|Krantiveera' Sangolli Rayanna|
|Born||15 August 1798|
|Birthplace||Sangolli, Kingdom of Kittur
(Present-day Belgaum, Karnataka, India)
|Died||26 January 1831|
|Place of death||Nandagad
(Present-day Karnataka, India)
Sangolli Rayanna (15 August 1798 – 26 January 1831) was a prominent warrior from Karnataka, India. Rayanna was born on 15 August 1798. He was the army chief of the Kingdom of Kittur ruled at the time by Rani Chennamma and fought the British East India Company till his death. His life was the subject of the 2012 Kannada film Sangolli Rayanna.
Sangolli Rayanna also participated in the 1824 rebellion and was arrested by the British, who released him later. He continued to fight the British and wanted to install adopted son Shivalingappa as the ruler of Kittur. He mobilised local people and started a guerilla type war against the British. He and his "army" moved from place to place, burnt government offices, waylaid British troops and plundered treasuries. Most of his land was confiscated and what remained of it was heavily taxed. He taxed the landlords and built up an army from the masses. The British troops could not defeat him in open battle. Hence, by treachery, he was caught in April 1830 and tried by the British; and sentenced to death. Shivalingappa, the boy who was supposed to be the new ruler, was also arrested by the British.
Rayanna was executed by hanging to death from a Banyan tree about 4 kilometers from Nandagad in Belgaum district on 26 January 1831.
Rayanna was buried near Nandagad. Legend says that a close associate of Rayanna planted a Banyan sapling on his grave. Unlike the usual 6 foot grave, Rayanna's grave is 8 feet long because Rayanna was tall - more than 7 feet. The tree is fully grown and stands to this day. An Ashoka Stambha was installed near the tree. A small temple in the name of Sangolli Rayanna was constructed at Sangolli village, in which stands a statue of Rayanna flanked by two wooden weights used for body building. One of the wooden weights is original, i.e., it was used by Rayanna himself for body building. A community hall, built in commemoration of Rayanna at Sangolli serves the villagers of Sangolli.
In popular culture
The Gee Gee songs (Ballad) are heroic folklore verses composed in North Karnataka and several such songs are sung about Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and other figures of pre-independence Karnataka.
In 1967, a film was produced on his life history. Again in 2012, his life was the subject of another Kannada-language motion picture "Kraanthiveera Sangolli Rayanna" (Legendary Warrior Sangolli Rayanna), directed by Naganna and starring Darshan Thoogudeep, Jayaprada and Nikita Thukral.
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- R P, Sambasadashiva Reddy. "Miscellany". Deccan Herald, Bangalore. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- Ali, Shanti Sadiq (1996). The African dispersal in the Deccan : from medieval to modern times. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan. p. 232. ISBN 9788125004851.
- Khajane, Muralidhara (8 April 2008). "We’ve come for your vote…". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Datta, Amaresh (Ed.) (1988). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: devraj to jyoti, Volume 2. New Dehi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 1293. ISBN 9788126011940.
- Khajane, Muralidhara (31 October 2012). "Rajyotsava release for Sangolli Rayanna". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 November 2012.