Sanjak of Ohrid

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Sanjak of Ohri
Sanxhaku i Ohrit
Ohri Sancağı
Охридски санџак
sanjak of the Ottoman Empire

1395–1864

Coat of arms of Sanjak of Ohri

Coat of arms

Capital Manastir, Ohri
History
 -  Established 1395
 -  Establishment of the Monastir Vilayet 1864
Today part of  Albania
 Republic of Macedonia

The Sanjak of Ohri (Albanian: Sanxhaku i Ohrit, Bulgarian: Охридски санджак, Macedonian: Охридски санџак, Turkish: Ohri Sancağı) (sometimes initially referred to as the Sanjak of Bitola or Sanjak of Monastir, because of its temporary county town) was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire established in 1395. Part of it was located on the territory of the Lordship of Prilep, a realm in Macedonia ruled by the Ottoman vassal Prince Marko until his death in the Battle of Rovine.

Administrative division[edit]

When the Sanjak of Ohrid was established in 1395 it was a part of the Rumelia Eyalet and one of its earliest established sanjaks.[1] Before it became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1395 its initial territory belonged to the realm of Prince Marko.[2][3] At the beginning its county town was Bitola and later it was Ohrid, so it was also referred to in sources as Sanjak of Monastir or Sanjak of Bitola.[4]

The territory of the Sanjak of Ohrid changed over the time.

In 1406 a sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Ohrid was Cüneyt Bey of Aydın.[5] In 1464 and 1465 the sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Ohrid was Ballaban Badera, famous for his battles against Skanderbeg,[6][7] replacing Şeremet bey on that position. Although Halil Inalcik explains that the Sanjak of Elbasan was established as soon as the fortress of Elbasan has been constructed in 1466, based on Tursun Beg's records there is a possibility that Elbasan initially was part of the Sanjak of Ohrid.[8]

The official Ottoman censuses (Turkish: Tapu tahrir defterleri) were organized in 1467, 1519 (collective census) and 1583 on the territory of the Sanjak of Ohrid.[9][10]

The census from the beginning of the 16th century shows that the Sanjak of Ohrid had the following kazas:[11]

  • Ohrid
  • Debar
  • Akçahisar (Krujë)
  • Mat

and had 4 towns, 6 fortresses, 849 villages, 32,648 Christian families and 623 Muslim families.

According to the census of 1583 Sanjak of Ohrid had three kazas with 13 nahiyahs.[12] After later expansion the Sanjak of Ohrid had 22 nahiyahs, 6 in the region of Macedonia and 16 in Albania.[13] There was substantial presence of ethnic Albanians in this sanjak.[14]

In autumn 1794 Kara Mahmud Bushati, who was Pasha of Scutari, gained control over the Sanjak of Ohrid.[15] During 1796-7 it was ruled by Muhtar Pasha, son of Ali Pasha.[16] From 1820 to 1831 the Sanjak of Ohrid was put under control of another pasha of the Pashalik of Scutari, Mustafa Reshit Pasha Bushati.[17]

The administrative division of the Rumelia Eyalet was reformed, based on the sultan's hatisherif of 21 June 1836, and the territories of its sanjaks were substantially changed while Sanjak of Ohrid became an arpalik of Valide Sultan.[18] Until 1864 it was part of the Monastir Eyalet, while the kaza of Krujë among others had been incorporated in the sanjak of Scutari during the.[19][20] After the establishment of the Monastir Vilayet in 1864 the Sanjak of Ohrid ceased to exist and its territory was incorporated the Sanjak of Bitola (established as sanjak, separate from the Sanjak of Ohrid, in 1826).[21][22]

History[edit]

Dorotheos, the Archbishop of Ohrid and his clerks and boyars were expatriated to Istanbul in 1466 probably because of their anti-Ottoman activities during Skanderbeg's rebellion.[23] In 1467 many Christians from Skopje, Ohrid, Serres and Kastoria were forcibly deported to Elbasan, a new Ottoman fortress in Albania.[24]

Peasants of the Sanjak of Ohrid participated for ten years in the anti-Ottoman 1564 rebellion of the peasants from Mariovo and Prilep.[25] On 25 July 1571 it was proposed to divide Sanjak of Ohrid on two part, in order to increase public security in situation of constant rebellions in this sanjak.[26]

In 1613 Ottoman authorities ordered a destruction of the all newly built Christian churches in the villages of the Sanjak of Ohrid.[27]

