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The Sangama Dynasty was the dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire. Founded by the brothers, Harihara I (also called Vira Harihara or Hakka Raya) and Bukka Raya I, they were sons of Bhavana Sangama. This is stated in inscriptions that they were from the Kuruba clan.
Foundation and early history
The Sangama Dynasty was founded by Harihara I and Bukka, though there are many debated theories of how the dynasty was truly founded. One theory states that Bukka and Hakka were born from the Kuruba Gowda clan and commanders of the King of Warangal's army, where after the King of Warangal was defeated by Muhammad bin Tughlaq, he captured both Bukka and his brother as prisoners and send them to Delhi were both were forced to follow Islam. However, Bukka and Hakka eventually escaped and retained their Hindu traditions and founded the Vijayanagara Empire under the influence of the Brahmin sage Vidyaranya. Another account says that the brothers were instead in connection with the Hoysalas and were born from Karnataka near the Hampi territory, and that they were the successors to the Hoysala sovereignty by natural process. Harihara, the first emperor extended the Vijayanagara lands from Kaveri to Krishna, though he continually come into conflict with the Bahamani sultans. Afterwards he was succeeded by his brother Bukka, who continually expanded the empire throughout south India. This included conquering Madhurai and extending his territory into the south all the way to Rameswaram, defeating the Shambuvaraya Kingdom of Arcot and the Reddis of Kondavidu, conquering Goa and the kingdom of Odisha, as well as forcing Ceylon and Malabar to pay tributes to the empire.
Bukka's successor, Harihara II, continued Bukka's campaign through southern India and managed to take control of coastal Andhra between Nellore and Kalinga and conquer the Addanki and Srisailam areas as well as most of the territory between the peninsula to the south of the Krishna River. Harihara II also managed to conquer many Indian ports such as that of Goa, Chaul, and Dabhol.
After Harihara II died the throne was in conflict between Virupaksha Raya, Bukka Raya II, and Deva Raya of which Deva Raya eventually would come out as victor. During his reign, Deva Raya managed to successfully control the vast amount of territory in the empire. The kings after Deva Raya on the other hand did not manage to do anything significant at all for the kingdom. This was until Deva Raya II, who would bring about the golden age of the Sangama Dynasty. Under Deva Raya II's rule, the empire would succeed in completely conquering southern India such as conquering Kondavidu, defeating the ruler of Quilon as well as other chieftains, extending the empire from Odisha to Malabar and from Ceylon to Gulbarga, and also taking over a lot of the major Indian ports. However after Deva Raya II, his incompetent successors would eventually lead to the destruction of the dynasty with the Bahamani Kingdoms continually taking over much of the Vijayanaga territory. Virupaksha Raya II was the last emperor of the dynasty.
- By James Mansel Longworth page 204
- edited by J C morris page 261
- By Om Gupta, page 428-429
- Prof A V Narasimha Murthy: Rare Royal Brothers: Hakka and Bukka