Sangam (1964 Hindi film)

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Sangam
SangamRaj.jpg
Film Poster
Directed by Raj Kapoor
Produced by Raj Kapoor
Written by Inder Raj Anand
Starring Vyjayanthimala
Raj Kapoor
Rajendra Kumar
Narrated by Raj Kapoor
Music by Shankar Jaikishan
Cinematography Radhu Karmakar
Edited by Raj Kapoor
Production
company
Distributed by R. K. Films
Release dates
  • 1 January 1964 (1964-01-01)
Running time
238 minutes
Country India
Language Hindi
Box office INR40,000,000 (1964)

Sangam (Confluence) is a 1964 Bollywood Romance film written by Inder Raj Anand, produced and directed by Raj Kapoor. The film stars Vyjayanthimala in the lead role opposite Raj Kapoor and Rajendra Kumar with Iftekhar, Raj Mehra, Nana Palsikar, Lalita Pawar, Achala Sachdev and Hari Shivdasani appearing in supporting role.

Sangam was Raj Kapoor's first colour film, distinguished by its technicolor and epic length (even by Bollywood standards). It is also considered the Magnum Opus or best work of Raj Kapoor.

It became a hit in India and is considered a classic today. One of the features of the film that became widely used later on in Bollywood is the use of foreign locales for on-location shooting, such as Venice, Paris, and Switzerland. This started the Bollywood trend of shooting songs sequences abroad (primarily in Switzerland), against the background of "exotic" landscapes.

Director Dasari Narayana Rao remade the film in Telugu and Kannada languages as Swapna.

Plot summary[edit]

Sundar (Raj Kapoor), Gopal (Rajendra Kumar) and Radha (Vyjayantimala) have been friends since childhood. As they grow into adults, Sundar develops an obsessive romantic attraction to Radha, but she prefers Gopal, who is also in love with her. Yet, as Sundar has confided his feelings for Radha to him, Gopal decides to sacrifice his love for his friend's sake. Radha systematically resists Sundar's overtures, but to no avail. For him, she is the only woman in the world. Matching Sundar's great love for Radha is his unswerving devotion to his friendship with Gopal.

Eventually, Sundar enlists in the Indian Air Force and is assigned to a military mission in Kashmir. Before leaving, he extracts a promise from Gopal, whom he trusts implicitly, never to let any man come between Radha and himself while he is away. Subsequently, Sundar's aircraft is shot down over Kashmir. He is listed as MIA and presumed dead. This news saddens Radha and Gopal, but they are nonetheless now free to profess their love for one another. Among other expressions of love, Gopal writes her an unsigned prem patra (love letter) which touches her particularly and which she hides away. Just when they begin taking steps to be married, Sundar returns, safe and sound. The self-effacing Gopal sacrifices himself once more, stepping back into the shadows, watching as the reborn Sundar resumes his wooing of Radha. Inevitably, the two marry.

After the couple returns from an extended European honeymoon, Sundar is deliriously happy. His life's dream has been realised. Radha is resolved to be faithful to her husband and to put Gopal out of her mind. She privately asks him to stay away from her and Sundar because of the torture his presence causes her. Sundar's devotion to Gopal, however, is such that he constantly tries to draw him into their life, much to Radha's chagrin. The perfection of their marital bliss is, however, shattered when Sundar accidentally discovers the unsigned love letter Gopal had written to Radha. Sundar is thunderstruck, and assumes that Radha has been unfaithful to him. Producing a pistol, he demands she divulge the name of the supposed lover and threatens to kill the man, but she refuses.

In the days that follow, Sundar becomes obsessed with discovering the identity of the letter's author and cannot return to normalcy. Radha's life becomes miserable, lived out against the incessant drama of Sundar's jealousy, threats, anger and fixation with the letter. Eventually unable to bear the wretchedness of her existence with Sundar any further, Radha flees to Gopal for help. Sundar takes the same route, unaware that Radha has gone to Gopal's house. There, matters come to a head. The overwrought Gopal admits his authorship of the infamous letter to Radha, an admission which almost destroys his friend. Gopal, perceiving no exit from the impasse at which the three have arrived, kills himself with Sundar's pistol. Radha and Sundar are finally reunited – in mourning.

Cast[edit]

Analysis[edit]

This love triangle is a psychologically multifaceted tale about male bonding, the meaning of love and friendship. In the context of these relationships, Sundar is the one who is preventing the other two people's happiness and finally also thwarts his own. He appears as being naive and innocent, yet he seems adamant at only noticing things that suit his mindset. He is full of self-pity and bullies the others emotionally.

An important and critically regarded theme in the film is male bonding and the informal sharing of a woman between two male friends. Gopal indulges in his own "sacrifice", but never thinks of the woman's feelings he ostensibly loves.