Evliya Çelebi (1611 – 1682) dedicated a whole chapter of his work Seyahatname to the Sanjak of Ohrid.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stojanovski, Aleksandar (1989), Makedonija vo turskoto srednovekovie : od krajot na XIV--početokot na XVIII vek (in Macedonian), Skopje: Kultura, p. 49, OCLC 21875410, retrieved 24 December 2011, Овој санџак исто така е еден од најстарите санџаци во Румелискиот беглербеглак 
  2. ^ Stojanovski, Aleksandar (1989), Makedonija vo turskoto srednovekovie : od krajot na XIV--početokot na XVIII vek (in Macedonian), Skopje: Kultura, p. 49, OCLC 21875410, retrieved 24 December 2011, ОХРИДСКИ САНЏАК (Liva i Ohri): Овој санџак исто така е еден од најстарите санџаци во Румелискиот беглербеглак. Се смета дека бил создаден по загинувањето на крал Марко (1395),.. 
  3. ^ Šabanović, Hazim (1959), Bosanski pašaluk : postanak i upravna podjela (in Croatian), Sarajevo: Oslobođenje, p. 20, OCLC 10236383, retrieved 26 December 2011, Poslije pogibije kralja Marka i Konstantina Dejanovića na Rovinama (1394) pretvorene su njihove oblasti u turske sandžake, Ćustelndilski i Ohridski. 
  4. ^ Istorisko društvo Bosne i Hercegovine (1952), Godišnjak (in Serbian) 4, Sarajevo: Državna Štamparija, p. 175, OCLC 183334876, retrieved 26 December 2011, На основу тога мислим да је у почетку постојао само један санџак, коме је прво средиште било у Битољу... 
  5. ^ Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü (1965). Vakıflar dergisi, Volumes 6-7. Türk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi. p. 138. Retrieved 4 January 2012. ...Aydin beyi Cüneyd Bey H. 809 (= 1406) da Ohri'ye sancak beyi... 
  6. ^ İnalcık, Halil, From empire to republic : essays on Ottoman and Turkish social history, Istanbul: Isis Press, p. 88, ISBN 978-975-428-080-7, OCLC 34985150, retrieved 4 January 2012, Balaban Aga, qui a accordé des timar à ses propres soldats dans la Basse- Dibra et dans la Çermeniça, ainsi qu'à son neveu à Mati, doit être ce même Balaban Aga, sancakbeyi d'Ohrid, connu pour ses batailles sanglantes contre Skanderbeg. 
  7. ^ Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb; Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Bernard Lewis, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht (1954), The Encyclopaedia of Islam 4, Leiden: Brill, p. 140, ISBN 978-90-04-14448-4, OCLC 399624, retrieved 24 December 2011, Tursun p.125, cf Critoboulos, 147) emphasize Iskender's "breaking of faith" as the reason for the Ottoman operations against him from 868/1464 onwards. By permitting Venetian troops to garrison Kruje he created a real treat to the Ottoman forces in Albania. In 1464 and 1465 the neighbouring sanjak begis and especially the governor of Ohri, Balaban, launched the swift attacks 
  8. ^ Kiel, Machiel (1990), Ottoman architecture in Albania, 1385-1912, Istanbul: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture, p. 39, ISBN 978-92-9063-330-3, retrieved 9 January 2012, ...states that Elbasan became a sandjak capital right after 1466 but the usually well informed Tursun Beg noted for 1466: "The sultan attached this fortress of Elbasan to the Sancak of Ohrid and returned to Edirne..." 
  9. ^ Glasnik na Institutot za nacionalna istorija (in Macedonian). Skopje: Institut za nacionalna istorija. 2001. p. 69. Retrieved 26 December 2011. ...пописа (Tapu tahrir defterleri), извршени од страна на официјалните турски власти, првиот во 1467, а вториот во 1583 година. Пописите се вршени на територијата на целиот Охридски санџак, 
  10. ^ Prilozi: Contributions. Makedonska akademija na naukite i umetnostite. Oddelenie za opštestveni nauki. 1976. p. 84. Retrieved 26 December 2011. едниот е од 1519 година ... Овај пописни дефтер је сумарен (icmal) 
  11. ^ Smailagic, Nerkez (1990), Leksikon Islama (in Croatian), Sarajevo: Svjetlost, ISBN 978-86-01-01813-6, OCLC 25241734, retrieved 28 December 2011, Ohrid: obuhvata kadiluke Ohrida, Dibra (Debar), Akčahisara, Mat 
  12. ^ Sokoloski, Metodija; Aleksandar Stojanovski (2000), Turski dokumenti za istorijata na makedonskiot narod: kn. 1-2. Opširen popisen defter na ohridskiot sandžak od 1583 godina, Arhiv na Makedonija, p. 9, ISBN 978-9989-622-19-9, OCLC 438974883, retrieved 26 December 2011, Ова е вториот, завршниот дел од Опширниот попис на Охридскиот санџак, извршен од официјалните турски власти во 1583 година. Во него се опфатени 13 нахии (околии) од три кази (окрузи) 
