Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza
|Church of Saint Yves at La Sapienza
Chiesa di Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza (Italian)
Sant'Ivo, embraced by the wings of the Palazzo alla Sapienza
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Rectory Church|
|Leadership||Msgr. Agostino de Angelis|
|Direction of façade||ENE|
|Length||27 metres (89 ft)|
|Width||26 metres (85 ft)|
Saint Yves at La Sapienza (Italian: Chiesa di Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza) is a Roman Catholic church in Rome. Built in 1642-1660 by the architect Francesco Borromini, the church is a masterpiece of Roman Baroque architecture. The courtyard entrance can be accessed from Corso del Rinascimento; it nestles in the three blocks between the south edge of Piazza Navona and the Pantheon.
In the 14th century, there was a chapel here for the palace of the University of Rome. The University is called La Sapienza, and the church was dedicated to Saint Yves (patron saint of jurists). When a design was commissioned from Borromini, he adapted to the already existing palazzo. He choose a plan resembling a star of David - which would have been recognized at the time as a Star of Solomon, symbolizing wisdom - and merged a curved facade of the church with the courtyard of the palace. The corkscrew lantern of the dome was novel. The complex rhythms of the interior have a dazzling geometry to them. It is a rational architecture- intricate to view, but on paper the overlap of a circle on two superimposed equilateral triangles creates a basis for a hexagonal array of chapels and altar in a centralized church. The undulations, both concave and convex of the interiors, create a jarring yet stunning appeal. The decoration is a mixture of novel organic (six-winged cherubic heads) and geometric (stars). Rising along the base of three of the dome's pillars are the symbol of the Chigi family, the "six mountain beneath a star".
The main artwork of the interior is the altarpiece by Pietro da Cortona, portraying St. Yves.
The interior of Sant'Ivo is unique because of the shapes incorporated into the rotunda. Borromini was well known for fusing of geometrical shapes as well as his pairing of columns in order to facilitate curves, incorporating them in an harmonious manner in his project at San Carlino. But for Sant'Ivo, Borromini did not blend the different shapes. The rotunda of Sant'Ivo is contrived of distinct shapes, a triangle with its three angles cut as if bitten off, and semi-circles located in between the triangle’s three lines. Despite the shift from the smooth geometrical alignments of San Carlino to the sharper abrupt geometrical bends in Sant'Ivo, both buildings exhibit harmony between the sharp edges and the curves and spheres. Borromini utilized curves (semi-circles) and edges (clipped triangle tips) in equal amounts to define the shape of the rotunda. This blending of edges and curves is arguably Borromini’s most distinguishable signature.
Another detail is that windows associated with the round sections of the dome are larger than those associated with the edges. One of the edgy sections is where the entrance is located while the altar is located on the opposite end, a round section. The two other round and edgy sections to the sides are identical in features . Through the perforations in the lantern, sunlight illuminates the dome through an oculi. Francesco Borromini had a talisman with the shape of a flying bee the roof of the lantern is a symbol family of Urban VIII Barberini who patronized the construction of Sant'Ivo.
The aisles of arches surrounding the right and left wings of Sant'Ivo are themselves not halted by the church. Here, the space between the arches and the walls in the aisles still continues past the church’s sides. Each aisle has a single lateral entrance to the church. These hindered side entrances lead to hexagonal rooms(one on each side), and these hexagonal rooms are connected to the rotunda as well as the smaller façade windows. Behind the Altar to the rear of the church lies two more hexagonal rooms with windows aligned on the back. To the rear wings of the altar are the passages leading to the two separate hexagonal rear rooms.
The inside walls and dome of the rotunda were covered by Borromini with sculptures and motifs. On each edgy and round section there are columns of stars leading up to an angel’s face with wings. One close observable difference between the round segments and the edgy ones is that the round ones exhibit a motif of six eggs in a pyramid formation with three crowns holding them together while the edgy segments exhibit a bouquet of flowers held together by a single crown.
The church rises at the end of the alley of buildings so that the façade can be seen throughout the alleyway; this suggests a decentralized planning on Borromini’s part. Baroque architecture differed from renaissance in moving from centralization to different orientations, shifting the buildings; such as churches, from the main stage to the background while maintaining similar importance in society. This is specially true for Sant'Ivo, hidden within the confines of its encapsulating alley. A courtyard, known as the courtyard of Giacomo della Porta leads to the entrance of Sant'Ivo. Arguably, the courtyard and surrounding edifice framing San'Ivo serve to create a separate dimension inside the alley where the towering dome above the façade of the church is the dominating focus point granting the building a form of captivating power via the focus the alley provides.
The façade of San Ivo alla Sapienza is concave, molding the church into the alleyway as if completing it rather than disrupting it. The façade itself looks like a continuation of the alley arches except with the openings filled in with small windows, a door, and a larger glass window above the door. Above the façade is a large parapet structure which adds towards the effect of the almighty dome by hindering it just a little more so that only the higher stages of the church is seen past the façade. A key exterior aspect is the top of the church, the lantern of Sant'Ivo is topped with a swirling spiral shape like whipped cream, surmounted with a Cross.
- Diagrams of structure
- Street View. (The Church is the smaller "flower-like" dome in the center, between the massive Pantheon dome and Piazza Navona. It is located between Corso del Rinascimento and Via della Scrofa (east), closer to the latter street.)
- Bramblett, Reid (March 2014). "Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza". ReidsItaly.com.
- Piperno, Roberto; Moore, Rosamie (2010). "Archiginnasio della Sapienza". RomanArtLover.com.
- Tedeschini, Laura (2010). "The floor Plan of Sant’ Ivo by Borromini" (PDF). Journal of Applied Mathematics 3 (I).
- Sullivan, Mary (2006). "Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza".
- Antonino Saggio, Interpretations of Borromini's masterpiece at the Sapienza. The reasons for doubles and other considerations, "Disegnare Idee e Immagini"