify to the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee on the importance of requiring insurance plans to cover birth control during a discussion on whether insurance should have a contraception mandate. She later spoke to only House Democratic members. Commenting on her statements at that hearing, Rush Limbaugh, a talk show host, made controversial comments about Fluke on his talk show, consisting of slurs and speculation regarding her sex life.
Early life 
Sandra Fluke is a native of Saxton, Pennsylvania, and graduated from Pennsylvania's Tussey Mountain Junior/Senior High School in 1999. In 2003, Fluke graduated from Cornell University with a major in Feminist, Gender & Sexuality Studies.
Fluke co-founded the New York Statewide Coalition for Fair Access to Family Court, which successfully advocated for legislation granting access to civil orders of protection for unmarried victims of domestic violence, including teen LGBTQ victims. Fluke was also a member of the Manhattan Borough President's Taskforce on Domestic Violence and numerous other New York City and New York State coalitions that successfully advocated for policy improvements impacting victims of domestic violence. While in New York City, she worked for Sanctuary for Families, which aids victims of domestic violence and human trafficking.
In 2011, Fluke was a recipient of the Women Lawyers of Los Angeles' Fran Kandel Public Interest Grant from Georgetown University Law Center, which supported her production of a video on how to take out a restraining order. She also "represented numerous victims of domestic violence and human trafficking" and worked to help child victims of domestic human trafficking in Kenya. She served as president of the Georgetown Law Students for Reproductive Justice student organization, and graduated cum laude in 2012. She passed the California Bar in July 2012.
Speech to Congressional Democrats on contraception mandates 
Fluke, then a 30-year-old law student at Georgetown, was invited by Democrats to speak at a hearing by the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee on new Administration rules concerning the Conscience Clause exceptions in healthcare associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The exception applied to church organizations themselves, but not to affiliated nonprofit corporations such as hospitals, which do not rely primarily on members of the faith as employees. In addition, another exception was created for religious institutions in which an employee can seek birth control directly from an insurance company rather than nonprofit religious organizations. Democrats requested that the committee add Sandra Fluke to the first panel, which was composed primarity of clergy and theologians. Committee chairman Darrell Issa, a Republican congressman from California, refused, stating that Fluke lacked expertise, was not a member of the clergy, and her name was not submitted in time for the hearing. Democratic members criticized the decision not to include Fluke since it left the panel with only male members, when the purpose of the hearing was to discuss contraception coverage.
The following week, the House Democratic Steering and Policy Committee convened a meeting to invite Fluke to speak. She put forward reasons why Georgetown University should be compelled to offer health care that covers contraceptive drugs, in spite of the Catholic university's moral opposition to artificial birth control. She claimed that, during her time as a law student, birth control could cost in excess of $3,000. She also stated that 40% of Georgetown Law School's female population suffered financial hardship as a result of birth control not being covered by the student health insurance plan, and that the lack of contraception coverage in the university insurance plans would induce many low-income students to go without contraceptives. Fluke insisted that the women of Georgetown, other religious schools, and employees of religious institutions such as hospitals have endured "financial, emotional and medical burdens because of this lack of contraceptive coverage." She then shared stories of friends affected by such policies, citing a friend with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fluke stated this friend needed contraceptive hormones costing over $100 per month to treat the disease, and that while PcOS was "covered by Georgetown insurance", the insurance company repeatedly denied contraceptives because they suspected the purpose of the medication was for contraceptive uses.
Controversial criticism by talk radio host Limbaugh 
On February 29, 2012, Rush Limbaugh labeled Sandra Fluke a "slut" and "prostitute" based on her speech before House Democrats. Fluke appeared to support mandating health insurers to cover contraceptive costs. Limbaugh stated:
"[Fluke] essentially says that she must be paid to have sex—what does that make her? It makes her a slut, right? It makes her a prostitute. She wants to be paid to have sex. She's having so much sex she can't afford the contraception. She wants you and me and the taxpayers to pay her to have sex."
Political figures, including President Obama and Republican House Speaker John Boehner, voiced disapproval of Limbaugh's comments. On March 3, Limbaugh apologized to Fluke for his comments, saying his "insulting word choices" were meant to be "humorous", and that he never believed her to be a "slut" or a prostitute. Fluke rejected the apology as dubious and inadequate.
