Sanjak of Albania

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Sanjak of Albania
sanjak of the Ottoman Empire

 

1385–1466
 

Coat of arms of Sanjak of Arvanid

Coat of arms

Location of Sanjak of Arvanid
Capital Gjirokastër from 1419
History
 -  Battle of Savra 1385
 -  Construction of Elbasan Castle 1466
Today part of  Albania
 Greece
 Montenegro

The Sanjak of Albania[1] (also known as the Albanian Sancak,[2] or simply Arvanid;[3]Turkish: sancak-i Arvanid), was a sanjak of the Ottoman Empire from 1385–1466, a subdivision of the Rumelia Eyalet. Its territory stretched between Mat River on the north and Kalamas river to the south.[3][4]

Background[edit]

Further information: Battle of Savra

During the 14th century, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. The division of the Albania into small, quarreling fiefdoms ruled by independent feudal lords and tribal chiefs made them easy prey for the Ottoman armies. In 1385, the ruler of Durrës, Karl Thopia, appealed to the sultan for support against his rivals, the Balšić family. An Ottoman force quickly marched into Albania along the Via Egnatia and routed Balša II in the Battle of Savra. The principal Albanian clans soon swore fealty to the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans allowed conquered Albanian clan chiefs to maintain their positions and property, but they had to pay tribute, send their sons to the Ottoman court as hostages, and provide the Ottoman army with auxiliary troops.[5]

Sanjak[edit]

The Sanjak of Albania was one of the first Ottoman Administrative units in the Balkans which included of most of the territory of both southern and central Albania. Its territory also included Krujë and its surrounding (together with the territory which today belongs to Tirana) which formed separate administrative unit within the Sanjak of Albania. Its name was Krujë Subaşilik because it was governed by subaşi.[6] The Sanjak of Albania represents the first definition of Albania by the Ottoman Empire as a territorial unit, linking the Albanian language to a specific territory.[7]

The Sanjak of Albania was part of Rumelia Eyalet which consisted of all sanjaks of the Balkans.[8] Shijak became part of Sanjak of Albania after 1400, while previously it was part of the timar of Skurrje.[9] Gjirokastra became the county town of the Sanjak of Albania in 1419.[10]

During the reign of Mehmed I (1413–21), Hadim Suleiman Pasha, who previously held the sanjak of Semadrek, was appointed sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania.[11] As contemporary sources attest his rule was brief as he was attacked and captured along with his retainers and servants and afterwards sold to a Catholic state (possibly Venice).[11] When Albanian Revolt of 1432–1436 started the sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania was Ali Bey Evrenos-ogly.[12]

In 1437, when Teodor Muzaka revolted against Ottoman Empire, a sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania was his son Jakub Bey.[13] The first position of Hadim Sehabeddin Pasha outside the sultan's palace was the position of sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania, which he held until 1439 when he was appointed as beylerbey of the Rumelia Eyalet.[14]

When in 1441 Përmet was annexed to the sanjak of Albania, Jakub Bey is mentioned as its sanjakbey.[15] He remained on the position of the sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania until September 1442[16] when he was killed as one of 16 Ottoman sanjakbeys under command of Hadim Sehabeddin Pasha who were all killed by Christian forces commanded by Janos Hunyadi in a battle near Ialomița River.[17]

Arvanid register[edit]

In period 1431—1432 all rural and urban households and their property were registered in all ten districts of the sancak of Arvanid.[3] The 1432 register shows that districts in the Sanjak of Albania were further divided on 335 timars, each composed by two or three villages.[8] The Arvanid register is one of the earliest available land registers in Ottoman Empire's archives,[18][19] and was published in 1954.[20]

Administrative units[edit]

The Sanjak of Albania was divided to the following smaller administrative units:[21][22]

Albanian revolt of 1432—1436[edit]

In 1432 Andrew Thopia and Gjergj Arianiti revolted against the empire.[23] The uprising was finally suppressed during the campaigns of 1435 and 1436 led by Ali Beg (sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania)[24] and Turakhan Beg.[25]

Disestablishment[edit]