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

In the late 1940s, Raj Kapoor planned to launch a film under the title of Gharonda with Dilip Kumar, Nargis and himself in the lead playing the central characters.[1] The story was penned by Inder Raj Anand during the making of Kapoor's first directional film, Aag (1948).[1] However the film was postponed for several reasons and was in development hell until 1962 where it was titled as Sangam with new cast and crews.[1]

Casting[edit]

Initially Dilip Kumar was approached by Kapoor to play the role of Gopal Verma.[1] Kumar agreed to play either one of the two male role with condition that he was given the right to edit the final copy of the film.[1] Since Kapoor could not accept Kumar's condition, then approached Dev Anand for the role. The latter also declined the role citing call sheet problems as reason.[1] Soon Rajendra Kumar was finalised for the role.[1]

Soundtrack[edit]

The music for this film was composed by Shankar Jaikishan while the songs were written by Shailendra and Hasrat Jaipuri. The soundtrack was listed by Planet Bollywood as number 8 on their list of 100 Greatest Bollywood Soundtracks.[2]

No. Title Artist(s) Length
1. "Bol Radha Bol" (Alternate title: Mere Man Ki Ganga) Vyjayanthimala, Mukesh 04:39
2. "Dost Dost Na Raha"   Mukesh 05:51
3. "Har Dil Jo Pyaar Karega"   Lata Mangeshkar, Mukesh, Mahendra Kapoor 04:45
4. "O Mehbooba"   Mukesh 04:59
5. "O Mere Sanam"   Lata Mangeshkar, Mukesh 04:13
6. "Yeh Mera Prem Patra"   Lata Mangeshkar, Mohammad Rafi 04:25
7. "Main Kya Karoon Ram"   Lata Mangeshkar 03:45
8. "Ich Liebe Dich I Love You" (Lyrics in German language) Vivian Lobo 03:09
9. "Dost Dost Na Raha" (Instrumental: Electric guitar) Van Shipley 03:05

Reception[edit]

Commercial response[edit]

Sangam becomes huge success at the box office. Boxofficeindia.com reported the film had collected INR80,000,000 and its nett collection, INR40,000,000.[3] Similarly, Boxofficeindia.co.in reported the film had the same box office collection while its adjust to inflation by comparing the collection with the price of Gold in 1964 is about INR7173154362 (US$110 million).[4] On contrary to the both report, Ibosnetwork.com claim that Sangam grossed around INR50,000,000 with its adjust to inflation grossed to INR7602400000 (US$120 million).[5] By the end of its overall box office collection, Sangam was labelled as blockbuster at the box office where it was the highest grossing film of the year.[3]

Furthermore, Sangam also ranked as second highest grossing film of the decade by Boxofficeindia.com behind Mughal-e-Azam where its adjusted to inflation nett gross reportedly is about INR885700000 (US$14 million).[6] The film was also ranked at fourth by Boxofficeindia.co.in in their list of "Top 50 Film of Last 50 Years" which feature all-time highest grossing Bollywood film by using the relative price of gold in different years to arrive at a hypothetical current value of box-office collections of past films.[7]

Awards[edit]

Award Category Nominee Outcome Note Ref.
Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards Best Indian Films Raj Kapoor Won On behalf of R. K. Films [8]
[9]
[10]
Best Director Raj Kapoor
Best Editing Raj Kapoor
Best Art Direction M. R. Acharekar
Best Cinematography Radhu Karmakar
Best Audiography Allauddin Khan Qureshi
12th Filmfare Awards Best Film Raj Kapoor Nominated On behalf of R. K. Films
Best Director Won
Best Actor Nominated
Best Actress Vyjayanthimala Won
Best Supporting Actor Rajendra Kumar Nominated
Best Story Inder Raj Anand
Best Music Director Shankar Jaikishan
Best Lyricist Shailendra For "Dost Dost Na Raha"
Best Male Playback Singer Mukesh
Best Editing Raj Kapoor Won
Best Sound Design Allauddin Khan Qureshi

Trivia[edit]

  • Both Raj Kapoor and Rajendra Kumar were friends in real life; their children got engaged but they broke up and Kumar's son married Kapoor's former lover Nargis and Sunil Dutt's daughter[11]
  • Vyajanthimala reinvented herself in this film playing a modern Indian girl while appearing in revealing costumes and swimsuit.[12][13]
  • The Israeli film Desperado Square revolves around the revival of a long disused cinema with a showing of Sangam.[14] The plot of 'Desperado Square' both parallels and serves as a tribute to Sangam.[15][16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Surendra Miglani (28 May 2006). "Sangam revisited". The Tribune. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  2. ^ "100 Greatest Bollywood Soundtracks Ever – Part 4". Planet Bollywood. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Box Office 1964". Boxofficeindia.com. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  4. ^ Nitin Tej Ahuja, Vajir Singh, Saurabh Sinha (1 November 2011). "Worth Their Weight in Gold!". Boxofficeindia.co.in. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Sangam". Ibosnetwork.com. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  6. ^ "Top Earners 1960–1969 (Figures in Ind Rs)". Boxofficeindia.com. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  7. ^ Nitin Tej Ahuja, Vajir Singh, Saurabh Sinha (3 November 2011). "Top 50 Film of Last 50 Years". Boxofficeindia.co.in. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  8. ^ "BFJA Awards (1965)". Gomolo.com. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "The Nominations – 1964". Indiatimes. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "The Winners – 1964". Indiatimes. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  11. ^ http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2002/may/16dinesh.htm
  12. ^ http://tiger.ndtv.com/gallerydetails.aspx?Page=12&ID=207
  13. ^ Vyjayanthimala#1964-66: Commercial successes and critical acclaim
  14. ^ "Desperado Square", Israeli Film Database, Israel Film Center.
  15. ^ film review, "Desperado Square", the Chicago Reader.
  16. ^ http://www.glamsham.com/movies/scoops/15/jan/news-how-raj-kapoor-coaxed-vyjayanthimala-for-sangam.asp

External links[edit]