Support for President Barack Obama and role in re-election campaign 
On June 14, 2012, CNN published an op-ed piece by Fluke titled "Why this election is so personal" in which she gave several reasons why she believed Barack Obama was more likely than Mitt Romney to improve the lives of the American people. In the piece, Fluke specifically mentioned President Obama's support of the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, increasing the government's investment of Pell Grant scholarships, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to support her argument. Fluke also introduced President Obama at a campaign rally in Denver on August 8, 2012 and was a featured speaker at the 2012 Democratic National Convention, where she addressed the different visions of the role of women in the election. Her speech was criticized by opponents as an example of the Democrats' desire to avoid focusing on the economy and catering to its base, most notably by congressman Joe Walsh of Illinois. Several opinion writers have remarked that the continuing criticism of Fluke has served to revisit the Limbaugh controversy and change the topic of debate to reproductive issues. Following this, she received other invitations to speak on the issue of reproduction at various conferences and lectures.
See also 
- Johnson, Jenna (March 3, 2012). "Sandra Fluke says she expected criticism, not personal attacks, over contraception issue". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
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- "Limbaugh sorry for 'slut' comment". Irish Times. March 4, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Rovner, Julie (February 29, 2012). "Law Student Makes Case For Contraceptive Coverage". NPR. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
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- "Tussey woman at center of Limbaugh storm". The Altoona Mirror. March 6, 2012.
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- Abrams, Paul (March 5, 2012). "Why It is Important That Sandra Fluke Sue Limbaugh (and O'Reilly?) for Defamation". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- "Current Public Interest Law Scholars". Georgetown University Law Center. Archived from the original on March 9, 2011. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
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- Wyler, Grace (March 2, 2012). "Meet The Georgetown Law Student Rush Limbaugh Called A 'Slut'". Business Insider. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "Past Public Interest Grant Recipients". Women Lawyers Association of Los Angeles. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Fluke, Sandra (2011). "Finding Safety: A Victim's Guide to L.A. County Domestic Violence Restraining Orders". Women Lawyers association of Los Angeles. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "Speakers and Honorees". National Organization of Women. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
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- "Contraception and Insurance Coverage (Religious Exemption Debate)". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- PAUL ABRAMS Cassata, Donna (February 9, 2012). "Obama Birth Control Mandate Divides Democrats". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
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- Deirdre Walsh; Dana Bash (February 23, 2012). "Pelosi aims to draw contrast with GOP on contraception policy". CNN. Retrieved March 17, 2012.
- Fluke, Sandra (PDF). Statement to Congress (Speech). Washington, D.C.: ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/images/Politics/statement-Congress-letterhead-2nd%20hearing.pdf. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
- "Obama backs student Sandra Fluke over 'slut' charge by Rush Limbaugh". The Australian. AFP. March 3, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
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- "Limbaugh slut slur student Sandra Fluke gets Obama call". BBC News. March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- Schabner, Dean; Negrin, Matt (March 3, 2012). "Rush Limbaugh Apologizes for Calling Sandra Fluke a 'Slut'". ABC News. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
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- Farhi, Paul (March 29, 2012). "Limbaugh sees heat over comments turn down to a simmer". The Washington Post.
- Negrin, Matt (March 5, 2012). "Sandra Fluke Says Rush Limbaugh Apology Doesn't Change Anything". ABC News. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Fluke, Sandra (June 14, 2012). "Fluke: Why this election is so personal". CNN. Retrieved June 29, 2012 & February 20, 2013.
- Robillard, Kevin (August 8, 2012). "Rush Limbaugh: I deserve finder’s fee for Sandra Fluke". Politico.
- Krieg, Gregory. "DNC Set to Feature Sandra Fluke, Pro-Abortion Rights Activists in Charlotte". ABC News. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- "Sandra Fluke’s Speech At The Democratic National Convention: Full Transcript". presidential-candidates.org. September 5, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Balz, Philip; Rucker (September 5, 2012). "Bill Clinton offers forceful defense of Obama’s record". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2012. More than one of
- DeLong, Matt (September 5, 2012). "Sandra Fluke goes on the attack". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Seema Mehta (September 5, 2012). "Sandra Fluke: GOP positions 'offensive, obsolete relic' of past". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
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- Braceras, Jennifer C. (September 10, 2012). "Radical agenda took leftist stage". Boston Herald. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Gentilviso, Chris (September 8, 2012). "Joe Walsh Slams Sandra Fluke On Contraception Issue: 'Go Get A Job' (VIDEO)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Fluke, Sandra (September 12, 2012). "We're Not 'The Entitlement Generation'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Frum, David (September 11, 2012). "Slurs only bolster Sandra Fluke's cause". CNN. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
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- Taffet, David (September 20, 2012). "Sandra Fluke to speak at SMU [Southern Methodist University]". Dallas Voice. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- "Reproductive Health 2012 Annual Clinical Meeting: Faculty". August 28, 2012. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
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