  13. ^ Prilozi: Contributions. Makedonska akademija na naukite i umetnostite. Oddelenie za opštestveni nauki. 1976. p. 84. Retrieved 26 December 2011. во целиот Охридски санџак имало вкупно 22 нахии од кои 6 се во Македонија, а останатите 16 се во Албанија 
  14. ^ Stojančević, Vladimir (1971). Južnoslovenski narodi u Osmanskom carstvu od Jedrenskog mira 1829. do Pariskog kongresa 1856. godine (in Macedonian). Izdavačko-štamparsko preduzeće PTT. p. 336. Retrieved 26 December 2011. Арбанаса, у македонским крајевима, изван арбанашког етничког масива са центрима у средњој Албанији, било је у нешто изразитијем броју у Охридском санџаку, и у Битољу као главном граду Румелијског вилајета. 
  15. ^ Društvo istoričara Srbije (1969), Iz istorije Albanaca (in Serbian), Belgrade: Zavod za izdavanje udžbenika SR Srbije, p. 94, OCLC 11282187, У јесен 1794 године Махмуд-паша је потчинио елбасански и охридски санџак 
  16. ^ Archivum Ottomanicum. Mouton. 2007-01-01. p. 174. 
  17. ^ Houtsma, M. Th. E. J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. p. 765. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  18. ^ Smailagic, Nerkez (1990), Leksikon Islama (in Croatian), Sarajevo: Svjetlost, p. 515, ISBN 978-86-01-01813-6, OCLC 25241734, retrieved 28 December 2011, .Sultanovim hatt-i-serifom od 21.6.1836...Namjesništvo Rumelije ponovo je omeđeno...apanaža sultanove majke (Valide) ili područje Ohrida. 
  19. ^ Studime historike (in Albanian). Akademia e Shkencave, Instituti i Historisë. 1986. p. 91. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  20. ^ Houtsma, M. Th. E. J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. p. 1178. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  21. ^ Gjurmime albanologjike (in Serbian). Pristina: Albanološki institut u Prištini. 1968. p. 177. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  22. ^ http://tarihvemedeniyet.org/documents/makaleler/20.%20yy%20Osmanli%20Vilayetleri.pdf Ottoman Provinces before 1908
  23. ^ Shukarova, Aneta; Mitko B. Panov, Dragi Georgiev, Krste Bitovski, Academician Ivan Katardžiev, Vanche Stojchev, Novica Veljanovski, Todor Chepreganov (2008), Todor Chepreganov, ed., History of the Macedonian People, Skopje: Institute of National History, p. 133, ISBN 9989-159-24-6, OCLC 276645834, retrieved 26 December 2011, deportation of the Archbishop of Ohrid, Dorotei, to Istanbul in 1466, to-gether with other clerks and bolyars who probably were expatriated be-cause of their anti Ottoman acts during the Skender-Bey’s rebellion. 
  24. ^ Shukarova, Aneta; Mitko B. Panov, Dragi Georgiev, Krste Bitovski, Academician Ivan Katardžiev, Vanche Stojchev, Novica Veljanovski, Todor Chepreganov (2008), Todor Chepreganov, ed., History of the Macedonian People, Skopje: Institute of National History, p. 133, ISBN 9989-159-24-6, OCLC 276645834, retrieved 26 December 2011, At the same time or nearly in 1467 the citizens from Skopje, ...were expa-triated to the Albanian city of Konjuh (Elbasan), which was constructedas a fortress to help the fighting against Skender-Bey. ... these Christians from Skopje as Elbasan’s citizens appeared other families from Ohrid, Kastoria and Serres that were compulsorily moved into this city.. 
  25. ^ Bogdanov, Nada (1966), Enciklopedija Leksikografskog zavoda (in Croatian) 4, Zagreb: Jugoslavenski leksikografski zavod, p. 191, OCLC 3726191, retrieved 26 December 2011 
  26. ^ Matkovski, Aleksandar (1983). Otporot vo Makedonija vo vremeto na turskoto vladeenje: Buni i vostanija (in Macedonian). Skopje: Misla. p. 141. Retrieved 26 December 2011. За да се зголеми безбедноста во постојано побунетиот Охридски санџак, на 25 јули 1571 година била покрената акција овој санџак да се подели на два. 
  27. ^ Zirojević, Olga (1984), Crkve i manastiri na području Pećke patrijaršije do 1683. godine (in Serbian), Belgrade: Istorijski institut u Beogradu, p. 33, OCLC 15034890, retrieved 26 December 2011, 1613. године наређено рушење новоизграђених цркава по селима у охридском санџаку 
  28. ^ Çelebi, Evliya (1967), "Granice Ohridskog Sandžaka", Putopis [Seyahatname] (in Serbo-Croatian), Svjetlost, p. 547, retrieved 25 December 2011