Famous for its military strategic importance (the hilly position made it more defendable against enemy attacks), Santa Maria a Monte has always been disputed between several Tuscan cities. As a matter of fact, Santa Maria a Monte passed from the influence of Lucca under the influence of Florence and, in the end, it became part of the Pisa territory. A famous landmark is Casa Carducci, where the Italian poet Giosuè Carducci is said to have spent his childhood.
Cappelletto is a rural village of about 100 inhabitants, which is rapidly increasing. Cappelletto lies in the countryside near a woodland.
The village and località of Falorni has about 120 inhabitants (2005) and is about 80 metres (260 ft) above sea level. Around Falorni there is a large portion of woods and cultivated areas, especially with olives. The place is situated in the low woody hills called Cerbaie. The only business situated in the village is a restaurant.