The Sanjak of Albania was disestablished in 1466, after the construction of Elbasan Castle (July 1466). Its territory was then divided between newly established Ottoman Sanjak of Avlona and Elbasan.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571, four volumes, American Philosophical Society, 1976–1984 
  2. ^ Masters, Bruce Alan; Ágoston, Gábor (May 2010), Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Infobase Publishing, p. 28, ISBN 9781438110257 
  3. ^ a b c Zhelyazkova, Antonina (2000), Albanian Identities, Sofia: International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations (IMIR), p. 11, retrieved 18 March 2011 
  4. ^ Nicol, Donald M. (2010), The despotate of Epiros, 1267–1479: a contribution to the history of Greece in the Middle Ages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 204, ISBN 978-0-521-13089-9 
  5. ^ Zickel, Raymond; Iwaskiw, Walter R. (1994), Albania: A Country Study ("The Ottoman Conquest of Albania"), retrieved 9 April 2008 
  6. ^ Duka, Ferit, Kruja dhe Skënderbeu [Krujë and Scanderbeg] (in Albanian), retrieved 28 July 2011 
  7. ^ Licursi, Emiddio Pietro (2011), Empire of Nations: The Consolidation of Albanian and Turkish National Identities in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1878 – 1913, New York: Columbia University, p. 19 
  8. ^ a b Vickers, Miranda (1999), The Albanians: a modern history, I.B.Tauris, p. 7, ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9 
  9. ^ Community development plan 2008 – 2015 Mnicipality of Shijak, 2008, p. 7, retrieved 18 March 2011 
  10. ^ Riza, Emin (1992), Ethnographic and open-air museums, UNESCO, Paris, retrieved 18 March 2011 
  11. ^ a b Archivum ottomanicum, Volumes 1–3, Mouton, 1969, p. 200, retrieved 19 March 2011 
  12. ^ Pollo, Stefanaq; Arben Puto; Kristo Frashëri; Skënder Anamali (1974). Histoire de l'Albanie, des origines à nos jours (in French). Horvath. p. 78. ISBN 978-2-7171-0025-9. Retrieved 23 June 2011. Le sandjakbey d'Albanie, Ali bey Evrenos, partant de Gjirokastra, se porta aussitôt contre Arianite, mais les Turcs, selon le chroniqueur Oruc, furent battus à Buzurshek, dans la vallée du Shkumbin. 
  13. ^ Historia e Shqipërisë. Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësise. 1959. p. 268. Pasi u larguan ushtritë turke të Rumelisë, shpërtheu aty nga viti 1437-1438 një kryengritje tjetër në rrethin e Beratit, e krye- suar nga Theodhor Korona Muzaka, biri i të cilit, Jakup Beu, ishte në atë kohë sanxhakbeu i sanxhakut të Shqipërisë 
  14. ^ Jefferson, John (17 August 2012). The Holy Wars of King Wladislas and Sultan Murad: The Ottoman-Christian Conflict from 1438-1444. BRILL. p. 85. ISBN 90-04-21904-8. Şehabeddin's first post outside the palace was as sanjak governor in Gjirokastrës, Albania (Albania).47 In 1439, after the change in imperial policy ... 
  15. ^ Kaleši, Hasan (1956), "Prilog poznavanju arbanaške književnosti iz vremena preporoda" [A contribution to Arbanian literature conversance from the time of Renaissance] (pdf), Godišnjak (in Serbo-Croatian) (Balkanološki institut) 1: 354, retrieved 6 July 2012 
  16. ^ Türk Tarih Kongresi: Kongrenin çalişmaları, kongreye sunulan tebliğler. Kenan Matbaası. 1994. p. 1693. Yerli Hristiyan beylerden birisi olan Teodor Muzaka'nın oğlu Yakup Bey, İslâma geçerken, Osmanlı yönetimi kadrosu içine sokulmuş ve 1442 yılının dolaylarında Arvanid sancak beyi makamına kadar çıkmayı başarmıştır.3 Adı geçen sancağın 
  17. ^ Pulaha, Selami (1968). burime Osmane. Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës, Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësisë. p. 45. ... e Shehabedin pashait e nga sanxhakbejlerët si Firuz beu, Jakup beu, i biri i Teodor Muzakës 30, e gjithsej pesëmbëdhjetë bejlerë pri- jësa ranë aty të gjithë dëshmorë. Shumica e jeniçerëve u grinë. Vetëm Shehabedin pasha u arratis. 
  18. ^ Gök, Nejdet (2001), "Introduction of the Berat in Ottoman Diplomatics,", Bulgarian Historical Review (3–4): 141–150 
  19. ^ Faroqhi, Suraiya, The Ottomans and the Balkans: a discussion of historiography, Netherlands: Koninlijke Brill NV, ISBN 90-04-11902-7, retrieved 20 March 2011 
  20. ^ İnalcık, Halil; Arşivi, Başbakanlık (1954), "Hicrî 835 tarihli Sûret-i defter-i sancak-i Arvanid" [Copy of the register for A.H. 835 for the Sanjak of Albania], Türk Tarih Kurumu yayınları (in Turkish) (Ankara) 14 (1) 
  21. ^ a b Smailagić, Nerkez (1990), Leksikon Islama [Lexicon of Islam] (in Croatian), Sarajevo: Svjetlost, pp. 30–31, ISBN 978-86-01-01813-6, OCLC 25241734, retrieved 28 December 2011 
  22. ^ Kiel, Machiel (1990), Ottoman architecture in Albania, 1385–1912, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture, p. 20, ISBN 978-92-9063-330-3, retrieved 9 January 2012 
  23. ^ Van Antwerp Fine, John (1994), The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, p. 535, ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5 
  24. ^ Pollo, Stefanaq; Puto, Arben; Frashëri, Kristo & Anamali, Skënder (1974), Histoire de l'Albanie, des origines à nos jours [History of Albania, from the origins to today] (in French), Horvath, p. 78, ISBN 978-2-7171-0025-9, retrieved 23 June 2011 
  25. ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1993), First encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913–1936 VIII, Netherlands: E.J. Brill and Luzac and Co., p. 466